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Exact expressions are given for the K and L x-ray fluorescence cross sections. Hole transfer between the L subshells is taken into account and shown to lead to a substantial enhancement of the cross sections for x rays of the L2 and L3 emission series. Absolute values of Kα and Lα cross sections are calculated for all elements and four excitation energies, namely GeK ≙ 10.0 keV, MoKα ≙ 17.44 keV, AgK ≙ 22.5 keV and Am 241 ≙ 59.6 keV.
According to European Guidelines for Legionnaires’ Disease prevention and control, travel-associated Legionnaires’ disease (TALD) cases are managed differently if classified as sporadic or as part of a cluster and more stringent control measures are deployed after clusters are identified. In this study, we propose to modify the current cluster definition: ‘two or more cases of Legionnaires’ disease (LD) who stayed at, or visited, the same commercial accommodation site 2–10 days before onset of illness and whose onset is within the same 2-year period’ with a new cluster definition, i.e. accommodation sites associated with multiple cases regardless of the time elapsed between them. TALD cases occurred in Italy and in the Balearic Islands between 2005 and 2015 were analysed applying the current European Legionnaires’ Disease Surveillance Network (ELDSNet) cluster definition. In a sample of selected accommodation sites with multiple cases, a microbiological study was also conducted. Using the new definition, 63 additional sites (16.4% increase) and 225 additional linked cases (19.5% increase) were identified. Legionella pneumophila sg1 was isolated from 90.7% of the selected accommodation sites. The use of the here proposed TALD cluster definition would warrant a full investigation for each new identified case. This approach should therefore increase the number of sites that will require a risk assessment and, in the presence of an increased risk, the adoption of LD control measures to hopefully prevent additional cases.
In a reactor plasma like demonstration power station (DEMO), when using the radio frequency (RF) for heating or current drive in the lower hybrid (LH) frequency range (Franke et al., Fusion Engng Des., vol. 96–97, 2015, p. 46; Cardinali et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, vol. 59, 2017, 074002), a large fraction of the ion population (the continuously born
-particle, and/or the neutral beam injection (NBI) injected ions) is characterized by a non-thermal distribution function. The interaction (propagation and absorption) of the LH wave must be reformulated by considering the quasi-linear approach for each species separately. The collisional slowing down of such an ion population in a background of an electron and ion plasma is balanced by a quasi-linear diffusion in velocity space due to the propagating electromagnetic wave. In this paper, both propagations are considered by including the ion distribution function, solution of the Fokker–Planck equation, which describes the collisional dynamics of the
-particles including the effects of frictional slowing down, energy diffusion and pitch-angle scattering. Analytical solutions of the Fokker–Planck equation for the distribution function of
-particles with a background of ions and electrons at steady state are included in the calculation of the dielectric tensor. In the LH frequency domain, ray tracing (including quasi-linear damping), can be analytically solved by iterating with the Fokker–Planck solution, and the interaction of the LH wave with
-particles, thermal ions and electrons can be accounted self-consistently and the current drive efficiency can be evaluated in this more general scenario.
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence estimates of cerebral palsy (CP) among 5-year-old children in northern Alberta; to provide congenital, gestational age– and birth weight–specific, and postneonatal CP rates; and to describe motor subtypes and function. Methods: This population-based prevalence estimate study, part of the Canadian Cerebral Palsy Registry, reports confirmed CP diagnoses at age 5 years made by pediatric rehabilitation and child neurology specialists. Prevalence rates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) used Alberta government denominators of same-age children and live births. Results: The Northern Alberta CP rate (birth years, 2008-2010) for 173 5-year-old children is 2.22 (95% CI 2.12, 2.32) per 1000 5-year-old children. The congenital CP rate is 1.99 (95% CI, 1.89-2.09) per 1000 live births; unilateral congenital CP, 1.0 (95% CI, 0.64-1.36) per 1000 live births; and postneonatal CP, 0.12 (95% CI, 0.1-0.14) per 1000 live births. Gestational age-specific rates are similar: age <28 weeks, 27.2 (95% CI, 23.05-31.35) and 28 to 31 weeks, 29.5 (95% CI, 25.78-33.22). Motor subtypes for 169 children (data missing, 4; male, 97; postnatal, 9) are: spastic, 148 (87.6%) including 31 (20.9%) with diplegia, 10 (6.8%) triplegia, 33 (22.2%) quadriplegia, 74 (50%) hemiplegia/monoplegia); and dyskinetic, 18 (10.6%) and ataxic, 3 (1.8%). A total of 107 (63.3%) ambulate without assistive devices and 111(65.7%) handle most objects with their hands independently. Conclusions: This is the fourth Canadian CP prevalence study; one from Quebec used a similar case ascertainment approach and two 1980s studies from Alberta and British Columbia used administrative databases. Northern Alberta CP rates are comparable with other developed countries. The hemiplegic subtype is the most common. Rates among preterm children have declined but are similar for the <28 and 28 to 31 gestation-week groups.
