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Medical equipment can transmit pathogenic bacteria to patients. This single-institution point prevalence study aimed to characterise the types and relative amount of bacteria found on surgical loupes, headlights and their battery packs.
Surgical loupes, headlights and battery packs of 16 otolaryngology staff and residents were sampled, cultured and quantified. Plate scores were summed for each equipment type, and the total was divided by the number of users to generate mean bacterial burden scores. Residents completed a questionnaire regarding their equipment cleaning practices.
The contamination rates of loupes, headlights and battery packs were 68.75 per cent, 100 per cent and 75 per cent, respectively. Battery packs cultured more bacteria (1.58 per swab ± 1.00) than loupes (0.75 per swab ± 0.66; p = 0.024). Headlights had non-significantly greater growth (1.50 per swab ± 0.71) than loupes (p = 0.052). Bacterial growth was significantly higher from inner surfaces of loupes (p = 0.035) and headlights (p = 0.037). Potentially pathogenic bacteria were cultured from the equipment of five participants, including: Pantoea agglomerans, Acinetobacter radioresistens, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus baumannii complex and Moraxella osloensis.
This study demonstrates that surgical loupes and headlights used in otolaryngology harbour non-pathogenic skin flora and potentially pathogenic bacteria.
Objectives: A rich body of literature has established the role of body image distortion and dissatisfaction in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. However, many of the currently used techniques require explicit comparison of the person’s body to an external stimulus. As the body schema is a largely unconscious construct, explicit comparison tasks may reflect a proxy, rather than the body schema itself. Methods: Here we use an implicit mental motor imagery (MMI) task to interrogate the body schema in healthy control participants (N=40) and participants at a residential eating disorder treatment center (N=42). By comparing the time it takes to imagine making a movement along a part of the body to the time it takes to actually make the same movement, we were able to assess participants’ mental image of their body (i.e., body schema). Results: We found that participants with eating disorders, but not healthy controls, exhibited distortions of the body schema such that they believed their abdomen, buttocks, and thighs to be larger than they really are. Additionally, the MMI task used here provided information above and beyond traditional self-report measures (i.e., Body Shape Questionnaire). Together the MMI task and traditional measures provide the most information. Conclusions: Findings using the novel MMI task are in line with the literature; participants with eating disorders consider themselves to be larger than they truly are. Taken together, results of this study suggest that MMI tasks provide complementary information to traditional self-report measures. (JINS, 2018, 22, 000–000)
The Working Party has produced this report in order to prompt readers to engage at an early stage in InsurTech projects, through considering (i) the full range of risks associated with InsurTech developments, (ii) the lifecycle of an InsurTech venture and how any risk considerations may vary over this lifecycle and (iii) the extent to which InsurTech ventures align with risk strategy and risk appetite.
The report contains practical guidance for actuaries, risk professionals, insurance companies and their Boards on these considerations, and can be used to facilitate appropriate questioning, to help ensure that InsurTech-related business decisions are fully cognisant of the risk management issues and to help ensure the success of projects.
The Working Party developed this guidance having carried out an industry survey on a number of risk management topics relating to InsurTech, as well as having carried out interviews with a number of relevant senior stakeholders across the insurance industry, in order to better understand current sentiment and how risk management plays a part when considering opportunities in InsurTech. The Working Party views on the findings from these activities are summarised in the report.
On 30 May 2012, Surrey and Sussex Health Protection Unit was called by five nurseries reporting children and staff with sudden onset vomiting approximately an hour after finishing their lunch that day. Over the following 24 h 50 further nurseries supplied by the same company reported cases of vomiting (182 children, 18 staff affected). Epidemiological investigations were undertaken in order to identify the cause of the outbreak and prevent further cases. Investigations demonstrated a nursery-level attack rate of 55 out of 87 nurseries (63·2%, 95% confidence interval 52·2–73·3). Microbiological tests confirmed the presence of Bacillus cereus in food and environmental samples from the catering company and one nursery. This was considered microbiologically and epidemiologically consistent with toxin from this bacterium causing the outbreak. Laboratory investigations showed that the conditions used by the caterer for soaking of pearl haricot beans (known as navy bean in the USA) used in one of the foods supplied to the nurseries prior to cooking, was likely to have provided sufficient growth and toxin production of B. cereus to cause illness. This large outbreak demonstrates the need for careful temperature control in food preparation.
