To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia (COMPASS-ND) cohort study of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) is a national initiative to catalyze research on dementia, set up to support the research agendas of CCNA teams. This cross-country longitudinal cohort of 2310 deeply phenotyped subjects with various forms of dementia and mild memory loss or concerns, along with cognitively intact elderly subjects, will test hypotheses generated by these teams.
The COMPASS-ND protocol, initial grant proposal for funding, fifth semi-annual CCNA Progress Report submitted to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research December 2017, and other documents supplemented by modifications made and lessons learned after implementation were used by the authors to create the description of the study provided here.
The CCNA COMPASS-ND cohort includes participants from across Canada with various cognitive conditions associated with or at risk of neurodegenerative diseases. They will undergo a wide range of experimental, clinical, imaging, and genetic investigation to specifically address the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these conditions in the aging population. Data derived from clinical and cognitive assessments, biospecimens, brain imaging, genetics, and brain donations will be used to test hypotheses generated by CCNA research teams and other Canadian researchers. The study is the most comprehensive and ambitious Canadian study of dementia. Initial data posting occurred in 2018, with the full cohort to be accrued by 2020.
Availability of data from the COMPASS-ND study will provide a major stimulus for dementia research in Canada in the coming years.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) certifies a suite of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) to address specific aspects of the performance of X-ray powder diffraction instruments. This report describes SRM 1879b, the third generation of this powder diffraction SRM. SRM 1879b is intended for use in the preparation of calibration standards for the quantitative analyses of cristobalite by X-ray powder diffraction in accordance with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Analytical Method 7500, or equivalent. A unit of SRM 1879b consists of approximately 5 g of cristobalite powder bottled in an argon atmosphere. It is certified with respect to crystalline phase purity, or amorphous phase content, and lattice parameter. Neutron powder diffraction, both time-of-flight and constant wavelength, was used to certify the phase purity using SRM 676a as an internal standard. A NIST-built diffractometer, incorporating many advanced design features was used for certification measurements for lattice parameters.
Far-UV photons (FUV, E < 13.6 eV) from hot massive stars regulate, or at least influence, the heating, ionization, and chemistry of most of the neutral interstellar medium (H i and H2 clouds). Investigating the interaction between FUV radiation and interstellar matter (molecules, atoms and grains) thus plays an important role in astrochemistry.
The Orion Bar, an interface region between the Orion A molecular cloud and the H ii region around the Trapezium cluster, is a textbook example of a strongly illuminated dense PDR (photodissociation region). The Bar is illuminated by a FUV field of a few 104 times the mean interstellar radiation field. Because of its proximity and nearly edge-on orientation, it provides a very good template to investigate the chemical content, structure, and dynamics of a strongly irradiated molecular cloud edge. We have used ALMA to mosaic a small field of the Bar where the critical transition from atomic to molecular gas takes place. These observations provide an unprecedented sharp view of this transition layer (≲ 1″ resolution or ≲ 414 AU). The resulting images (so far in the rotational emission of CO, HCO+, H13CO+, SO+, SO, and reactive ions SH+ and HOC+) show the small-scale structure in gas density and temperature, and the steep abundance gradients. The images reveal a pattern of high-density substructures, photo-ablative gas flows and instabilities at the edge of the molecular cloud. These first ALMA images thus show a more complex morphology than the classical clump/interclump static model of a PDR.
In order to quantify the chemical content in strongly FUV-irradiated gas, we have also used the IRAM-30 m telescope to carry out a complete line-survey of the illuminated edge of the Bar in the millimeter domain. Our observations reveal the presence of complex organic molecules (and precursors) that were not expected in such a harsh environment. In particular, we have reported the first detection of the unstable cis conformer of formic acid (HCOOH) in the ISM. The energy barrier to internal rotation (the conversion from trans to cis) is approximately 4827 cm−1 (≈7000 K). Hence, this detection is surprising. The low inferred trans-to-cis abundance ratio of 2.8±1.0 supports a photoswitching mechanism: a given conformer absorbs a FUV stellar photon that radiatively excites the molecule to electronic states above the interconversion barrier. Subsequent fluorescent decay leaves the molecule in a different conformer form. This mechanism, which we have specifically studied with ab initio quantum calculations, was not considered so far in astrochemistry although it can affect the structure of a variety of molecules in PDRs.
