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Although both obesity and ageing are risk factors for cognitive impairment, there is no evidence in Chile on how obesity levels are associated with cognitive function. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adiposity levels and cognitive impairment in older Chilean adults. This cross-sectional study includes 1384 participants, over 60 years of age, from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010. Cognitive impairment was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination. BMI and waist circumference (WC) were used as measures of adiposity. Compared with people with a normal BMI, the odds of cognitive impairment were higher in participants who were underweight (OR 4·44; 95 % CI 2·43, 6·45; P < 0·0001), overweight (OR 1·86; 95 % CI 1·06, 2·66; P = 0·031) and obese (OR 2·26; 95 % CI 1·31, 3·21; P = 0·003). The associations were robust after adjustment for confounding variables. Similar results were observed for WC. Low and high levels of adiposity are associated with an increased likelihood of cognitive impairment in older adults in Chile.
The search for life in the Universe is a fundamental problem of astrobiology and modern science. The current progress in the detection of terrestrial-type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify the conditions favourable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it in other worlds, we need to understand the nature of global (astrospheric), and local (atmospheric and surface) environments of exoplanets in the habitable zones (HZs) around G-K-M dwarf stars including our young Sun. Global environment is formed by propagated disturbances from the planet-hosting stars in the form of stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, energetic particles and winds collectively known as astrospheric space weather. Its characterization will help in understanding how an exoplanetary ecosystem interacts with its host star, as well as in the specification of the physical, chemical and biochemical conditions that can create favourable and/or detrimental conditions for planetary climate and habitability along with evolution of planetary internal dynamics over geological timescales. A key linkage of (astro)physical, chemical and geological processes can only be understood in the framework of interdisciplinary studies with the incorporation of progress in heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary and Earth sciences. The assessment of the impacts of host stars on the climate and habitability of terrestrial (exo)planets will significantly expand the current definition of the HZ to the biogenic zone and provide new observational strategies for searching for signatures of life. The major goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the current status and recent progress in this interdisciplinary field in light of presentations and discussions during the NASA Nexus for Exoplanetary System Science funded workshop ‘Exoplanetary Space Weather, Climate and Habitability’ and to provide a new roadmap for the future development of the emerging field of exoplanetary science and astrobiology.
At a global level, dairy cow production systems (DCPS) are important sources of nourishment and profits, but they generate environmental impacts such as overexploitation of different resources including water, lands and fossil energy. Quantification of water and carbon footprint to define mitigation strategies and a more rational use of natural resources, is a reiterated claim. The aim of this study was to perform an economic evaluation of the environmental impact of the DCPS from the Comarca Lagunera, Mexico (24°N, 102°W, 220 mm, hot-semiarid climate) We contrasted the economic value (EV) generated by the DCPS with respect to the economic costs (EC) due to the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) and the water footprint (WFP) of this DCPS. While quantifications of GHGE considered those proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the WFP involved the use of blue, gray and green water by the DCPS and related activities. Quantification of the EC of WFP considered an international average price of water. In the year 2017, the Comarca Lagunera registered a dairy cow inventory of 493 144 heads, with 227 142 lactating cows, which produced 2386 million liters of milk per year with an annual average EV of €525.3 million. The EC (€, millions) generated by the GHGE and WFP were €311.8 and €11 980.7, respectively, with a total EC of € 12 292.5 million. When the EV of milk production and the total environmental EC are compared, the contrast demonstrates not only the noteworthy environmental impact but also the significant and senseless biological and EC. In addition, having a large dairy cow concentration creates pollution concerns and the DCPS transfers both nutrients and water resources from an ecologically vulnerable arid region. Therefore, some mitigation strategies such as, better cow genotype, feed and manure management combined with the production of forages and grains in a different geographical region are suggested to promote an optimum use of water in order to uphold the social, economic and biologic sustainability of the Comarca Lagunera, Mexico.
