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The Systems Ecology Paradigm (SEP) incorporates humans as integral parts of ecosystems and emphasizes issues that have significant societal relevance such as grazing land, forestland, and agricultural ecosystem management, biodiversity and global change impacts. Accomplishing this societally relevant research requires cutting-edge basic and applied research. This book focuses on environmental and natural resource challenges confronting local to global societies for which the SEP methodology must be utilized for resolution. Key elements of SEP are a holistic perspective of ecological/social systems, systems thinking, and the ecosystem approach applied to real world, complex environmental and natural resource problems. The SEP and ecosystem approaches force scientific emphasis to be placed on collaborations with social scientists and behavioral, learning, and marketing professionals. The SEP has given environmental scientists, decision makers, citizen stakeholders, and land and water managers a powerful set of tools to analyse, integrate knowledge, and propose adoption of solutions to important local to global problems.
Changed spatial configurations at sowing have been investigated as a strategy to minimize interspecific competition and improve the establishment and persistence of multi-species plantings in pastures, but the impact of this practice on the soil microbiome has received almost no previous research attention. Differences in populations of bacteria and fungi in the surface 10 cm of soil in the third year following pasture establishment were quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Populations were compared on, and between, drill rows sown to either the perennial grass phalaris (Phalaris aquatica L.), perennial legume lucerne (alfalfa; Medicago sativa L.) or the annual legume subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.). Results showed that soil microbial abundance and diversity were related to plant distribution across the field at the time of sampling and to soil chemical parameters including total carbon (C), mineral nitrogen (N), pH, and available phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and sulfur (S). Despite the 27-month lag since sowing, pasture species remained concentrated around the original drill row with very little colonization of the inter-row area. The abundance and diversity of bacterial and fungal populations were consistently greater under drill rows associated with higher total C concentrations in the surface soil compared with the inter-row areas. Our results showed that the pH and available nutrients were similar between the subterranean clover drill row and the inter-row, suggesting that soil microbial populations were not impacted directly by these soil fertility parameters, but rather were related to the presence or absence of plants. The abundance of bacteria and fungi were numerically lower under phalaris rows compared to rows sown to legumes. The richness and diversity of fungal populations were lowest between rows where lucerne was planted. Possible explanations for this observation include a lower C:N ratio of lucerne roots and/or a lack of fibrous roots at the soil surface compared to the other species, illustrating the influence of contrasting plant types on the soil microflora community. This study highlights the enduring legacy of the drill row on the spatial distribution of plants well into the pasture phase of a cropping rotation and discusses the opportunity to enhance the microbiome of cropping soils on a large scale during the pasture phase by increasing plant distribution across the landscape.
It has long been recognised that a neurological injury can elicit profound systemic complications, from Harvey Cushing who in 1903 described strategies to limit fatal haemodynamic dysfunction during surgical CNS surgery to reports of pulmonary oedema post-seizures in 1908.1
Studies of patients admitted to intensive care with traumatic brain injury (TBI) showed that up to 89% developed non-neurological organ dysfunction, worsening their outcome.2,3 Most commonly patients develop sepsis, respiratory or cardiovascular complications with rates of 75%, 41% and 44% respectively in one cohort.3 Renal and hepatic system involvement is much less common.4 The presence of hypotension, severe respiratory failure or sepsis has been shown to be independent predictors of death and mortality rates rise from 31%–40% for single organ failure to 47%–91% with two organ system failures and up to 100% in cases with three or more organ system failures.
The ‘jumping to conclusions’ (JTC) bias is associated with both psychosis and general cognition but their relationship is unclear. In this study, we set out to clarify the relationship between the JTC bias, IQ, psychosis and polygenic liability to schizophrenia and IQ.
A total of 817 first episode psychosis patients and 1294 population-based controls completed assessments of general intelligence (IQ), and JTC, and provided blood or saliva samples from which we extracted DNA and computed polygenic risk scores for IQ and schizophrenia.
The estimated proportion of the total effect of case/control differences on JTC mediated by IQ was 79%. Schizophrenia polygenic risk score was non-significantly associated with a higher number of beads drawn (B = 0.47, 95% CI −0.21 to 1.16, p = 0.17); whereas IQ PRS (B = 0.51, 95% CI 0.25–0.76, p < 0.001) significantly predicted the number of beads drawn, and was thus associated with reduced JTC bias. The JTC was more strongly associated with the higher level of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in controls, including after controlling for IQ (B = −1.7, 95% CI −2.8 to −0.5, p = 0.006), but did not relate to delusions in patients.
