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Radiocarbon (14C) ages were determined for 10 iron samples from the war booty offering site in the Nydam peat bog (SE Denmark), and compared to archaeologically inferred periods of deposition. Additional 14C measurements were carried out for modern iron standards made with charcoal of known isotopic composition to evaluate possible effects of handling. Modern iron standards give depleted 14C concentrations, compared to the initial charcoal 14C composition, and may indicate carbon fractionation effects during carbon dissolution in the iron lattice. Further studies are needed to verify if this is a common effect during iron production. 14C dating of two swords and one ax head are in comparatively good agreement with expected deposition times and indicate only small old-wood effects. In contrast, 14C dating of iron rivets from the Nydam (B) oak boat proved difficult due to corrosion with siderite (FeCO3) and conservation with wax. A step-combustion procedure was applied, using a low (∼570–600°C) temperature prior to the high (∼970–1000°C) combustion temperature for carbon extraction, aiming to remove siderite and wax before collecting the original carbon dissolved in the iron lattice. Nevertheless, measured 14C ages of the iron rivets differ by about 200–300 years from the dendro-date of the Nydam (B) oak boat they belong to, indicating persisting aging effects (e.g. old-wood, contamination with fossil carbon added during iron making and/or handling prior 14C dating). Also, a possible recycling of older iron cannot be excluded.
Several methods for the routine determination of crystallite size by means of X-ray diffraction line-broadening have previously been reported. Although these techniques have proven useful and reliable when utilized with the single X-ray diffractometer and instrumental geometry used to originally develop the methods, it was not known whether other instruments would provide similar reliability. Therefore a study was performed to evaluate the applicability of routine methods of crystallite size analysis to other X-ray diffraction units. A series of six beryllium oxide powder specimens, whose average crystallite sizes ranged stepwise from about 35 to nearly 3000 Å, were used to test a number of X-ray diffractometers. By using a predetermined diffraction geometry for each instrument tested, measured crystallite sizes were found to be quite reproducible and well within the limits of experimental error. The testing procedure, instrumental conditions, and individual performance results are presented in this paper.
Increasing interest in the sintering characteristics of various ceramic materials has resulted in the need for a knowledge of the crystallite sizes of many constituent ceramic powders. Standard X-ray diffraction line-broadening techniques have been utilized to determine these crystallite sizes. This paper presents a general review of the theory of line broadening as a means of measuring crystallite size and gives the methods and modifications used to perform this type of analysis rapidly and on a routine basis.
Four modifications have been used in the determination of crystallite size routinely by X-ray line broadening. These methods are (1) a graded set of powder photographs, (2) a computer program to calculate sizes from diffractometer data, (3) a set of crystallite-size curves for a given material for use with diffractometer data, and (4) a standard set of curves to use with diffractometer data for any strain-free materials. The preparation, use, and limitations of each of these methods is presented.
Objectives: To evaluate prospective and retrospective memory abilities in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND) Veterans with and without a self-reported history of blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Methods: Sixty-one OEF/OIF/OND Veterans, including Veterans with a self-reported history of blast-related mTBI (mTBI group; n=42) and Veterans without a self-reported history of TBI (control group; n=19) completed the Memory for Intentions Test, a measure of prospective memory (PM), and two measures of retrospective memory (RM), the California Verbal Learning Test-II and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised. Results: Veterans in the mTBI group exhibited significantly lower PM performance than the control group, but the groups did not differ in their performance on RM measures. Further analysis revealed that Veterans in the mTBI group with current PTSD (mTBI/PTSD+) demonstrated significantly lower performance on the PM measure than Veterans in the control group. PM performance by Veterans in the mTBI group without current PTSD (mTBI/PTSD-) was intermediate between the mTBI/PTSD+ and control groups, and results for the mTBI/PTSD- group were not significantly different from either of the other two groups. Conclusions: Results suggest that PM performance may be a sensitive marker of cognitive dysfunction among OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with a history of self-reported blast-related mTBI and comorbid PTSD. Reduced PM may account, in part, for complaints of cognitive difficulties in this Veteran cohort, even years post-injury. (JINS, 2018, 24, 324–334)
CRESST II is an experiment for direct WIMP search, using cryogenic detectors. the ratio of the two signals (temperature rise and scintillation light) measured for each interaction is an excellent parameter for discrimination of the radioactive background. the main remaining background is the neutron flux present at the experimental site, since neutrons produce the same signals as WIMPs do. Based on Monte Carlo simulations the present work shows how neutrons from different origins affect CRESST and which measures have to be taken into account to reach the sensitivity goal.