Two Compact Steep-spectrum Sources (CSSs), 0548+165 and 1524-136, have been observed in dual polarization with the VLBA at 4.9 and 8.4 GHz. Rotation measures (RMs) up to 104 rad m−2 were derived for the jets of both sources. These high values possibly arise due to the external medium interacting with the radio jets, with measured depolarization being due to small-scale inhomogeneities in the medium.
The archaeological site of Zaballa is a Medieval rural site located in the province of álava (Basque Country, northern Iberia). The site has been excavated during a rescue archaeology project, over an area of about 4.5 ha, where human occupation has been documented ranging from the 6th to 15th century. The archaeological operations have shown the transformation of the village, in diachronic terms, by unearthing the structure of production areas (agricultural lands, storage areas, and craft activities), the shape of domestic spaces, and the Saint Tirso monastery, with its adjacent cemetery. Much of the evidence and features related to a peasant community are small and disturbed by recent agricultural activities, and are therefore difficult to be interpreted in social terms. Studying dietary patterns has helped to fill this gap by providing a protein-rich diet of the elitist population and by highlighting the existence of hierarchies separating the inhabitants of Zaballa. In this paper, we discuss the reconstruction of the chronological sequence of the site inhabitation, with a multidisciplinary approach. The archaeological evidences and the critical use of radiocarbon dating have been integrated with stable isotope analysis on human remains found in the cemetery of the church of San Tirso, resulting in a first attempt to find evidence of the social structure of the rural community of Zaballa.
The aim of this study was to compare a fully slatted concrete floor (concrete slatted (CS)) with the same floor on which synthetic rubber slats were placed on the concrete slats (rubber slatted (RS)) as housing solution for finishing beef cattle. The present study involved five commercial beef cattle farms in which the floor of at least three pens was kept as fully slatted, and in an equal number of pens a rubber cover was placed on the floor, tightly matching the gap profile of the concrete slats to allow the drainage of manure. A total of 326 finishing beef bulls were used (153 on CS and 173 on RS), and regardless of the floor treatment animals were housed in groups of 6 to 12 bulls/pen with a space allowance of 3.1±0.2 m2/bull. Bulls had similar initial live weights (422.3 kg on CS and 425.0 kg on RS), but bulls on RS were heavier at the end of the finishing period with a higher average daily gain than bulls kept on CS (1.53 v. 1.46 kg/day; P<0.05). The proportion of bulls treated for locomotor problems was lower in RS pens compared with CS. Rubber covering prevented the occurrence of bursitis, but it increased the odds for hoof overgrowth at end of the finishing period. Hoof overgrowth detected in vivo in bulls on RS was confirmed at the slaughterhouse by the longer dorsal wall and diagonal lengths of the hoof as well as by a more acute toe angle. Compared with bulls on CS, bulls on RS showed less inactivity and resting time, increased social interactions, decreased abnormal lying down and unsuccessful attempts to lie down, as well as shortened the time for lying down. Bulls in RS pens were dirtier compared with those in CS pens, likely due to the draining gaps being reduced to 11.6±1.2% of the total pen surface compared with the 16.9±1.7% in CS pens. This study gave further evidence about the positive effects of the RS floor on growth performance and welfare of finishing beef cattle, although compromising cleanliness and hoof overgrowth.
Hospital-evacuation decisions are rarely straightforward in protracted advance-warning events. Previous work provides little insight into the decision-making process around evacuation. This study was conducted to identify factors that most heavily influenced the decisions to evacuate the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) New York Harbor Healthcare System’s (NYHHS; New York USA) Manhattan Campus before Hurricane Irene in 2011 and before Superstorm Sandy in 2012.