Our findings suggest that the JTC reasoning bias in psychosis might not be a specific cognitive deficit but rather a manifestation or consequence, of general cognitive impairment. Whereas, in the general population, the JTC bias is related to PLEs, independent of IQ. The work has the potential to inform interventions targeting cognitive biases in early psychosis.
Prior tests of Hicks’ Induced Innovation Hypothesis (IIH) have been greatly hampered because the lack of supply-side data implicitly requires the untenable assumption that the marginal research cost is the same for different inputs. We document that, with appropriate model specification and panel data, a two-way fixed-effects estimator can account for much of the non-neutrality of the innovation function. Using a test procedure that is robust to a time-variant and non-neutral innovation function, we test the IIH in U.S. agriculture for the period 1960–2004. We use only readily available data for innovation demand and total public research expenditures.
Although it is well-known that infanticide (murder of child< 1year) is typically for young women and libericide (murder of child≥1year) for older melancholic women, comprehensive differences between these two kinds of murderers remain little-known. Our objective was to describe their demographic, clinical and criminological differences.
We collected 41 psychiatric expert examinations in criminal cases of child murder between 2000 and 2005 and compared, after sex-matching, those responsible for infanticide (n=16) and libericide (n=25).
Compared to perpetrators of infanticide, subjects responsible for libericide were older (24 and 33 respectively, p=0.012), and had a psychiatric history (35% versus 71%, p=0.005) and convictions for violence towards others (6% versus 29%, p=0.022). A the time of the crime, 77% of libericide perpetrators were suffering from a psychotic, depressive, cognitive or personality disorders while only 53% of perpetrators of infanticide were ill (p=0.024). Although there was no significant difference in regard of the circumstances of the act or the gender of the victim, we found that head trauma, suffocation and drowning were the most frequent means of infanticide while libericide perpetrators used more active methods such as shooting, strangulation and striking (p=0.007) in a dynamic of homicide-suicide. Finally, it has to be noted that the perpetrators of libericide were more often unfit to plead than the perpetrators of infanticide (p=0.067).
Our results confirm the relevance of Resnick's typology of child murders, distinguishing infanticide and libericide which different criminological dynamics are fundamental for medico-legal orientation and capacity to plead.
L’utilisation prolongée et les associations de benzodiazépines (BZD) anxiolytiques et hypnotiques exposent à des risques à court et long terme (dépendance, démence, troubles psychomoteurs…). Selon la Haute Autorité de santé (HAS), il n’y a pas lieu d’associer une BZD et un apparenté (zopiclone ou zolpidem) le soir.
– Évaluer les habitudes de prescription des BZD et de leurs apparentés hypnotiques dans une population de patients suivis en psychiatrie hospitalière.
– Suivre sur 6 années l’évolution de ces pratiques de prescription et l’émergence d’alternatives thérapeutiques aux BZD.
– Établir un parallèle avec les recommandations et les actualités de la littérature au sujet de ces risques pendant cette même période.
L’étude rétrospective a été réalisée au centre hospitalier Henri-Laborit (Poitiers) en sélectionnant les ordonnances informatisées comportant des BZD et/ou apparentés sur une période allant du 1er janvier 2008 au 31 décembre 2013, par tranche d’une année. Les associations de ces molécules et leurs posologies ont été répertoriées.
L’analyse de 6511 ordonnances a notamment mis en évidence que la prescription de zolpidem ou zopiclone seuls, sans association à une benzodiazépine, est majoritaire (77,5 % des ordonnances en moyenne) jusqu’en 2010. Puis elle diminue fortement (plus que 38 % en 2013) et elle est inférieure à celle de benzodiazépine seule pendant les 3 années suivantes. Parallèlement, le nombre total d’ordonnances dans cet hôpital est en constante augmentation. L’association de benzodiazépine et d’apparentés sur une même ordonnance reste peu courante, dans 2 % des prescriptions en moyenne, mais la prise des deux se situe le soir dans 91 % des cas (69–100 %).
L’étude montre une diminution de prescription d’hypnotiques apparentés aux BZD, allant de pair avec les mises en garde sur leurs effets indésirables et aux actions de l’HAS. Leur association en soirée à des BZD reste présente et une étude prospective auprès des prescripteurs pour connaître leur choix d’alternative thérapeutique est nécessaire.