According to diathesis–stress models, personality traits, such as negative emotionality (NE) and positive emotionality (PE), may moderate the effects of stressors on the development of depression. However, relatively little empirical research has directly examined whether NE and PE act as diatheses in the presence of stressful life events, and no research has examined whether they moderate the effect of disaster exposure on depressive symptoms. Hurricane Sandy, the second costliest hurricane in US history, offers a unique opportunity to address these gaps.
A total of 318 women completed measures of NE and PE 5 years prior to Hurricane Sandy. They were also assessed for lifetime depressive disorders on two occasions, the latter occurring an average of 1 year before the hurricane. Approximately 8 weeks after the disaster (mean = 8.40, s.d. = 1.48 weeks), participants completed a hurricane stress exposure questionnaire and a measure of current depressive symptoms.
Adjusting for lifetime history of depressive disorders, higher levels of stress from Hurricane Sandy predicted elevated levels of depressive symptoms, but only in participants with high levels of NE or low levels of PE.
These findings support the role of personality in the development of depression and suggest that personality traits can be useful in identifying those most vulnerable to major stressors, including natural disasters.
To examine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dietary patterns in adolescents.
Food choice was assessed using the validated New Zealand Adolescent FFQ. Principal components analysis was used to determine dietary patterns. Trained research assistants measured participants’ height and body mass. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed in a subset of participants using the multistage 20 m shuttle run. The level and stage were recorded, and the corresponding VO2max was calculated. Differences in mean VO2max according to sex and BMI were assessed using t tests, while associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and dietary patterns were examined using linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, school attended, socio-economic deprivation and BMI.
Secondary schools in Otago, New Zealand.
Students (n 279) aged 14–18 years who completed an online lifestyle survey during a class period.
Principal components analysis produced three dietary patterns: ‘Treat Foods’, ‘Fruits and Vegetables’ and ‘Basic Foods’. The 279 participants who provided questionnaire data and completed cardiorespiratory fitness testing had a mean age of 15·7 (sd 0·9) years. Mean VO2max was 45·8 (sd 6·9) ml/kg per min. The ‘Fruits and Vegetables’ pattern was positively associated with VO2max in the total sample (β=0·04; 95 %CI 0·02, 0·07), girls (β=0·06; 95 % CI 0·03, 0·10) and boys (β=0·03; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·05).
These results indicate that increase in cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with a healthier dietary pattern, suggesting both should be targeted as part of a global lifestyle approach. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this association in relation to health outcomes in New Zealand adolescents.
To examine the potential associations between diet quality and multiple measures of body composition in a sample of New Zealand adolescents aged 14–18 years.
Cross-sectional survey of eleven high schools in Otago, New Zealand. Each participant completed an online FFQ and a New Zealand Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (NZDQI-A) score was calculated based on variety and adequacy of intake for five major food groups. Besides height and waist circumference measurements, body composition was assessed using segmental bio-impedance analysis. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations between diet quality and body composition in models adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity and socio-economic status.
High schools in Otago, New Zealand.
High-school students (n 681, 56 % male, mean age 16·1 (sd 1·5) years) participating in the Otago School Students Lifestyle Survey Two.
Higher NZDQI-A scores were significantly associated with lower body fat percentage (β=−0·19; 95 % CI −0·35, −0·04; P=0·014), fat-to-lean mass ratio (β=−0·26; 95 % CI −0·46, −0·05; P=0·016) and lower fat mass index (β=−0·23; 95 % CI −0·45, −0·004; P=0·046) after multivariate adjustment. No association was found between NZDQI-A and BMI, waist circumference or waist-to-height ratio.
Diet quality, as measured by NZDQI-A, was associated only with measures of body fat, not measures of overall body size. Measures specific to body fat should be used for more accurate ascertainment of body composition in examining the diet–body composition associations in this age group.
