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An outbreak of acute hepatitis recently occurred in a nursing home in Zhejiang Province, China. The objectives of this study were to confirm the outbreak and identify the aetiology, source and transmission patterns. All residents and staff in or near the nursing home during the period from 1 October 2014 to 21 May 2015 were investigated regarding hygiene and for epidemiological information including water and food (eating meat especially pork products). Serum and stool specimens were collected for detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies using ELISA and RNA using RT–PCR. Samples that were RNA positive were genotyped. Of 185 senior residents and 24 staff in the nursing home, there were 37 laboratory-confirmed cases during the outbreak. Of these cases, 12 patients (three deaths) were symptomatic with jaundice, a common clinical symptom for hepatitis E infection. HEV strains were isolated from three cases and they formed a single cluster within genotype 4d. A case-control study was conducted to investigate potential risk factors for the outbreak and the results revealed that cases more often washed their dishes and rinsed their mouths using tap water than the controls (P < 0·05). Based on hygiene investigation and meteorological information, it is likely that HEV-infected sewage and faeces contaminated the water network on rainy days. Collectively, these results suggest that the outbreak of HEV genotype 4 infection was most likely caused by contaminated tap water rather than food.
This report will try to review briefly the work achieved from 1982 to 1984 in different “subjects to be considered by Commission 31 Time” as adopted in Grenoble 1976. It contains also information provided by Commission members, for which hearty thanks are to be given. The limitation of space required the abbrevation of some institution reports.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
Aberrant functional connectivity within the default network is generally assumed to be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD); however, the genetic risk of default network connectivity in OCD remains largely unknown.
Here, we systematically investigated default network connectivity in 15 OCD patients, 15 paired unaffected siblings and 28 healthy controls. We sought to examine the profiles of default network connectivity in OCD patients and their siblings, exploring the correlation between abnormal default network connectivity and genetic risk for this population.
Compared with healthy controls, OCD patients exhibited reduced strength of default network functional connectivity with the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and increased functional connectivity in the right inferior frontal lobe, insula, superior parietal cortex and superior temporal cortex, while their unaffected first-degree siblings only showed reduced local connectivity in the PCC.
These findings suggest that the disruptions of default network functional connectivity might be associated with family history of OCD. The decreased default network connectivity in both OCD patients and their unaffected siblings may serve as a potential marker of OCD.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
Valuable mechanistic information, about the reaction pathway in the
formation of the 2223 phase, has been obtained by the use of a solution
synthesis route. The presence of lead in the starting mixture has remarkable
effects on the nature and stability of the different intermediates: i) the
grain size and morphology of Bi2CuO4 is severely
changed, ii) calcium carbonate is partially decomposed to yield the calcium
plumbate, iii) the 2201 phase results stabilized against the formation of
the collapsed phase
Bi17Sr16Cu7O49-δ, iv) the
melting point of the intermediate 2212 is lowered by about 10 °C. All these
effects, due to lead substitution, contribute to promote the formation of
the 2223 phase, controlling also the morphology and properties of the final
The non-resonant third order nonlinearity of conjugated polymers appears to
be potentially useful for all-optical devices in waveguide formats.[l,2]
This nonlinearity manifests itself as an intensity-dependent refractive
index which leads to a nonlinear phase shift over some propagation distance.
Device research over the last few years has shown that there are certain
minimum requirements for the nonlinear phase shift that need to be achieved
over one absorption length of the material.[l,3] There are two principal
sources of absorption, the usual linear absorption which is independent of
fluence, and two photon absorption for which the absorption scales linearly
with intensity. Thus the usefulness of a nonlinear material for all-optical
switching devices can be evaluated from a limited number of material
parameters, namely n2 (in n = n0 + n2I
where I is the local intensity), α0 which is the low power
absorption coefficient and β which is the two photon
coefficient (in α = α0 + βI). The problem for a
given material is to identify spectral regions over which the minimum
required phase shift can be achieved.
A variation of the solid-state matrix technique has been developed as a
procedure for the preparation of 2223 bismuth superconducting phases
n=3]. The adequate processing of samples of nominal compositions 2223+x
0021, obtained both by this procedure and by the polymer matrix method, has
allowed the modification of the microstructure of the calcium copper excess,
with no noticeable change in that of the 2223 grains. The study of the phase
evolution in the processing of the samples has shown that the formation rate
of the 2223 phase is faster when the particle size of the calcium cuprate is
smaller. A dependence of the intergranular superconducting properties on the
secondary phase is observed, appearing as a maximum in
Jc0/μcer at x=0.2 and x=0.5 for samples prepared by
solid state matrix and polymer matrix methods, respectively.
The growth temperature and properties of Ge4Sb3Te3 thin films are presented in this paper. The critical growth temperature of Ge4Sb3Te3 is between 300 and 340 °C. The Ge4Sb3Te3 films can only be grown on a substrate below the critical growth temperature. The typical resistivity and carrier density are in the order of 10-4 Ωcm and 1021 cm-3 for crystalline phase. It has a rock salt crystal structure with a lattice constant of 0.602 nm. Ge4Sb3Te3 has a better thermal stability but a lower crystallization speed than Ge2Sb2Te5.
Complex phase transformation between the hexagonal cylinder (Hex) and double gyroid (G) phases in a polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymer was investigated using two-dimensional (2D) synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The PS-b-PEO sample contained a small population of another bicontinuous cubic phase having an Im3m symmetry. These two bicontinuous cubic phases (G and Im3m) had the same unit cell dimensions. Under a large-amplitude reciprocating shear, the bicontinuous cubic phases transformed into a “single-crystal”-like Hex phase. When annealed at 150 °C for 40 min, the Hex phase partially transformed into well-oriented twinned structures of the G and Im3m phases without significant loss of orientation in 2D SAXS measurements. Epitaxial phase transformation relationships between the Hex/G and Hex/ Im3m phases were identified. The mechanism of the Hex → G transformation was examined by TEM.
This article presents current R&D activities at Observatoire de Paris – Laboratoire d'Etude du Rayonnement
et de la Matière en Astrophysique in the fields of low noise mixers and local oscillators for heterodyne instruments dedicated to astrophysics, planetology and the sciences of the atmosphere.
In this paper we describe the preparation, microstructure, and x-ray excited luminescence of vapor-deposited CaWO4 films up to about 50 μm thick, comparing them to particulate CaWO4 phosphor screens, used in medical diagnostic imaging. Films that we e-beam evaporated on substrates heated at or above 500 °C were polycrystalline with the scheelite structure, while on unheated substrates, films were initially amorphous but became crystalline after annealing them in air above about 750 °C. Crystalline CaWO4 films irradiated with x-rays produced light emission peaked at 430 nm. The emission intensity depended on film thickness and grain size and was comparable to particulate CaWO4 phosphor screens. Because the vapor-deposited films also exhibited superior resolution, they are promising for diagnostic x-ray imaging.
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