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of semantic priming with a lexical decision task in 22 depressed patients (DSM-III-R, 1987) and 30 control subjects. These patients were evaluated twice: first when they arrived at the hospital, and secondly, after clinical improvement. Clinical improvement was evaluated using standard depression rating scales. A lexical decision task involving semantic relations (related vs. unrelated, e.g., apple-pear) was used to evaluate the processing of semantic information. The results showed that, for the first evaluation, the depressives presented similar semantic priming to control subjects. When we compared semantic priming in the first and the second passes, we observed that its amplitude was identical. The sole difference between the two passes concerns the global reaction time in the depressive group. This last result suggested that, with clinical improvement, the characteristic psychomotor retardation declines. One of the major results concerns the fact that severe depressive patients (first pass) exhibit normal semantic priming in a lexical decision task. These results indicate, in this clinical population, the preservation of controlled processes implicated in this lexical decision task.
A growing body of research now documents a specific pattern of brain activation during emotional tasks in patients with social phobia. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that non-clinical participants show a similar pattern of responses. Clinical and physiological data from literature highlight that social anxiety is associated with difficulties in emotional managing. However, much less is known about the part of alexithymia in social phobia, as far as clinical and infra-clinical (high shyness) approaches are concerned.
Four hundred undergraduate university students were screened with an anxiety and social phobia questionnaire. Forty participants, with low and high levels of social phobia, were then included according to a dimensional approach. Each participant underwent a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation that included a structured clinical interview for current and past psychiatric disorders and psychometric scales, including the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Participants were asked to make gender discrimination choices when viewing faces that showed happiness, fear, anger, sadness, neutral expressions or distractors while in a 3 Tesla fMRI scanner.
As expected, social phobia trait was correlated with TAS-20 scores, and specifically in “difficulties identifying feelings”. Brain activations showed an evolutionary pattern response in correlation with social phobia and alexithymia concerning limbic regions (amygdala and insula). Social phobia trait seems to be particularly receptive to anger faces.
Our findings support the hypothesis that alexithymia play a major role in social anxiety disorder. Identifying feelings could explain alexithymic functioning in social phobia, clinically and physiologically.
Deficits in executive functions may play a leading role in late-life suicide behaviours.
To determine whether executive functions, and more specifically cognitive inhibition, could be associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviours among depressed elderly individuals.
We compared 10 depressed suicide attempters aged 65 and older with 10 depressed suicide non-attempters matched for age, gender and education. To assess cognitive inhibition, we used neutral material, in the form of the Modified Card Sorting Test (MCST), Go-No-Go task (GNG) and Stroop test (ST). The Brixton Spatial Anticipation test (BSA), the dual-task performance and verbal fluencies test were also used to assess flexibility, planning tasks and memory.
Suicidal (mean, 75.30 years; 70% female) and non-suicidal (mean, 72.90 years; 70% female) depressed groups were comparable in terms of burden of physical illness and severity of depression according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (mean score 27.90, p = 0.529). Suicide attempters showed greater impairments in cognitive inhibition as illustrated by significant between-group differences in the number of MCST errors (p = 0.023) and MCST preservative errors (p = 0.035), and by the trend of worse performance on GNG (p = 0.052). No significant differences were found in the scores on ST, BSA, dual-task performance and in semantic or phonemic verbal fluencies. Furthermore, suicide attempt was also associated with GNG score (adjusted Odds Ratio = 0.25 [95CI = 0.07–0.95], p = 0.041) after adjustment for age.
Our case-control study shows that poor cognitive inhibition is associated with suicidal behaviours in late-life depression.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether deficits of behavioral or/and N400 semantic priming (SP) effect observed in patients with schizophrenia is a stable cognitive feature of the disorder or whether it may be influenced by the severity of the actual symptomatology that may fluctuate over time.
A Test-Retest one year study was conducted on fifteen patients with schizophrenia and 10 healthy participants who performed a SP task. Both behavioral measures and Event-related potentials (ERPs) of SP were recorded twice (Test and Retest sessions).
At Test, patients exhibited a deficit of SP as revealed by both the behavioral and the ERP measures (the amplitude of the N400 component). At Retest, behavioral SP remained impaired in contrast to the N400 SP which was significantly improved in relation probably to the patients' clinical improvement.