Hookworms of the genus Uncinaria parasitize pinniped pups in various locations worldwide. Four species have been described, two of which parasitize pinniped pups in the southern hemisphere: Uncinaria hamiltoni parasitizes Otaria flavescens and Arctocephalus australis from the South American coast, and Uncinaria sanguinis parasitizes Neophoca cinerea from the Australian coast. However, their geographical ranges and host specificity are unknown. Uncinaria spp. are morphologically similar, but molecular analyses have allowed the recognition of new species in the genus Uncinaria. We used nuclear genetic markers (internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA) and a mitochondrial genetic marker (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)) to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships of Uncinaria spp. parasitizing A. australis and O. flavescens from South American coasts (Atlantic and Pacific coasts). We compared our sequences with published Uncinaria sequences. A Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) analysis was also used to delimit species, and principal component analysis was used to compare morphometry among Uncinaria specimens. Parasites were sampled from A. australis from Peru (12°S), southern Chile (42°S), and the Uruguayan coast, and from O. flavescens from northern Chile (24°S) and the Uruguayan coast. Morphometric differences were observed between Uncinaria specimens from both South American coasts and between Uncinaria specimens from A. australis in Peru and southern Chile. Phylogenetic and GMYC analyses suggest that south-eastern Pacific otariid species harbour U. hamiltoni and an undescribed putative species of Uncinaria. However, more samples from A. australis and O. flavescens are necessary to understand the phylogenetic patterns of Uncinaria spp. across the South Pacific.
Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) are sites identified as being globally important for the conservation of bird populations on the basis of an internationally agreed set of criteria. We present the first review of the development and spread of the IBA concept since it was launched by BirdLife International (then ICBP) in 1979 and examine some of the characteristics of the resulting inventory. Over 13,000 global and regional IBAs have so far been identified and documented in terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems in almost all of the world’s countries and territories, making this the largest global network of sites of significance for biodiversity. IBAs have been identified using standardised, data-driven criteria that have been developed and applied at global and regional levels. These criteria capture multiple dimensions of a site’s significance for avian biodiversity and relate to populations of globally threatened species (68.6% of the 10,746 IBAs that meet global criteria), restricted-range species (25.4%), biome-restricted species (27.5%) and congregatory species (50.3%); many global IBAs (52.7%) trigger two or more of these criteria. IBAs range in size from < 1 km2 to over 300,000 km2 and have an approximately log-normal size distribution (median = 125.0 km2, mean = 1,202.6 km2). They cover approximately 6.7% of the terrestrial, 1.6% of the marine and 3.1% of the total surface area of the Earth. The launch in 2016 of the KBA Global Standard, which aims to identify, document and conserve sites that contribute to the global persistence of wider biodiversity, and whose criteria for site identification build on those developed for IBAs, is a logical evolution of the IBA concept. The role of IBAs in conservation planning, policy and practice is reviewed elsewhere. Future technical priorities for the IBA initiative include completion of the global inventory, particularly in the marine environment, keeping the dataset up to date, and improving the systematic monitoring of these sites.
The objective was to compare the performance of the updated Charlson comorbidity index (uCCI) and classical CCI (cCCI) in predicting 30-day mortality in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB). All cases of SAB in patients aged ⩾14 years identified at the Microbiology Unit were included prospectively and followed. Comorbidity was evaluated using the cCCI and uCCI. Relevant variables associated with SAB-related mortality, along with cCCI or uCCI scores, were entered into multivariate logistic regression models. Global model fit, model calibration and predictive validity of each model were evaluated and compared. In total, 257 episodes of SAB in 239 patients were included (mean age 74 years; 65% were male). The mean cCCI and uCCI scores were 3.6 (standard deviation, 2.4) and 2.9 (2.3), respectively; 161 (63%) cases had cCCI score ⩾3 and 89 (35%) cases had uCCI score ⩾4. Sixty-five (25%) patients died within 30 days. The cCCI score was not related to mortality in any model, but uCCI score ⩾4 was an independent factor of 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–3.74). The uCCI is a more up-to-date, refined and parsimonious prognostic mortality score than the cCCI; it may thus serve better than the latter in the identification of patients with SAB with worse prognoses.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Responding to the need and interest of students and faculty of the UHSP in learning about CTR, the Title V Cooperative Project between UPR-MSC and UCC, developed and offered a training cycle (TC) in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Undergraduate students (US), undergraduate faculty (UF), and graduate students (GS) were invited to register in: Research Education Towards Opportunities (RETO) and Mentorship Offering Training Opportunities for Research (MOTOR), which consisted of 20 hours of training in CTR, with interdisciplinary sessions in: Introduction and preparation of a presentation in CTR; Identify, interview and share a presentation of a CT researcher; participation in conferences and a summer camp in CTR. At the end of the TC, surveys—satisfaction and needs assessment—for training in CTR were administered. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Thirty-three (33) registered in the TC, distributed: 13 (39.39%) US in RETO, 12 (36.36%) GS and 8 (24.24%) UF in MOTOR. Of these, 25 (75.75%) answered and submitted the on-line surveys and received a completion certificate. All (100%) were satisfied with the TC, and for 96% of the respondents, their expectations were fulfilled, and will continue in the TC. They selected critical review, scientific communication, and cultural diversity as thematic areas of interest. In addition, 60% of them selected neuroscience, cancer and medical imaging as main research areas of interest. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The TC demonstrated to be an effective strategy to provide new knowledge, experiences, and interest in CTR. It also established a pathway for future engagement in CTR.