We compare in a systematic way spectrometric, photometric and mid-infrared (VLTI/MIDI) interferometric measurements with different types of model atmospheres. Self-consistent dynamic model atmospheres in particular were used to interpret in a consistent way the dynamic behavior of gas and dust. The results underline how the joint use of different kind of observations, as photometry, spectroscopy and interferometry, is essential to understand the atmospheres of pulsating C-rich AGB stars. The sample of C-rich stars discussed in this work provides crucial constraints for the atmospheric structure.
Fundamental aspects of (electro-)luminescence of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells and modules are investigated by means of spectrally and spatially resolved measurements. The validity of the reciprocity relation between spectrally resolved electroluminescence emission and photovoltaic quantum efficiency is verified for the case of industrially produced ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 heterojunction solar cells. Further we find that photo- and electroluminescent emission in these devices obey a superposition principle only in a limited range of the applied electrical or illumination bias. This range depends on the light soaking history of the sample and extends up to an injected current density of approximately 15 mAcm-2 after 3 h of light soaking at a temperature of 400 K. In the state prior to light soaking this range is limited to 4 mAcm-2. At higher bias, a characteristic discrepancy between electroluminescence and electro-modulated photoluminescence appears. We attribute this anomaly to a potential barrier behavior close to the CdS/ Cu(In,Ga)Se2 interface. Metastable defect reactions induced by holes injected into the space charge region partly reduce this barrier. We further find that the luminescence efficiency is enhanced by a factor of 3 by light soaking at 400 K. Spatially resolved electroluminescence measurements conducted during application of voltage or current bias at ambient temperature in the dark are qualitatively compatible with the conclusions drawn from the spectrally resolved measurements.
We describe the current, 9-spacecraft Interplanetary Network (IPN). The IPN detects about
325 gamma-ray bursts per year, of which about 100 are not localized by any other missions.
We give some examples of how the data, which are public, can be utilized.
We determine the initial growth mode of Co and Fe on Cu (001). In the monolayer range Co and Fe present a clear trend to form clusters on Cu (001). Supposing a perfect epitaxy and fee lattice, the magnetic moment distribution is determined by using a tight binding Hubbard-like Hamiltonian. The influence of the temperature is taken into account in order to compare the theoretical predictions with experimental results.
We have studied the influence of ultra-thin interfacial Fe layers on the structural and magnetoresistance properties of CO/Cu Multilayers. Our results show that the giant magnetoresistance arises from spin dependent scattering at the CO/Cu interfaces and in the bulk of Co, the interfacial contribution being predominant. We also demonstrate that the close-packed crystallographic structure of Co and Cu is very sensitive to the insertion of interfacial bec Fe layers: for small thicknesses, Co as well as Cu adopt a metastable bec structure.
We have searched for the electronic states that mediate oscillatory magnetic coupling in superlattices, and have found strong evidence that these are quantum well states, which are created by quantizing the momentum of s,p-band states perpendicular to the interfaces. The quantum well picture also explains how quantum well states in noble metals become spin-polarized, due to a spin-dependent electron reflectivity at the interface with the ferromagnet. The resulting implications for magnetoresistance are discussed.
We have developed a novel, high-resolution magnetic imaging technique, scanning-ion microscopy with polarization analysis (SIMPA). In SIMPA, a highly-focused, scanning Ga+ ion beam is used to excite spin-polarized electrons at surfaces of ferromagnetic Materials. By Measuring the intensity and the spin polarization of the emitted electrons using a newly developed, compact mott polarimeter, topographic and magnetic images of magnetic structures are obtained. We report on first SIMPA studies on single-crystalline Fe samples.