We conducted an experiment to determine whether early-life social learning of feeding site selection in lambs was sex-specific. Sixteen ewes and their new born lambs were used in a controlled experiment. Eight ewe–lamb pairs included a male lamb and the remaining eight a female lamb. All pairs were individually exposed to an experimental arena containing a safe and unsafe artificial feeding site (SFS, UFS) each consisting of nine bowls which contained either ground Bermuda grass hay (SFS) or ground alfalfa hay (UFS). The bowls in UFS were surrounded by bright orange traffic cones (visual cues). Half the ewes were trained with controlled electric shock to avoid UFS. Thus, pairs were randomly assigned to: (1) shock aversion training (SAT) to mothers of male lambs (MS); (2) SAT to mothers of female lambs (FS); (3) no aversion training (NAT, control) to mothers of male lambs (MC); and (4) NAT (control) to mothers of female lambs (FC). None of the lambs were subjected to SAT. During training, testing, extinction, and retraining ewe–lamb pairs were exposed to the arena together. Ewes were then removed from the experiment and two additional extinction phases were conducted with weaned lambs alone. Fear conditioning elicited UFS avoidance of both the trained ewes (means±s.e.m. % times observed in UFS during testing phase: FC=95.3±1.70; MC=94.4±4.87; FS=1.6±1.63; MS=0 ±0; P<0.01) and their naïve lambs (FC=83.8±6.07%; MC=76.6±6.56%; FS=30.4±7.90%; MS=33.9±9.23%; P<0.01). UFS avoidance in lambs occurred regardless of sex and tended to persist after weaning (% times observed in UFS during 1st post-weaning extinction phase: FC=92.6±4.50%; MC=89.8±6.09%; FS=45.1±10.57%; MS=43.5±10.42%; P=0.06). Fear conditioning in mothers appeared to alter sex-related differences in mother–infant behavioral synchrony by increasing and decreasing feeding synchrony of male and female lambs, respectively (FC: r=0.52, P<0.01; MC: r=−0.02, P=0.86; FS: r=0.14, P=0.26; MS: r=0.46, P<0.01). During the extinction phase mothers of ram lambs were observed feeding more often (FC=85.0±2.33%; MC=92.7±1.45%; FS=47.3±8.81%; MS=72±5.68%; P=0.02) and standing less often than ewes with daughters (FC=7.3±2.40%; MC=2.7±0.83%; FS=39.3±9.04%; MS=18.0±5.29%; P=0.06). This study suggests that social conditioning at an early age could be a viable tool to induce learning of feeding site avoidance in female and male lambs alike.
To date many studies have measured the effect of key child survival interventions on the main cause of mortality while anecdotally reporting effects on all-cause mortality. We conducted a systematic literature review and abstracted cause-specific and all-cause mortality data from included studies. We then estimated the effect of the intervention on the disease of primary interest and calculated the additional deaths prevented (i.e. the indirect effect). We calculated that insecticide-treated nets have been shown to result in a 12% reduction [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·0–23] among non-malaria deaths. We found pneumonia case management to reduce non-pneumonia mortality by 20% (95% CI 8–22). For measles vaccine, seven of the 10 studies reporting an effect on all-cause mortality demonstrated an additional benefit of vaccine on all-cause mortality. These interventions may have benefits on causes of death beyond the specific cause of death they are targeted to prevent and this should be considered when evaluating the effects of implementation of interventions.
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy remains common in many countries. Exposure to even low amounts of alcohol (i.e. ethanol) in pregnancy can lead to the heterogeneous fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), while heavy alcohol consumption can result in the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FAS is characterized by cerebral dysfunction, growth restriction and craniofacial malformations. However, the effects of lower doses of alcohol during pregnancy, such as those that lead to FASD, are less well understood. In this article, we discuss the findings of recent studies performed in our laboratories on the effects of fetal alcohol exposure using sheep, in which we investigated the effects of late gestational alcohol exposure on the developing brain, arteries, kidneys, heart and lungs. Our studies indicate that alcohol exposure in late gestation can (1) affect cerebral white matter development and increase the risk of hemorrhage in the fetal brain, (2) cause left ventricular hypertrophy with evidence of altered cardiomyocyte maturation, (3) lead to a decrease in nephron number in the kidney, (4) cause altered arterial wall stiffness and endothelial and smooth muscle function and (5) result in altered surfactant protein mRNA expression, surfactant phospholipid composition and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in the lung. These findings suggest that fetal alcohol exposure in late gestation can affect multiple organs, potentially increasing the risk of disease and organ dysfunction in later life.