The occurrence of smectite-illite and smectite-chlorite minerals series was studied along a thick clay cap (~300 m) drilled in the Cerro Pabellón geothermal field (northern Andes, Chile). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the alteration mineralogy and clay mineral assemblages and their changes with depth. Cerro Pabellón is a high-enthalpy blind geothermal system, with a reservoir zone from ~500 m to 2000 m depth, with temperatures of 200–250°C. Three main hydrothermal alteration zones were identified: (1) argillic; (2) sub-propylitic, and (3) propylitic, with variable amounts of smectite, illite-smectite, chlorite-smectite, mixed-layer chlorite-corrensite, illite and chlorite appearing in the groundmass and filling amygdales and veinlets. Chemical and XRD data of smectites, I-S and illites show, with some exceptions, a progressive illitization with depth. The evolution of I-S with depth, shows a sigmoidal variation in the percentage of illite layers, with the conversion of smectite to R1 I-S at ~180–185°C. These temperatures are greater than those reported for other similar geothermal fields and might indicate, at least in part, the efficiency of the clay cap in terms of restricting the circulation of hydrothermal fluids in low-permeability rocks. Our results highlight the importance of a better understanding of clay-mineral evolution in active geothermal systems, not only as a direct (or indirect) way to control temperature evolution, but also as a control on permeability/porosity efficiency of the clay cap.
We aimed to quantify the proportion of people receiving care for HIV-infection that are 50 years or older (older HIV patients) in Latin America and the Caribbean between 2000 and 2015 and to estimate the contribution to the growth of this population of people enrolled before (<50yo) and after 50 years old (yo) (⩾50yo). We used a series of repeated, cross-sectional measurements over time in the Caribbean, Central and South American network (CCASAnet) cohort. We estimated the percentage of patients retained in care each year that were older HIV patients. For every calendar year, we divided patients into two groups: those who enrolled before age 50 and after age 50. We used logistic regression models to estimate the change in the proportion of older HIV patients between 2000 and 2015. The percentage of CCASAnet HIV patients over 50 years had a threefold increase (8% to 24%) between 2000 and 2015. Most of the growth of this population can be explained by the increasing proportion of people that enrolled before 50 years and aged in care. These changes will impact needs of care for people living with HIV, due to multiple comorbidities and high risk of disability associated with aging.
Jan-Marino Ramirez, Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, USA Departments of Neurological Surgery, Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, USA,
Sanja C Ramirez, Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, USA,
Tatiana M Anderson, Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, USA
The identification of risk factors associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has led to significant advances in the prevention of this tragic outcome. The discovery of the prone sleeping position and smoking as two of the major risk factors (1-5) led to worldwide awareness campaigns, such as, for example, the “Back to Sleep” campaign launched in the United States in 1996, and various smoking cessation campaigns (6, 7). These initiatives resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of children succumbing to SIDS (5, 8). Unfortunately, SIDS still remains the number-one cause of death in infants under 1 year of age in many countries, despite epidemiological and pathological studies that continue to identify additional risk factors, such as hearing deficiencies, or various genetic alterations associated with SIDS (9-11, 12, 13). To parents and families, as well as some health professionals and researchers, the sheer number of suggested risk factors and gene mutations can also be bewildering.
The Triple Risk hypothesis by Dr Hannah Kinney and collaborators (14) can partly resolve this confusion. This hypothesis states that SIDS is caused by an incident in which not just one but three risk factors come together to bring an infant into a situation that leads to the sudden death. Specifically, it was proposed that those factors include  a vulnerable infant;  a critical period of development in homeostatic control; and  an exogenous stressor (14, 15). In other words, in the presence of two risk factors, namely being a vulnerable infant in a critical period of development, a third risk factor (e.g. an exogenous stressor) can become the ultimate cause that triggers an irreversible cascade of events leading to the sudden death.
