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Infectious diseases, such as Helicobacter pylori, which produce systemic inflammation may be one key factor in the onset of autoimmunity. The association between H. pylori and antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a marker of autoimmunity, has been understudied. Data from the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to evaluate the cross-sectional association between H. pylori seroprevalence and ANA positivity in US adults aged ≥20 years. ANA was measured in a 1:80 dilution of sera by indirect immunofluorescence using HEp-2 cells (positive ⩾3). H. pylori immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to categorise individuals as seropositive or seronegative. H. pylori seropositivity and ANA positivity were common in the adult US population, with estimated prevalences of 33.3% and 9.9%, respectively. Both were associated with increasing age. H. pylori seropositivity was associated with higher odds of ANA (prevalence odds ratio = 1.89, 95% confidence interval = 1.08–3.33), adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, educational attainment and body mass index. H. pylori infection may be one key factor in the loss of self-tolerance, contributing to immune dysfunction.
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
This study aimed to review available disaster training options for health care providers, and to provide specific recommendations for developing and delivering a disaster-response-training program for non-disaster-trained emergency physicians, residents, and trainees prior to acute deployment.
A comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature of the existing training options for health care providers was conducted to provide specific recommendations.
A comprehensive search of the Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane databases was performed to identify publications related to courses for disaster preparedness and response training for health care professionals. This search revealed 7,681 unique titles, of which 53 articles were included in the full review. A total of 384 courses were found through the grey literature search, and many of these were available online for no charge and could be completed in less than six hours. The majority of courses focused on management and disaster planning; few focused on clinical care and acute response.
There is need for a course that is targeted toward emergency physicians and trainees without formal disaster training. This course should be available online and should utilize a mix of educational modalities, including lectures, scenarios, and virtual simulations. An ideal course should focus on disaster preparedness, and the clinical and non-clinical aspects of response, with a focus on an all-hazards approach, including both terrorism-related and environmental disasters.
HansotiB, KelloggDS, AberleSJ, BroccoliMC, FedenJ, FrenchA, LittleCM, MooreB, SabatoJJr., SheetsT, WeinbergR, ElmesP, KangC. Preparing Emergency Physicians for Acute Disaster Response: A Review of Current Training Opportunities in the US. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(6):643–647.
Frontal release signs, a subset of neurological soft signs, are common in schizophrenia.
To explore the relationship between frontal release signs and neuropsychological tests of frontal lobe function in people with schizophrenia, their siblings and healthy controls.
Neuropsychological tests and frontal release signs were measured in a cohort of index cases (n=302), their siblings (n=240) and healthy controls (n=346).
The mean total score of frontal release signs was 1.5 (s.d. = 1.58) in the schizophrenia group, 0.54 (s.d.=0.92) for siblings and 0.42 (s.d.=0.77) for controls. Schizophrenia group scores were greater than healthy control or sibling cohort scores (P < 0.0001), which did not differ. In all three cohorts, right grasp reflex scores positively correlated with number of perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sort Task (P<0.05). In the schizophrenia group, frontal release signs scores showed an inverse correlation with IQ (R = −0.199, P<0.0005).
Our findings of relationships between frontal release signs and cognitive assays of cortical dysfunction and the increased frequency of these signs in people with schizophrenia implicate a cortical origin for these clinical signs and evidence of frontal lobe dysfunction in this disorder.
During the 2004–2005 influenza season two independent influenza surveillance systems operated simultaneously in three United States counties. The New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) prospectively enrolled children hospitalized for respiratory symptoms/fever and tested them using culture and RT–PCR. The Emerging Infections Program (EIP) and a similar clinical-laboratory surveillance system identified hospitalized children who had positive influenza tests obtained as part of their usual medical care. Using data from these systems, we applied capture–recapture analyses to estimate the burden of influenza related-hospitalizations in children aged <5 years. During the 2004–2005 influenza season the influenza-related hospitalization rate estimated by capture–recapture analysis was 8·6/10 000 children aged <5 years. When compared to this estimate, the sensitivity of the prospective surveillance system was 69% and the sensitivity of the clinical-laboratory based system was 39%. In the face of limited resources and an increasing need for influenza surveillance, capture–recapture analysis provides better estimates than either system alone.