To describe the identification, management, and clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) during the peak period of activity of the 2009 pandemic strain of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (2009 H1N1).
Retrospective review of electronic medical records.
Patients and Setting.
Hospitalized patients who presented to the emergency department during the period October 18 through November 14, 2009, at 4 hospitals in Cook County, Illinois, with the capacity to perform real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing for influenza.
Vital signs and notes recorded within 1 calendar day after emergency department arrival were reviewed for signs and symptoms consistent with ILI. Cases of ILI were classified as recognized by healthcare providers if an influenza test was performed or if influenza was mentioned as a possible diagnosis in the physician notes. Logistic regression was used to determine the patient attributes and symptoms that were associated with ILI recognition and with influenza infection.
We identified 460 ILI case patients, of whom 412 (90%) had ILI recognized by healthcare providers, 389 (85%) were placed under airborne or droplet isolation precautions, and 243 (53%) were treated with antiviral medication. Of 401 ILI case patients tested for influenza, 91 (23%) had a positive result. Fourteen (3%) ILI case patients and none of the case patients who tested positive for influenza had sore throat in the absence of cough.
Healthcare providers identified a high proportion of hospitalized ILI case patients. Further improvements in disease detection can be made through the use of advanced electronic health records and efficient diagnostic tests. Future studies should evaluate the inclusion of sore throat in the ILI case definition.
Describe the clinical and molecular epidemiology of incident Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) cases in Chicago area acute healthcare facilities (HCFs).
Design and Setting.
Laboratory, clinical, and epidemiologic information was collected for patients with incident CDI who were admitted to acute HCFs in February 2009. Stool cultures and restriction endonuclease analysis typing of the recovered C. difficile isolates was performed.
Two hundred sixty-three patients from 25 acute HCFs.
Acute HCF rates ranged from 2 to 7 patients with CDI per 10,000 patient-days. The crude mortality rate was 8%, with 20 deaths occurring in patients with CDI. Forty-two (16%) patients had complications from CDI, including 4 patients who required partial, subtotal, or total colectomy, 3 of whom died. C. difficile was isolated and typed from 129 of 178 available stool specimens. The BI strain was identified in 79 (61%) isolates. Of patients discharged to long-term care who had their isolate typed, 36 (67%) had BI-associated CDI.
Severe disease was common and crude mortality was substantial among patients with CDI in Chicago area acute HCFs in February 2009. The outbreak-associated BI strain was the predominant endemic strain identified, accounting for nearly two-thirds of cases. Focal HCF outbreaks were not reported, despite the presence of the BI strain. Transfer of patients between acute and long-term HCFs may have contributed to the high incidence of BI cases in this investigation.
We report an outbreak associated with a dinner cruise on Lake Michigan. This took place on the same day as heavy rainfall, which resulted in 42·4 billion liters of rainwater and storm runoff containing highly diluted sewage being released into the lake. Of 72 cruise participants, 41 (57%) reported gastroenteritis. Stool specimens were positive for Shigella sonnei (n=3), Giardia (n=3), and Cryptosporidium (n=2). Ice consumption was associated with illness (risk ratio 2·2, P=0·011). S. sonnei was isolated from a swab obtained from the one of the boat's ice bins. Environmental inspection revealed conditions and equipment that could have contributed to lake water contaminating the hose used to load potable water onto the boat. Knowledge of water holding and distribution systems on boats, and of potential risks associated with flooding and the release of diluted sewage into large bodies of water, is crucial for public health guidance regarding recreational cruises.