The Triple Risk hypothesis also has important practical implications. The awareness campaigns have shown that it is possible to significantly reduce the risk of an infant being exposed to exogenous stressors. A potentially more challenging task is to identify the infant who is particularly vulnerable, which is clearly one of the major tasks for research. A better understanding of the characteristics of a vulnerable infant would facilitate the development of strategies that target a specific vulnerability.
Alien invasive species have strategies that can maintain fitness in a variety of environments. This flexibility is associated with environmental tolerance in several traits, such as allocation of resources to shoots versus roots, clonal versus sexual reproduction, and survival of seedlings. These traits were explored in the chandelier plant (Kalanchoe delagoensis Eckl. & Zeyh.), which has invasive populations in several countries. Light and water tolerance and herbicide treatments were tested on plantlet survival. Plantlet survival in the most extreme cases (full sunlight and no watering) was close to 30%, whereas in less severe conditions (water and shaded), it was close to 100%. Stress conditions triggered the onset of plantlet production from the margin of leaves, which increased clonality. Biomass was allocated primarily to aboveground structures. Although all herbicides resulted in high plantlet mortality (>85%), only 2,4-D and glyphosate+2,4-D amine achieved the maximum recorded mortality a few days after the chemical application. The high tolerance of K. delagoensis plantlets to varying conditions shows that under stress, plantlet production is enhanced as survival of established individuals decreases. Biomass is primarily aboveground, which can potentially alter nitrogen and carbon in poor arid environments, and the proportion of the biomass assigned to belowground roots increased with an increase in sunlight received. Even though the chemical treatments 2,4-D and glyphosate+2,4-D amine have been shown to be the only effective treatments, the 2,4-D treatment may be the most viable (cost+quantity) to reduce the propagation of K. delagoensis. Plantlets have become the main reason for population persistence, partially due to the plant’s environmental tolerance and ability to reproduce asexually in short time periods. Susceptibility of plantlets to the two herbicides presents a means to adequately manage invasions of K. delagoensis in Mexico.
The experiment was carried out in the east of Yucatán, in pastures of B. brizantha. It was of three months duration during the end of the rainy season. Four rumen cannulated cows with an average weight of 442 kg were used at all of three stocking rates: Low (2LU/ha), Medium (4LU/ha) and High (6LU/ha), to evaluate the effect of an empty rumen on the rate of biting, which was measured as the time taken to take 20 uninterrupted bites on ten occasions. The measurements were made on two sequential days at 09.00 h, the first under normal conditions, the second with an empty rumen. There was no effect (P<0.050 of rumen emptying on the rate of biting which was 24 bites per minute when the animals were normal, and 25 bites a minute when the rumen was empty. On the other hand, there was a reduction of 8% in the rate of biting for the animals at the high stocking rate compared with the low and medium stocking rates. The finding that bite rate was not affected by an empty the rumen is evidence which gives confidence in the use of cannulated animals as collectors of representative samples of forage under grazing conditions.
Ladle refining plays a key role in achieving the quality of the steel since in this reactor temperature and chemical composition is adjusted, elimination of non-metallic inclusions is performed, and also deoxidation and desulphurization are operations taking place in the refining process. Specifically, the metal-slag mass exchanges have not received much attention through scientific studies. In this work, a rigorous study on the mass exchange between metal and slag is presented through a scaled water physical model. In the model, thymol (playing the role of a solute such as sulfur) is added to the water (playing the role of steel) and silicon oil (playing the role of slag) picks up the thymol, while the ladle is agitated with the central injection of gas. The evolution of thymol concentration in time was measured. Also, a mathematical model was developed and cast into the commercial CFD code Fluent Ansys to represent the fluid flow phenomena and the mass transfer through the solution of the continuity equation, the turbulent momentum conservation equations and the species mass conservation equation. There is a good agreement between the measured and the computed results regarding the thymol concentration evolution in water and consequently the mathematical model was validated regarding the mass species metal-slag exchanges and it may be used to study metal-slag exchanges in the steel ladle such as deoxidation or desulphurization.
Forage trees are commonly use for livestock feeding in the tropics. It is known that some species can affect the rumen protozoa population (Odenyo et al., 1997). However, little is known about the potential effect upon rumen protozoa of several species which are also use as feed in tropical systems. The objective of the experiment was to assess the defaunating capacity of forage trees. In companion reports (Monforte et al., 2005) we reported plants with a potential defaunating effect as evaluated under an in vitro batch culture system (Sandoval et al., 2005). Here we present those plants which did not have or had low effect on protozoa population in an in vitro culture.