Cobalt-platinum alloys and multilayers are now well known for their potentialities in Magneto-optical recording Media. The growth of ultrathin layers and sandwiches is thought to be useful to find the relationship between the structural and magnetic properties at an atomic level. Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and Auger spectroscopy (AES) are used here to study the crystallography and the growth modes of Pt on Co (0001) surfaces. Co/Pt/Co sandwiches are also built and investigated by the same Methods. At room temperature we show the evidence of a good epitaxy of platinum on the Co (0001) surface leading to the possibility of obtaining ordered Co/Pt/Co sandwiches. Annealings at moderate temperatures lead to an epitaxial alloy formation. Auger results show that alloying indeed induces a magnetic moment on platinum atoms. This could explain the magnetic properties already observed in CO/Pt (111) Multilayers.
We have investigated structural and magnetic properties of epitaxial Ni80Fe20 films grown on relaxed epitaxial Cu/Si (001) films. The crystallographic texture of these films was analyzed in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), and ex situ by x-ray diffraction and cross-sectional transmission electron Microscopy (XTEM). In particular, RHEED intensities were recorded during epitaxial growth, and intensity profiles across Bragg rods were used to calculate the surface lattice constant, and hence, find the critical epitaxial thickness for which Ni80Fe20 grows pseudomorphically on Cu (100). XTEM analysis indicated that the epitaxial films had atomically-abrupt interfaces which was not the case for polycrystalline Cu and Ni80Fe20 film interfaces. The Magnetic properties of these epitaxial films were Measured in situ using Magneto-optic Kerr effect magnetometry and were compared with those of polycrystalline films grown on SiO2/Si. Large Hc (∼ 35 Oe) was observed for epitaxial Ni80Fe20 films less than 3.0 nm thick whereas for increasing thickness, Hc decreased approximately monotonically to a few Oersteds. Correlations were made between magnetic properties of these epitaxial films, the strain in the film and the interface roughness obtained from XTEM analysis.
We have used polarized neutron reflectivity to prove the existence of oscillatory coupling in MBE-grown Co/Cu (111) superlattices. For a sample of composition [3.4 nm Co/2.0 nm Cu]10, we find that only a small fraction of the sample volume exhibits coherent antiferromagnetic order, with the structure of the remainder of the film being attributable to ferromagnetic domains and small disordered structures.
The lattice reconstructed bec Ni (001) in Fe/Ni (001) ultrathin layers allows one to engineer films in which the in-plane 4-fold anisotropies and coercive fields can be varied and adjusted according to specific requirements. Magnetization reversals have been studied in layered structures of Fe/Ag/Fe/Ni (001). For Ag (001) interlayers thicker than 13 ML Magnetization reversal can proceed in two steps. In these samples the minor loops switch the magnetization of the Fe (001) layer from the parallel to the antiparallel configurations with respect to the magnetic moment of the Fe/Ni film. Such Minor loops exhibit a rectangular behavior with switching fields of 15–25 Oe. The lattice transformed Fe/Ni layers could be useful in spin-valve structures.
The Magnetoresistance (MR), Magnetic properties, and crystal structure of dc magnetron sputtered CO/Ag periodic multilayers have been investigated. The Co layer thickness was fixed at -30 Å while the thickness of the Ag layer was systematically varied. ‘Giant’ magnetoresistance was observed. The MR ratio has been found to decline monotonically with increasing Ag thickness in the range 30 Å to 107 Å. Although the maximum room temperature MR ratio is a Modest 4.78%, a more technologically significant measurement of field sensitivity (MR ratio/FWHM of the MR vs. H peak) is a promising 0.1%/Oe at its best. The effect of the number of bilayer units has also been examined and no substantial differences were noted between multilayers containing 8, 9, and 10 bilayer units. Coercivities as determined by both magnetometer and the splitting of the MR peaks are in agreement and increase from 25 to 38 Oe with increasing Ag thickness. Evidence for antiferromagnetic coupling is apparent in the hysteresis loops. High angle X-ray diffractometry (HXRD) in the θ-2θ mode revealed a strong Ag (111) texture in the film, with satellite peaks indicating a layered structure. Low angle XRD (LXRD) also yielded broad superlattice peaks in all samples at least to the second order.