Semi-structured interviews with 11 senior leaders were conducted on the processes and factors that influenced the evacuation decisions prior to each event.
The most influential factor in the decision to evacuate the Manhattan Campus before Hurricane Irene was New York City’s (NYC’s) hospital-evacuation mandate. As a federal facility, the Manhattan VA medical center (VAMC) was exempt from the city’s order, but decision makers felt compelled to comply. In the case of Superstorm Sandy, corporate memory of a similar 1992 storm that crippled the Manhattan facility drove the decision to evacuate before the storm hit.
Results suggest that hospital-evacuation decisions are confounded by political considerations and are influenced by past disaster experience. Greater shared situational awareness among at-risk hospitals, along with a more coordinated approach to evacuation decision making, could reduce pressure on hospitals to make these high-stakes decisions. Systematic mechanisms for collecting, documenting, and sharing lessons learned from past disasters are sorely needed at the institutional, local, and national levels.
RicciKA, GriffinAR, HeslinKC, KrankeD, DobalianA. Evacuate or Shelter-in-place? The Role of Corporate Memory and Political Environment in Hospital-evacuation Decision Making. Prehosp Disaster Med2015;30(3):1-6
The TORPEX basic plasma physics device at the Center for Plasma Physics Research (CRPP) in Lausanne, Switzerland is described. In TORPEX, simple magnetized toroidal configurations, a paradigm for the tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL), as well as more complex magnetic geometries of direct relevance for fusion are produced. Plasmas of different gases are created and sustained by microwaves in the electron-cyclotron (EC) frequency range. Full diagnostic access allows for a complete characterization of plasma fluctuations and wave fields throughout the entire plasma volume, opening new avenues to validate numerical codes. We detail recent advances in the understanding of basic aspects of plasma turbulence, including its development from linearly unstable electrostatic modes, the formation of filamentary structures, or blobs, and its influence on the transport of energy, plasma bulk and suprathermal ions. We present a methodology for the validation of plasma turbulence codes, which focuses on quantitative assessment of the agreement between numerical simulations and TORPEX experimental data.
As part of its training activities, SupAgro – Institut des Régions Chaudes (IRC),
an agricultural engineering school in Montpellier, has introduced an applied
training session in metrology for its students. This was undertaken by the CIRAD metrology
platform in partnership with the agrifood technology platform of the Qualisud Joint
Research Unit. The session comprises two hour workshops during which students can apply
the basic notions required for metrological monitoring of the quantities “temperature” and
“weight”. To that end, standard weights, a temperature calibration device comprising a
thermostatically controlled calibration oil bath (uncertainty at k = 2 of 0.14
°C) and a standard
temperature probe with an accuracy of ±0.01 °C
were made available to the technology platform by the CIRAD metrology platform. During
practical work, these COFRAC calibrated instruments are used to check balances and, in
particular, make students aware of the importance of parameters that might influence the
temperature measurement of a thermostatically controlled bath (homogeneity, resolution and
accuracy of the thermometers, measurement repeatability, etc.). To that end, the Qualisud
team specifically adapted a water bath so as to be able to position several temperature
probes at different places in the bath. Students have to acquire an approach that needs to
take into account a particular measuring context. The teaching scenario of the training
session is structured around these metrological checks proposed directly to the students.
The training session takes place each year with 2nd year students on the SAADS 2/IAAS
course “Sustainable Agriculture and Agrifood Systems in the South” at SupAgro
An unusually long-lasting community-acquired outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease (LD) occurred in the inhabitants of a town in northern Italy from 2005 to 2008. Overall, 43 cases were diagnosed including five deaths. Hundreds of water samples were collected for Legionella isolation but only two clinical samples were obtained. Clinical strains were ST23 as were environmental isolates detected in most Legionella-positive patients' homes and those from a public fountain. Although no Legionella was found in the municipal water mains, a continuous chlorination was applied in 2008. This action resulted in a halving of cases, although incidence remained tenfold higher than the Italian average incidence until the end of 2013, when it dropped to the expected rate. Retrospective analyses of prevalent wind direction suggested that a hidden cooling tower could have been the main cause of this uncommon outbreak, highlighting the importance of implementation of cooling tower registers in supporting LD investigations.
