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The purpose of this study was to examine whether vehicle type based on size (car vs. other = truck/van/SUV) had an impact on the speeding, acceleration, and braking patterns of older male and female drivers (70 years and older) from a Canadian longitudinal study. The primary hypothesis was that older adults driving larger vehicles (e.g., trucks, SUVs, or vans) would be more likely to speed than those driving cars. Participants (n = 493) had a device installed in their vehicles that recorded their everyday driving. The findings suggest that the type of vehicle driven had little or no impact on per cent of time speeding or on the braking and accelerating patterns of older drivers. Given that the propensity for exceeding the speed limit was high among these older drivers, regardless of vehicle type, future research should examine what effect this behaviour has on older-driver road safety.
Residential instability, including transience (i.e. unusually frequent mobility), is associated with higher risk for emotional and behavioural problems in children and young adults. However, most studies have not compared the effect of recent v. more distal moves on mental health or on mental health treatment. This study examined associations between recent (past year) and distal (past 2–4 years) residential transience and past year major depressive episode (MDE) and mental health treatment in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents aged 12–17.
Data are from the 2010–2014 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (n = ~107 300 adolescents). T-tests were used to examine the prevalence of MDE by number of moves in the past 5 years among a nationally representative sample of adolescents. Additionally, multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the adjusted association between recent (⩾2 moves in the past year) and distal (⩾4 moves in the past 5 years, but no recent transience) and (1) past year MDE and (2) past year mental health treatment among adolescents with MDE.
MDE prevalence increased linearly with number of moves in the past 5 years (p < 0.001). The adjusted odds of MDE were greater among youths with distal transience (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09–1.44) and among those with proximal transience (AOR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.17–1.46), compared with those without transience in the past 5 years. The MDE prevalence did not differ between those with distal and proximal transience (p = 0.163). In youths with past year MDE, the prevalence of past year mental health treatment was greater among those with proximal transience compared with those without transience (AOR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.15–1.70), but there was no significant difference in treatment among those with distal v. no transience.
Distal and recent transience are associated with past year MDE among adolescents. Adolescents with MDE who had recent transience were more likely to receive past year mental health treatment compared with those without transience. However, those with only distal transience were not more likely to receive treatment. Parents, school officials and health care providers should be aware that residential mobility in the past 5 years may indicate increased odds of depression among adolescents even among adolescents whose housing stability has improved in the past year.
Largely absent from US criminal sentencing since the early 1800s, shame penalties have been staging a comeback. This revival has been met by a number of debates among legal scholars, one of which centers on the potential for such penalties to reduce crime. This study addresses this debate by investigating the impact of formal shaming on drunk driving and alcohol-related traffic safety in Ohio. In accordance with the Traffic Law Reform Act of 2004, judges have since been mandated to issue “restricted plates” to certain first-time and all repeat DUI offenders with limited driving privileges. Results indicate a curvilinear association between punishment levels and drunk driving. Increases in the certainty and visibility of plates are associated with decreases in suspension rates, but there is a point at which increasing the punishment level no longer retains its intended impact. In addition, levels of punishment are unrelated to alcohol-related traffic safety.
With brown adipose tissue (BAT) becoming a possible therapeutic target to counteract obesity, the prenatal environment could represent a critical window to modify BAT function and browning of white AT. We investigated if levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and UCP1-mediated thermogenesis are altered in offspring exposed to prenatal obesity. Female CD-1 mice were fed a high-fat (HF) or standard-fat (SF) diet for 3 months before breeding. After weaning, all pups were placed on SF. UCP1 mRNA and protein levels were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively, in brown (BAT), subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissues at 6 months of age. Total and UCP1-dependent mitochondrial respiration were determined by high-resolution respirometry. A Student’s t-test and Mann–Whitney test were used (significance: P<0.05). UCP1 mRNA levels were not different between the HF and SF offspring. UCP1 protein levels, total mitochondrial respiration and UCP1-dependent respiration were significantly higher in BAT from HF males (P=0.02, P=0.04, P=0.005, respectively) and females (P=0.01, P=0.04, P=0.02, respectively). In SAT, the UCP1 protein was significantly lower in HF females (P=0.03), and the UCP1-dependent thermogenesis was significantly lower from HF males (P=0.04). In VAT, UCP1 protein levels and UCP1-dependent respiration were significantly lower only in HF females (P=0.03, P=0.04, respectively). There were no differences in total respiration in SAT and VAT. Prenatal exposure to maternal obesity leads to significant increases in UCP1 levels and function in BAT in offspring with little impact on UCP1 levels and function in SAT and VAT.
Holstein-Friesian cattle are the predominant breed of dairy cattle in Northern Ireland. Breeding programmes for the Holstein Friesian have focused on improved milk production with little emphasis on functional traits such as fertility or disease resistance. In contrast Norwegian dairy cattle have been bred via a multi-trait selection procedure and there is evidence that problems associated with disease and fertility have tended to decrease in recent years. It is important, however, to investigate possible differences in efficiency of food use and partitioning of nutrients between the two breeds which may offset the potential advantages of improvements in secondary characteristics. Consequently, the objectives of this experiment were firstly to investigate the effects of breed type on the efficiency of utilization and partitioning of nutrients for milk production and secondly to investigate if there are differences in the energy requirement for maintenance and the efficiency of utilization of ME for lactation (kl) between the two breeds.