There are many reasons for seeking to create a global database with which to record the outcomes of therapy for congenital heart disease. Such a database can function as a tool to support a variety of purposes:
Recent progress in microfabrication of biodegradable materials has resulted in the development of a three-dimensional construct suitable for use as a scaffold for engineering blood vessel networks. These networks are designed to replicate the critical fluid dynamic properties of physiological systems such as the microcirculation within a vital organ. Ultimately, these 3D microvascular constructs will serve as a framework for population with organ-specific cells for applications in organ assist and organ replacement. This approach for tissue engineering utilizes highly engineered designs and microfabrication technology to assemble cells in three-dimensional constructs which have physiological values for properties such as mechanical strength, oxygen, nutrient and waste transport, and fluidic parameters such as flow volume and pressure.
Three-dimensional networks with appropriate values for blood flow velocity, pressure drop and hematocrit distribution have been designed and fabricated using replica molding techniques, and populated with endothelial cells for long-term microfluidic cell culture. One critical aspect of the fluid dynamics of these systems is the shear stress exerted by blood flow at the walls of the vessel; a key parameter because of well-known mechanotransduction phenomena from mechanical shear forces which govern endothelial cell behavior. In this work, we report the design and construction of three-dimensional microfluidic constructs for tissue engineering which have uniform wall shear stress throughout the network. This type of control over the shear stress offers several advantages over earlier approaches, including more uniform seeding, more rapid achievement of confluent coatings, and better control over endothelial cell behavior for in vitro and in vivo studies.
Growth and properties of indium sulfide layers (< 300 nm) prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been studied. Growth rate of about 0.6 A per cycle has been measured for films deposited at 160°C from indium acetylacetonate and hydrogen sulfide precursors. The films are crystalline with the β modification. They possess high band gap values (2.7-2.8 eV) which are related to small grain sizes (3-4 nm) through quantum size effects. Electrical properties have been addressed using the semiconductor electrolyte junction. They are n type with a doping level around 1016 cm−3 and possess a good blocking behavior under reverse bias. The flat band potential is close to -1 V vs MSE. These figures are close to those measured under similar conditions with CdS CBD buffer layers and could explain the good cell performances obtained with ALD In2S3.
Oxidic zirconium films prepared by chemical deposition from aqueous medium on sulfonic acid terminated self-assembled monolayers attached to an oxidized silicon surface were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Bulk precipitate forms in the 4 mM Zr(SO4)2 · 4H2O, 0.4 N HCl deposition medium at 343 K after approximately 30 min. Precipitate particles (200 nm and larger) were found embedded in the oxidic zirconium film and adsorbed on top of the film; they could be washed off, but patches of the film were removed. Working with unstable deposition solutions, in which homogeneous nucleation occurs, leads to preparation-inherent flaws in the film.
To determine if blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D) or its active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-D), are lower in women at the time of first diagnosis of breast cancer than in comparable women without breast cancer.
This was a clinic-based case–control study with controls frequency-matched to cases on race, age, clinic and month of blood drawing.
University-based breast referral clinics.
One hundred and fifty-six women with histologically documented adenocarcinoma of the breast and 184 breast clinic controls.
There were significant mean differences in 1,25-D levels (pmol ml−1) between breast cancer cases and controls; white cases had lower 1,25-D levels than white controls (mean difference ± SE: −11.08 ± 0.76), and black cases had higher 1,25-D levels than black controls (mean difference ± SE: 4.54 ± 2.14), although the number of black women in the study was small. After adjustment for age, assay batch, month of blood draw, clinic and sample storage time, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval, CI) for lowest relative to highest quartile was 5.2 (95% CI 2.1, 12.8) for white cases and controls. The association in white women was stronger in women above the median age of 54 than in younger women, 4.7 (95% CI 2.1, 10.2) vs. 1.5 (95% CI 0.7, 3.0). There were no case–control differences in 25-D levels in either group.
These data are consistent with a protective effect of 1,25-D for breast cancer in white women.
“Senile” PNe are very old nebulae of extremely low surface brightness and large linear size; they offer e.g. the possibility of probing the conditions of the ISM also non-locally. We give three examples of huge nebulae in a preliminary inquire.
NGC 3242: An ESO Schmidt plate obtained in April 1996 shows the ‘wrapped’ morphology of the faint arc discovered by Deeming (1966, Astrophys. J. 146, 287) 11′ south-west of this PN. Probably this arc is part of a giant halo of very low surface brightness around NGC 3242, but up to now the detection of the halo is questionable. A spectrum of the filament obtained at Las Campanas shows [O iii]/Hα ∼ 5 compared with a value of ∼ 3 in the nebula (Perinotto et al. 1994, Astron. Astrophys. Supp., 107, 481). This high ratio is larger than that expected for the excitation class of NGC 3242, even larger than the maximum allowed for a photo-ionized nebula of more or less normal chemical abundance. Thus, due to the spectral characteristic and to the filamentary structure of the arc we suspect that shocks appear to play a role.