We report optically active ensembles of II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals prepared via chiral phase transfer, which is initiated by exchange of the original achiral ligands capping the nanocrystals surfaces for chiral L- and D-cysteine. We used this method to obtain ensembles of CdSe, CdS, ZnS:Mn, and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and CdSe/CdS quantum rods exhibited Circular Dichroism (CD) and Circularly Polarized Luminescence (CPL) signals. The optically active nanocrystals revealed the CD and CPL bands strongly correlated with absorption and luminescence bands with unique band “pattern” for each material and the nanocrystal shape.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
We present the results of a programme of scanning and mapping observations of astronomical masers and Jupiter designed to characterise the performance of the Mopra Radio Telescope at frequencies between 16 and 50 GHz using the 12-mm and 7-mm receivers. We use these observations to determine the telescope beam size, beam shape, and overall telescope beam efficiency as a function of frequency. We find that the beam size is well fit by λ/D over the frequency range with a correlation coefficient of ∼90%. We determine the telescope main beam efficiencies are between ∼48 and 64% for the 12-mm receiver and reasonably flat at ∼50% for the 7-mm receiver. Beam maps of strong H2O (22 GHz) and SiO masers (43 GHz) provide a means to examine the radial beam pattern of the telescope. At both frequencies, the radial beam pattern reveals the presence of three components: a central ‘core’, which is well fit by a Gaussian and constitutes the telescopes main beam; and inner and outer error beams. At both frequencies, the inner and outer error beams extend out to ∼2 and ∼3.4 times the full-width half maximum of the main beam, respectively. Sources with angular sizes of a factor of two or more larger than the telescope main beam will couple to the main and error beams, and therefore the power contributed by the error beams needs to be considered. From measurements of the radial beam power pattern we estimate the amount of power contained in the inner and outer error beams is of order one-fifth at 22 GHz, rising slightly to one-third at 43 GHz.
The H2O Southern Galactic Plane Survey (HOPS) has observed 100 deg2 of the Galactic plane, using the Mopra radio telescope to search for emission from multiple spectral lines in the 12-mm band (19.5–27.5 GHz). Perhaps the most important of these spectral lines is the 22.2-GHz water-maser transition. We describe the methods used to identify water-maser candidates and subsequent confirmation of the sources. Our methods involve a simple determination of likely candidates by searching peak emission maps, utilising the intrinsic nature of water-maser emission, spatially unresolved and spectrally narrow-lined. We estimate completeness limits and compare our method with results from the duchamp source finder. We find that the two methods perform similarly. We conclude that the similarity in performance is due to the intrinsic limitation of the noise characteristics of the data. The advantages of our method are that it is slightly more efficient in eliminating spurious detections and is simple to implement. The disadvantage is that it is a manual method of finding sources and so is not practical on datasets much larger than HOPS, or for datasets with extended emission that needs to be characterised. We outline a two-stage method for the most efficient means of finding masers, using duchamp.
Recent data provide strong support for a substantial common polygenic contribution (i.e. many alleles each of small effect) to genetic susceptibility for schizophrenia and overlapping susceptibility for bipolar disorder.
To test hypotheses about the relationship between schizophrenia and psychotic types of bipolar disorder.
Using a polygenic score analysis to test whether schizophrenia polygenic risk alleles, en masse, significantly discriminate between individuals with bipolar disorder with and without psychotic features. The primary sample included 1829 participants with bipolar disorder and the replication sample comprised 506 people with bipolar disorder.
The subset of participants with Research Diagnostic Criteria schizoaffective bipolar disorder (n = 277) were significantly discriminated from the remaining participants with bipolar disorder (n = 1552) in both the primary (P = 0.00059) and the replication data-sets (P = 0.0070). In contrast, those with psychotic bipolar disorder as a whole were not significantly different from those with non-psychotic bipolar disorder in either data-set.
Genetic susceptibility influences at least two major domains of psychopathological variation in the schizophrenia–bipolar disorder clinical spectrum: one that relates to expression of a ‘bipolar disorder-like’ phenotype and one that is associated with expression of ‘schizophrenia-like’ psychotic symptoms.
A fermentation-inhibition test for the measurement of growth-inhibiting anti-body to acid-producing mycoplasmas was performed in microtitre plastic plates. M. pneumoniae, M. fermentans and the Negroni agent were selected for study. Antibody could be titrated since specific antiserum inhibited mycoplasma growth and the concomitant production of acid, thus preventing a change in colour of phenol red which was incorporated in the growth medium. It was essential to use unheated horse serum as a component of the growth medium. The inhibitory effect of specific antiserum was much decreased when the horse serum was heat-inacti-vated, indicating the need for a heat-labile accessory factor. The additional use of unheated guinea-pig serum was essential for demonstrating the growth-inhibiting effect of specific antiserum on the Negroni agent. The test was reproducible, specific and sensitive. Sixteen-fold or greater antibody rises were demonstrated in paired sera from volunteers infected with M. pneumoniae. Tests with ninety-five random adult sera showed that 22% had antibody to M. pneumoniae at a titre of 1/5 or more and 13–5% had antibody to M. fermentans.