San Pietro and Rittenberg (1953) reported that urea appeared to meet all the requirements of a satisfactory tracer. Urea is non toxic, not foreign to the body and it shows an even and rapid distribution throughout the total body water without any physiological effect. For these reasons in addition to its easy and accurate measurement, urea is an ideal candidate tracer to estimate empty body water in vivo. Total body water volume (urea space) can be estimated by dividing the total amount of urea infused by the increase in plasma urea concentration from prior to infusion until 12 or 30 minutes after mean infusion time. Kock and Preston (1973) reported significant relationships between urea space measurements and percentage of empty body fat and water in cattle. However, Andrew et al. (1995) using 21 Holstein cows showed that prediction of empty body water using the urea space technique only explained 31 % of the variation. The objective of this experiment was to use the urea dilution technique to estimate the body composition of lactating dairy cows and produce relationships between urea space and body fat and protein content.
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism Met allele exacerbates amyloid (Aβ) related decline in episodic memory (EM) and hippocampal volume (HV) over 36–54 months in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the extent to which Aβ+ and BDNF Val66Met is related to circulating markers of BDNF (e.g. serum) is unknown. We aimed to determine the effect of Aβ and the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on levels of serum mBDNF, EM, and HV at baseline and over 18-months.
Non-demented older adults (n = 446) underwent Aβ neuroimaging and BDNF Val66Met genotyping. EM and HV were assessed at baseline and 18 months later. Fasted blood samples were obtained from each participant at baseline and at 18-month follow-up. Aβ PET neuroimaging was used to classify participants as Aβ– or Aβ+.
At baseline, Aβ+ adults showed worse EM impairment and lower serum mBDNF levels relative to Aβ- adults. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism did not affect serum mBDNF, EM, or HV at baseline. When considered over 18-months, compared to Aβ– Val homozygotes, Aβ+ Val homozygotes showed significant decline in EM and HV but not serum mBDNF. Similarly, compared to Aβ+ Val homozygotes, Aβ+ Met carriers showed significant decline in EM and HV over 18-months but showed no change in serum mBDNF.
While allelic variation in BDNF Val66Met may influence Aβ+ related neurodegeneration and memory loss over the short term, this is not related to serum mBDNF. Longer follow-up intervals may be required to further determine any relationships between serum mBDNF, EM, and HV in preclinical AD.
Isoglacihypses depicting the configuration of the glaciation threshold (= “glaciation limit”) in Washington broadly parallel the crest of the Cascade Range and curve around the west and south flanks of the Olympic Mountains. In both uplands the glaciation threshold rises inland (eastward) with a mean gradient of 10-12 m/km. However, the gradient in the Cascades is more variable (7-25 m/km) due to five east-trending troughs in the glaciation threshold surface that coincide with topographic depressions along the range crest and that apparently result from greater eastward penetration of moist maritime air.
Mean accumulation-season precipitation correlates strongly (r2 = 0.86) with altitude of the glaciation threshold in the North Cascade Range, but the correlation of glaciation threshold with altitude of the July freezing isotherm, determined from the calculated July lapse rate within the mountains, is much weaker (r2 = 0.40). Multiple regression analysis relating independent climatic variables that affect the height of the glaciation threshold indicates that 90.4% of variance is explained by accumulation-season precipitation and estimated mean annual temperature at the glaciation threshold.
The glaciation threshold during the greatest ice advance of the last (Fraser) glaciation in the southern North Cascade Range (c. 18 000-22 000 years B.P.) was 900 ± 100 m below that of the present. Depression of the glaciation threshold by this amount most likely resulted from a change in accumulation-season precipitation of no more than 30% from present values and a decrease in mean ablation-season temperature of 5-5 ± 1.5 deg.
To measure transmission frequencies and risk factors for household acquisition of community-associated and healthcare-associated (HA-) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
Prospective cohort study from October 4, 2008, through December 3, 2012.
Seven acute care hospitals in or near Toronto, Canada.
Total of 99 MRSA-colonized or MRSA-infected case patients and 183 household contacts.
Baseline interviews were conducted, and surveillance cultures were collected monthly for 3 months from household members, pets, and 8 prespecified high-use environmental locations. Isolates underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing.
Overall, of 183 household contacts 89 (49%) were MRSA colonized, with 56 (31%) detected at baseline. MRSA transmission from index case to contacts negative at baseline occurred in 27 (40%) of 68 followed-up households. Strains were identical within households. The transmission risk for HA-MRSA was 39% compared with 40% (P=.95) for community-associated MRSA. HA-MRSA index cases were more likely to be older and not practice infection control measures (P=.002–.03). Household acquisition risk factors included requiring assistance and sharing bath towels (P=.001–.03). Environmental contamination was identified in 78 (79%) of 99 households and was more common in HA-MRSA households.
Household transmission of community-associated and HA-MRSA strains was common and the difference in transmission risk was not statistically significant.
Because polarization encodes geometrical information about unresolved scattering regions, it provides a unique tool for analyzing the 3-D structures of supernovae (SNe) and their surroundings. SNe of all types exhibit time-dependent spectropolarimetric signatures produced primarily by electron scattering. These signatures reveal physical phenomena such as complex velocity structures, changing illumination patterns, and asymmetric morphologies within the ejecta and surrounding material. Interpreting changes in polarization over time yields unprecedentedly detailed information about supernovae, their progenitors, and their evolution.
Begun in 2012, the SNSPOL Project continues to amass the largest database of time-dependent spectropolarimetric data on SNe. I present an overview of the project and its recent results. In the future, combining such data with interpretive radiative transfer models will further constrain explosion mechanisms and processes that shape SN ejecta, uncover new relationships among SN types, and probe the properties of progenitor winds and circumstellar material.