The distance determination to planetary nebulae (PNe) remains a serious problem as illustrated during the last IAU symposium in 1991 (Terzian, IAU 155, p.109). Since then the situation has not improved significantly. The number of stars for which reddening and spectral data are available, though, has increased tremendously over the last decade. Using data from the literature we have determined extinction distances for more than 50 PNe. The extinction distance method has been pioneered by Lutz (ApJ 181, 135 (1973)) and Acker (A&AS 33, 367 (1978)). The basic assumption of the extinction method is that a reddening vs distance relation (RDR) exists along the line of sight to a given object. Once this relation and the reddening of the object itself is known, a distance to the object can be derived. Gathier et al. (A&A 157, 171 (1986)) present a thorough discussion of the advantages and possible problems of the method. The most recent contributions are by Martin (A&A 281, 526 (1994)) and Saurer (A&A 297, 261 (1995)).
We have studied the effect of surface orientation on the optical and morphological characteristics of coherently-strained InP islands grown on GaInP/GaAs. The differences between islands grown on the (100) orientation and the (311)A orientation are studied. Islands grown on the (311)A orientation are more dense than the islands grown on the (100) orientation. For the (100) orientation, the island height distribution is bimodal peaked at 20 Å and 220 Å. For the (311)A orientation, the island height distribution is also bimodal peaked at 15 Å and 60 Å. Photoluminescence measurements for the (311)A orientation show a peak at 1.9 eV attributed to small islands. This peak is shifted to higher energies in comparison to the corresponding peak for the (100) orientation which is at 1.77 eV. This peak shift is due to the fact that the small islands on the (311)A orientation are smaller than the corresponding islands on the (100) orientation.
The association of attentional, neuropsychological, and behavioural abnormalities with Tourette's syndrome (TS) suggests that the abnormal function of the disorder extends beyond the motor circuits of the basal ganglia. To explore this possibility we studied, with conventional 18-channel electroencephalography, monozygotic twins ranging from 8 to 26 years of age, where at least one member of the twin pair suffered from TS. In nine out of the 11 twin pairs that differed in clinical severity of the tic disorder, the twin with the more severe course of illness had a significantly more abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) by qualitative visual analysis. Most of the differences were due to excessive frontocentral theta activity, suggesting dysfunction outside the basal ganglia. There was also a significant relationship between a lower global neuropsychological testing score and a worse overall EEG. In eight of nine twin sets with different global neuropsychological testing scores, the twin with the lower score had a worse EEG. A similar relationship was found between birth weight and overall EEG quality. In the nine sets that differed in birth weight, the twin with a lower birth weight had a worse EEG in seven of the sets. The EEG findings are unlikely to be a medication effect because the same result was seen in the six twin pairs who had been medication-free for at least six months before entry into the study. The origin of this slowing may relate to the interaction between environmental insults to the central nervous system and the genetic component of TS, an interaction producing damage to the cortex, thalamus, or both.
Scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) has been used to image the adsorption of trimethylgallium (TMGa) on GaAs(001)-(2×4) surfaces prepared in situ by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Filled states images of the clean surface are dominated by (2×4) unit cells containing only two As dimers. Upon exposure of this surface to TMGa at room temperature, bright oval-shaped features are observed which are centred on the arsenic dimers of the unit cell. These arise from tunnelling from Ga-C bonds of the adsorbed molecules. At low coverages, preferential adsorption on unit cells adjacent to occupied sites along the  direction is observed. A detailed statistical analysis of a large number of adsorption sites shows that there is an increased probability of about 24% for adsorption next to a (2×4) unit cell which is occupied relative to an unoccupied one.
A method is described for the production of collagen constructs formed from densely packed, native-banded collagen fibrils. This “Dense Fibrillar Collagen” is formed by concentrating collagen in situ prior to self assembly of the collagen into fibrils. The effect of altering the pH, ionic strength, and osmolarity of the concentrating solution was measured. Increasing the ionic strength and osmolarity of the concentrating solution increased the burst strength of the constructs; increasing the pH from 3.8 to 7.1 reduced the surface fibrillarity, degree of platelet uptake and “short term in vivo thrombogenicity. This construct is being considered as the basis of a small-caliber vascular prosthesis to support guided tissue regeneration.
The Co/Cu(100) system is the first system known where the contributions to the spin polarisation of spin-orbit coupling and the ferromagnetic overlayer were clearly distinguished experimentally. In order to get a first understanding of the photoemission data non-relativistic spin-polarized photoemission calculations are performed for one and two overlayers of Co on Cu(100).