Methanol maser emission has proven to be an excellent signpost of regions undergoing massive star formation (MSF). To investigate their role as an evolutionary tracer, we have recently completed a large observing program with the ATCA to derive the dynamical and physical properties of molecular/ionised gas towards a sample of MSF regions traced by 6.7GHz methanol maser emission. We find that the molecular gas in many of these regions breaks up into multiple sub-clumps which we separate into groups based on their association with/without methanol maser and cm continuum emission. The temperature and dynamic state of the molecular gas is markedly different between the groups. Based on these differences, we attempt to assess the evolutionary state of the cores in the groups and thus investigate the role of class II methanol masers as a tracer of MSF.
We show initial results from our ongoing HST/ACS GHOSTS survey of the resolved stellar envelopes of 14 nearby, massive disk galaxies. In hierarchical galaxy formation the stellar halos and thick disks of galaxies are formed by accretion of minor satellites and therefore contain valuable information about the (early) assembly process of galaxies. We detect for the first time the very small halo of NGC 4244, a low mass edge-on galaxy. We find that massive galaxies have very extended halos, with equivalent surface brightnesses of 28-29 V-mag arcsec−2 at 20-30 kpc from the disk. The old RGB stars of the thick disk in the NGC 891 and NGC 4244 edge-on galaxies truncate at the same radius as the young thin disk stars, providing insights into the formation of both disk truncations and thick disks. We furthermore present the stellar populations of a very low surface brightness stream around M83, the first such a stream resolved into stars beyond those of the Milky Way and M31.
Massive stars begin their lives in cold, dense cores which are much more massive than the stars which form in them. We summarise the results of a program to find the earliest examples of massive star formation, and to examine the evolutionary sequence of events that occurs as such a star begins to form and heat its surroundings. Methanol maser emission has proved to be a particularly potent tool to locate such cores, though there are also clearly many massive cores which do not exhibit such maser emission. Our program began with a survey for 6.6 GHz methanol maser emission, but expanded to include dust continuum surveys in the mm and sub–mm, a survey for hot molecular cores associated with ‘isolated’ masers through mm-line CH3CN emission, and follow-up probing of some cores through sub-arcsecond, diffraction limited observations in the mid–IR. This program is outlined below.
We describe a programme that aims to increase the known sample of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) by an order of magnitude. About 2000 candidates colour-selected from the MSX survey are being followed up at radio, mm and IR wavelengths to identify genuine MYSOs from the UCHII regions and other contaminants. Results so far indicate that the strategy does indeed deliver a significant fraction of luminous YSOs that will provide the basis for future galaxy-wide systematic studies.
Full canopy closure and light interception are critical to obtaining full yield potential of ultra-short–season soybean in the midsouthern United States. We hypothesized that herbicide applications that resulted in soybean leaf injury would reduce season-long light interception and yield of ultra-short–season soybean grown in this environment. Experiments were conducted in 2001, 2002, and 2003 at Fayetteville, AR, to determine the effect of the diphenylether herbicides acifluorfen and lactofen on light interception and yield of maturity group (MG) 0 and II soybean. Factors evaluated included soybean MG, herbicide rate, treatment timing, and soybean seeding density. When applied at soybean growth stage (GS) V3, 0.2 kg ai/ha lactofen reduced green leaf area immediately after application and final canopy closure relative to soybean treated with 0.6 or 0.2 kg/ha acifluorfen and untreated soybean. Herbicide application did not affect yield of well-watered soybean when applied at GS V3 in 2001 or at early reproductive development in 2003. In 2002, an irrigation problem resulted in a period of water-deficit stress during seed fill of MG II soybean. Under these conditions, treatment with acifluorfen at GS V3 reduced soybean yield, and treatment with lactofen during early reproductive development reduced soybean yield, relative to untreated soybean. This research indicates that diphenylether herbicides can be safely applied to well-watered ultra-short–season soybean, but yield reduction can occur when applied to soybean that is not well watered.
Research suggests that exposure to extreme stress in childhood, such as domestic violence, affects children's neurocognitive development, leading to lower intelligence. But studies have been unable to account for genetic influences that might confound the association between domestic violence and lower intelligence. This twin study tested whether domestic violence had environmentally mediated effects on young children's intelligence. Children's IQs were assessed for a population sample of 1116 monozygotic and dizygotic 5-year-old twin pairs in England. Mothers reported their experience of domestic violence in the previous 5 years. Ordinary least squares regression showed that domestic violence was uniquely associated with IQ suppression in a dose–response relationship. Children exposed to high levels of domestic violence had IQs that were, on average, 8 points lower than unexposed children. Structural equation models showed that adult domestic violence accounted for 4% of the variation, on average, in child IQ, independent of latent genetic influences. The findings are consistent with animal experiments and human correlational studies documenting the harmful effects of extreme stress on brain development. Programs that successfully reduce domestic violence should also have beneficial effects on children's cognitive development.