The results conveyed evidence that the N400 SP impairments in schizophrenia may not be considered as stable cognitive markers of the disorders. Significance: The behavioral and the N400 measures of SP had different level of sensitivity to subtle cognitive and brain processes which were subjected to change over the clinical course of schizophrenic disorder.
Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to assign a set of mental states to yourself and others. in bipolar disorders, alteration of social relationship can be explained by the impairment of the functioning of ToM. Deficit in ToM can be a trait marker of bipolar disorder and people in general population who has high score of hypomanic personality will be more likely to develop bipolar disorders.
The goal of this study is to study abilities in a ToM task in general population with different level of hypomanic personality.
This study examines 323 participants (23.25 ±7.74 years). Measures of hypomanic personality were evaluated by the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) (Eckblad & Chapman, 1986). It is a self-report scale subdivided in 3 factors: social vitality, mood vitality and excitement. ToM was explored using Yoni task (Shamay-Tsoory & Aahron-Peretz, 2007) French adaptation. This test permits to distinguish the affective and the cognitive components of ToM.
Forward multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the effect of components of the HPS on the total score of ToM task. in women’s group, no subscales of the HPS have been included in the model. Conversely, the analyses performed on men revealed that the mood vitality subscale was a significant predictor of ToM abilities.
The ToM task’s score is linked to the hypomanic score but only in men sample and only for the Mood vitality subscale. This result supports that deficits in ToM can be a trait marker of bipolar disorder in healthy men population.
De nombreuses études ont montré qu’il y a une association entre les comportements violents et le fait d’avoir un diagnostic de schizophrénie (Sz) [1,2]. Cependant, il a aussi été démontré que seulement une minorité des patients sera violente . Plusieurs études ont considéré ces phénomènes afin de mieux identifier les personnes à risque et, par la suite, des échelles d’évaluation où l’on retrouve des facteurs de risque psychosociaux ont été développées. Bien qu’intéressantes, ces échelles demeurent imparfaites pour déterminer le risque . Face à cette situation, la neurobiologie du risque a commencé à se développer, mais encore peu d’études ont examiné les corrélats neuronaux de la violence dans cette population, et particulièrement, en ce qui concerne les facteurs liés à l’expérience émotionnelle et au contrôle pulsionnel. Notre équipe a donc réalisé deux études d’imagerie par résonance magnétique fonctionnelle (IRMf) chez cette population. Les résultats de ces 2 études seront présentés. Brièvement, le projet portant sur l’expérience des émotions négatives a montré une hyperactivation du cortex cingulaire antérieur dorsal chez les patients Sz violents (SzV), comparativement aux patients Sz non violents (SzNV) et aux témoins sains (TS). Il s’agit d’un résultat intéressant puisque cette zone est impliquée dans la régulation émotionnelle. Les résultats préliminaires de la deuxième étude montrent, en utilisant une tâche de prise de risque, que les patients SzV ont des activations importantes dans le système de récompense du cerveau lors de la réception d’une récompense en argent (x = −24 ; y = −13 ; z = 13 ; p < 0,001 ; 3080 mm3), comparativement aux patients SzNV et aux TS. Les résultats de nos deux premières études montrent ainsi qu’une spécificité neurobiologique existe chez les patients violents en ce qui a trait à la régulation émotionnelle et à l’activation du système de récompense.
Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) is a self-report questionnaire designed to identify high risk and vulnerable subjects to bipolar disorders in non-clinical samples.
To identify HPS factorial structure in a French non-clinical sample and to compare for different factors solutions described in the literature.
We carried out a survey within a student population with a French version of HPS. The factorial structure of HPS was tested first by a scree plot with simulation (using R “psy” library) in an Exploratory Factorial Analysis (EFA) with promax rotation. Secondly the number of factor was fixed for a Confirmatory Factorial Analysis (CFA) performed with AMOS.
A total of 347 students (mean age 23 years, 80% of women) were included in PCA (incomplete questionnaires were not included). Scree Plot with simulation revealed a 5 factors solution which accounted for 33% of the total variance. We also tested the 3 and 4 factors solution to compare respectively with factors solution obtained by Rawling et al. (2000) and more recently by Schalet et al. (2011). Our 4 factors solution was identical to Rawling et al. (2000) but the 3 factors solution was different from Schalet et al. (2011). Goodness of fit indices showed that the 5 factors solution “fits” our data better compared to other factorial solutions.
French version of the HPS showed a factorial structure composed of 5 factors in a non-clinical student population. However, this result needs to be confirmed with a more important and representative sample.