Antarctic and Southern Ocean science is vital to understanding natural variability, the processes that govern global change and the role of humans in the Earth and climate system. The potential for new knowledge to be gained from future Antarctic science is substantial. Therefore, the international Antarctic community came together to ‘scan the horizon’ to identify the highest priority scientific questions that researchers should aspire to answer in the next two decades and beyond. Wide consultation was a fundamental principle for the development of a collective, international view of the most important future directions in Antarctic science. From the many possibilities, the horizon scan identified 80 key scientific questions through structured debate, discussion, revision and voting. Questions were clustered into seven topics: i) Antarctic atmosphere and global connections, ii) Southern Ocean and sea ice in a warming world, iii) ice sheet and sea level, iv) the dynamic Earth, v) life on the precipice, vi) near-Earth space and beyond, and vii) human presence in Antarctica. Answering the questions identified by the horizon scan will require innovative experimental designs, novel applications of technology, invention of next-generation field and laboratory approaches, and expanded observing systems and networks. Unbiased, non-contaminating procedures will be required to retrieve the requisite air, biota, sediment, rock, ice and water samples. Sustained year-round access to Antarctica and the Southern Ocean will be essential to increase winter-time measurements. Improved models are needed that represent Antarctica and the Southern Ocean in the Earth System, and provide predictions at spatial and temporal resolutions useful for decision making. A co-ordinated portfolio of cross-disciplinary science, based on new models of international collaboration, will be essential as no scientist, programme or nation can realize these aspirations alone.
A significant fraction (~ 30%) of the gamma-ray sources detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is still of unknown origin, being not yet associated with counterparts at lower energies. Many unidentified gamma-ray sources (UGSs) could be blazars, the largest identified population of extragalactic gamma-ray sources and the rarest class of active galactic nuclei. In particular, it has been found that blazars occupy a defined region in WISE three dimensional color space, well separated from that occupied by other sources in which thermal emission prevails. For farther sources with weaker IR emission, additional informations can be obtained combining WISE data with X-ray or radio emission. Alternatively, the low-frequency radio emission can be used for identifying potential gamma-ray candidate blazars. However, optical spectroscopic observations represent the tell-tale tool to confirm the exact nature of these sources. To this end, an extensive observational campaign has been performed with several optical telescopes, aimed at pinpointing the exact nature of gamma-ray candidate blazars selected with the different selection methods mentioned above. The results of this campaign lead to the discovery of 60 new gamma-ray blazars, thus confirming the effectiveness of these selection criteria.
Exoplanetary transit observations were carried out for the first time with all the three telescopes at the San Pedro Mártir National Astronomical Observatory in Baja California, Mexico.
We present preliminary results on WASP-39 and WASP-43, two Hot Jupiters known for the presence of a highly-inflated radius. Using the defocused photometry technique, we observed these systems, achieving photometric precision of ± 3–5mmag peak-to-valley. The preliminary fit of their lightcurves shows physical and orbital parameters consistent with published results.
The Dutch and modified Hald source attribution models were adapted to Italian Salmonella data to attribute human infections caused by the top 30 serotypes between 2002 and 2010 to four putative sources (Gallus gallus, turkeys, pigs, ruminants), at the points of animal reservoir (farm), exposure (food), and both combined. Attribution estimates were thus compared between different models, time periods and sampling points. All models identified pigs as the main source of human salmonellosis in Italy, accounting for 43–60% of infections, followed by G. gallus (18–34%). Attributions to turkeys and ruminants were minor. An increasing temporal trend in attributions to pigs and a decreasing one in those to G. gallus was also observed. Although the outcomes of the two models applied at farm and food levels essentially agree, they can be refined once more information becomes available, providing valuable insights about potential targets along the production chain.
For over a decade, the structure of the inner “hole” in the transition disk around TW Hydrae has been a subject of debate. To probe the innermost regions of the protoplanetary disk, observations at the highest possible spatial resolution are required. We present new interferometric data of TW Hya from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths. We confront existing models of the disk structure with the complete data set and develop a new, detailed radiative-transfer model. This model is characterized by: 1) a spatial separation of the largest grains from the small disk grains; and 2) a smooth inner rim structure, rather than a sharp disk edge.