The spin polarization of Sb overlayers on the semi-Heusler alloy NiMnSb is investigated in terms of the Landau-Ginzburg approach. The half-metallic semi-Heusler alloy NiMnSb acts as a ferromagnetic perturbation and induces a spin polarization in the semimetallic Sb overlayer. Using a Gaussian approximation, the propagation of the spin perturbation in the overlayer is calculated. The results are compared with spin-polarized inverse photoemission spectroscopy (SPIPES) results and with recent spin-dependent envelope-function approximation (SDEFA) predictions. The Landau-Ginzburg parameters are both band-structure and temperature dependent, and it is argued that thermal spin excitations lead to an injection depth decreasing as 1//T law at high temperatures.
The ferromagnetic bulk metallic glass (BMG) Nd60Fe30Al10system exhibits extremely large coercivities at low temperature and moderate coercivities near room temperature. The magnetic hardness, as best evidenced by the onset of magnetic irreversibility, was studied in bulk suction-cast and melt-spun alloys with the nominal composition Nd60Fe30Al10. Systematic x-ray diffraction studies of the degree of crystallinity performed as a function of position within the bulk suction-cast samples is found to correlate with the variation in the room-temperature magnetic hysteresis character. X-ray diffraction data clearly shows the presence of both crystallites and amorphous material on the samples' outmost surfaces; the amorphous phase content increases with distance into the cast sample. These results underscore the importance of solidification conditions and attendant nanophase selection, on the resultant magnetic properties of this class of alloys.
Electrochemical deposition of FeCo alloys with 1:1 atomic ratio has proved difficult due to cracking from high stress. By using a sulfamate electrolyte and optimizing other deposition parameters, we successfully electrodeposited high quality FeCo films of 20-25 mm in thickness and 7 mm in diameter. Using a suspension of hard oxide nanoparticles (25 nm TiO2) in the electrolyte, we produced oxide-dispersion-strengthened FeCo/TiO2 nanocomposite films with large grains. Enhanced strength was observed from these nanocomposites relative to pure FeCo alloys as determined from Knoop hardness measurements. In order to further improve the ductility of the alloys, vanadium has been codeposited with FeCo. Some preliminary results of FeCoV alloy deposition are reported.
When two magnetic films are separated by a nonmagnetic film, pinholes in the nonmagnetic film can allow direct contact and, thereby, direct magnetic exchange coupling between the two magnetic films. We have studied this coupling by having one of the magnetic films pinned and leaving the other free to switch at low field. The pinning is accomplished with test structures based on exchange bias and synthetic antiferromagnetic layers. Since the pinning strength increases sharply at low temperatures but orange-peel coupling does not, low-temperature (77 K) measurements appear to identify whether an observed coupling arises primarily from magnetic coupling through pinholes or primarily from orange-peel roughness. Our measurements appear to indicate that the observed coupling arises primarily from magnetic coupling through pinholes for Cu films less than 2.1 nm thick and for Al2O3films less than 0.6 nm thick but primarily from roughness-induced (orange-peel) magnetostatic coupling for larger thicknesses.
Electrons traverse two-dimensional nanocrystal arrays by sequential tunneling between neighboring nanocrystals. Analysis of array conductance at zero bias-voltage gives information about underlying nanocrystal uniformity, as well as the relevant single-electron charging energy. We discuss low-temperature measurements of two-dimensional self-assembled superlattices composed of 10 nanometer diameter cobalt nanocrystals, with ∼2 nm inter-nanocrystal spacing.
For efficient and effective medical responses to mass casualty events, detailed advanced planning is required. For federal responders, this is an ongoing responsibility. The US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) prepares playbooks with formal, written plans that are reviewed, updated, and exercised regularly. Recognizing that state and local responders with fewer resources may be helped in creating their own event-specific response plans, subject matter experts from the range of sectors comprising the Scarce Resources for a Nuclear Detonation Project, provided for this first time a state and local planner's playbook template for responding to a nuclear detonation. The playbook elements are adapted from DHHS playbooks with appropriate modification for state and local planners. Individualization by venue is expected, reflecting specific assets, populations, geography, preferences, and expertise. This playbook template is designed to be a practical tool with sufficient background information and options for step-by-step individualized planning and response.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2011;5:S89-S97)