The behavioural inhibitory control (IC) is known to be influenced by emotion. For instance, anxiety is associated with executive impairments such as difficulties in suppression of prepotent responses (Ansari & Derakshan, 2011; Yuan et al., 2011). In faces processing, bias towards threatening faces has been considered as a marker of trait-anxiety (TA) (Pérez-Edgar et al., 2010).
Our goal was to explore if IC impairment is expressed with an emotion in particular in TA. We hypothesized that there is a bias concerning engagement of attention towards angry faces.
Thirty healthy participants were included (7 M/ 23 F; mean age = 21, range: 18–29 years). State and trait anxiety was assessed with the STAI (Spielberger et al., 1983). Participants were also assessed with a modified Simon task showing controlled Emotional Facial Expressions (EFE). Negative faces (fear, sadness, anger) and positive faces (happiness) were in the same proportion. Incongruent trials constituted 20% of the task. Participants were asked to press a key if the EFE was positive or negative.
TA scores were between 31 and 67 (mean = 48). We found a significant correlation only for angry faces during incongruent condition with TA (r = −.44; p = .016). Time to engage attention to angry faces (in incongruent condition) decreased while TA increased.
Biases towards negative stimuli appear in attentional constraints in a sample of healthy adults from the general population. TA is characterised by a hypervigilance to anger in situations where attentional control is tested.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
Body fat distribution may be a stronger predictor of metabolic risk than BMI. Yet, few studies have investigated secular changes in body fat distribution in middle-income countries or how those changes vary by socioeconomic status (SES). This study evaluated changes in body fat distribution by SES in Colombia, a middle-income country where BMI is increasing rapidly.
We applied factor analysis to previously published data to assess secular changes in adiposity and body fat distribution in cross-sectional samples of urban Colombian women. Anthropometry was used to assess weight, height and skinfolds (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, thigh, calf).
Women (18–44 years) in 1988–1989 (n 1533) and 2007–2009 (n 577) from three SES groups.
We identified an overall adiposity factor, which increased between 1988–1989 and 2007–2008 in all SES groups, particularly in the middle SES group. We also identified arm, leg and trunk adiposity factors. In all SES groups, leg adiposity decreased, while trunk and arm adiposity increased.
Factor analysis highlighted three trends that were not readily visible in BMI data and variable-by-variable analysis of skinfolds: (i) overall adiposity increased between time periods in all SES groups; (ii) the adiposity increase was driven by a shift from lower body to upper body; (iii) the adiposity increase was greatest in the middle SES group. Factor analysis provided novel insights into secular changes and socioeconomic variation in body fat distribution during a period of rapid economic development in a middle-income country.
Sexual dysfunction occurs in 40%-60% of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), due to either the illness itself and/or the effects of antidepressant treatment. The phase-2 CLARITY trial recently demonstrated the efficacy of adjunctive pimavanserin (PIM) for MDD when added to ongoing selective serotonin or serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SSRI/SNRI) treatment. No new safety observations were reported in this study. This post-hoc analysis examines the potential impact of PIM treatment on sexual function.
Study methodology has been presented previously (APA 2019). Adult male and female patients with moderate-to-severe MDD were randomized to PIM 34 mg/day (n=51) or placebo (PBO, n=152) added to ongoing SSRI/SNRI treatment. Massachusetts General Hospital–Sexual Functioning Inventory (MGH-SFI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, 17-item version (HAMD-17) item 14 (sexual interest) scores were examined by analysis of covariance.
Adjunctive PIM resulted in significantly greater 5-week reduction (improvement) relative to SSRI/SNRI treatment plus placebo on mean MGH-SFI scores (difference –0.634, SE 0.167; P<0.001; effect size [ES], Cohen’s d 0.614). Similarly, PIM resulted in greater improvement compared with placebo on individual MGH-SFI items that applied to both males and females: Interest in Sex (P=0.006; ES=0.483), Ability to Get Sexually Aroused/Excited (P=0.001; ES=0.560), Ability to Achieve Orgasm (P<0.001; ES=0.609), Overall Sexual Satisfaction (P=0.003; ES=0.524). HAMD-17 item 14 scores were also significantly more reduced (improved) with PIM (P<0.001; ES=0.574).
These results underscore the potential of adjunctive PIM for improving sexual function in patients with MDD and inadequate response to SSRIs/SNRIs. Potential benefits should be confirmed in further studies.