We present preliminary results of a detailed study of the accretion, stellar, and wind properties of transitional disks (TDs) carried out with the X-Shooter spectrograph. Combining new and archival spectra, we collected a sample of more than 20 TDs from different nearby star-forming regions. Our sample includes objects with both small (<5-15 AU) and large (>20–30 AU) known inner hole size from the literature (either from mm-observations or IR SED fitting). We check their stellar parameters (Teff, L*, AV, M*) and derive their accretion properties (Lacc, Ṁacc) in a self-consistent way, which makes use of the wide wavelength coverage of X-Shooter, and study their wind properties by mean of different forbidden emission lines analysis.
The health of people with chronic medical conditions is particularly vulnerable to the disruptions caused by public health disasters, especially when there is massive damage to the medical infrastructure. Government agencies and national organizations recommend that people with chronic illness prepare for disasters by stockpiling extra supplies of medications.
A wide range of chronic illnesses has long been documented among veterans of the US armed forces. Veterans with chronic illness could be at great risk of complications due to disaster-related medication disruptions; however, the prevalence of personal medication preparedness among chronically ill veterans is not currently known.
Data was used from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey on 28,167 respondents who reported taking daily medications. After adjusting for differences in age, health status, and other characteristics, calculations were made of the percentage of respondents who had a two-week supply of emergency medications and, among respondents without a supply, the percentage who said they could obtain one. Veteran men, veteran women, nonveteran men, and nonveteran women were compared.
Medication supplies among veteran men (81.9%) were higher than among nonveteran women (74.8%; P < .0001) and veteran women (81.1%; P = 0.014). Among respondents without medication supplies, 67.2% of nonveteran men said that they could obtain a two-week supply, compared with 60.1% of nonveteran women (P = .012).
Among adults in California with chronic illness, veteran men are more likely to have personal emergency medication supplies than are veteran and nonveteran women. Veteran men may be more likely to be prepared because of their training to work in combat zones and other emergency situations, which perhaps engenders in them a culture of preparedness or self-reliance. It is also possible that people who choose to enlist in the military are different from the general population in ways that make them more likely to be better prepared for emergencies.
Veterans in California have a relatively high level of emergency medication preparedness. Given the health complications that can result from disaster-related medication disruptions, this is a promising finding. Disasters are a national concern, however, and the personal preparedness of veterans in all parts of the nation should be assessed; these findings could serve as a useful reference point for such work in the future.
HeslinK, GinJ, AfableM, RicciK, DobalianA. Personal Medication Preparedness Among Veteran and Nonveteran Men and Women in the California Population. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013; 28(4):1-8.
We present global VLBI and VLBA observations of the compact steep spectrum quasar B1524–136. These observations reveal well-defined radio jets on both sides of the active nucleus. Also, the overall radio structure appears highly distorted and asymmetric with the counter-jet exhibiting several oscillations. A possible scenario is one in which jet and counter-jet are inclined at about 25° and 75° to the line of sight respectively and an environment which is dense on the jet side. Possible implications of these results are discussed.
Responding to public fears and the loss of confidence in the aftermath of several food safety crises in the 1990s and 2000s, more and more regulatory laws have increasingly been affected by the precautionary principle. To clarify how those developments can have adverse consequences, we discuss two very different cases. First, at the molecular level we discuss the problems the system encounters by strictly applying the linear no-threshold (LNT) at low doses model, which was adopted in response to fears about the effects of ionizing radiations. Second, at a global scale, we discuss the problems associated with the precautionary regulation on Illegal, Unreported and Unregistered Fisheries that came into effect January 1, 2010. The technical aspects of food safety testing and their impacts are perhaps unknown to policy makers but they do dominate safety decisions. Both examples show that strict application of the precautionary principle produce deleterious side effects, which go against the very policy values that the precautionary regulation should protect. We show, in particular, that overly precautionary food safety regulation may harm food security. We conclude in the EU and other Western nations, problems of food security are much more relevant to human health and life expectancy than food safety. We recommend that current food safety regulation based on the precautionary risk-regulation reflex should normatively be re-evaluated with a complete regard for the values of food security – both within and outside the EU.