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Circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) is related to decreased rates of gastrointestinal and ear infections in school-age children. Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) transports 25(OH)D and exerts immunological functions; however, it is unknown whether DBP is associated with infectious morbidity in children. We quantified plasma DBP concentrations in 540 school-age children at the time of recruitment into a cohort study in Bogotá, Colombia and obtained daily information on infectious morbidity symptoms and doctor visits during the school year. We compared the incidence rates of gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms across quartiles of DBP concentration by estimating adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI). We also estimated the per cent of the associations between DBP and morbidity that were mediated through 25(OH)D using a counterfactual frame. Mean ± s.d. DBP concentration was 2650 ± 1145 nmol/l. DBP was inversely associated with the rates of diarrhoea with vomiting (IRR for quartiles 2–4 vs. 1 = 0.48; 95% CI 0.25–0.92; P = 0.03) and earache/ear discharge with fever (IRR for quartiles 2–4 vs. 1 = 0.29; 95% CI 0.12–0.71; P = 0.006). The DBP–morbidity associations were not mediated through 25(OH)D. We conclude that plasma DBP predicts lower incidence of gastrointestinal and ear infections in school-age children independent of 25(OH)D.
Biomass production is a diagnosis tool for the evaluation of the effect of climate, crop genomic and management. The differences in biomass accumulation are necessary for the assessment of the fertilization necessities in the strategies for variable nitrogen doses. Remote sensing-based data provide a direct observation of the differences in canopy development across time and space and can be integrated into the physiological basis of crop growth models to provide estimates of biomass production at fine scales. The proposed approach was applied in a wheat field in Albacete, Spain and the results were compared with measurements of aboveground biomass and yield maps obtained by a combined-mounted grain yield monitor.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
In a 1-year survey at a university hospital we found that 20·6% (81/392) of patients with antibiotic associated diarrohea where positive for C. difficile. The most common PCR ribotypes were 012 (14·8%), 027 (12·3%), 046 (12·3%) and 014/020 (9·9). The incidence rate was 2·6 cases of C. difficile infection for every 1000 outpatients.
Otolith microstructure analysis was used to reveal daily growth patterns of young-of-the year (YOY) of six species of perciform fishes, Bovichtus chilensis (Bovichtidae), Girella laevifrons and Graus nigra (Kyphosidae), Helcogrammoides chilensis (Tripterygiidae) and Hypsoblennius sordidus and Scartichthys viridis (Blenniidae). YOY collected in intertidal pools from June to December 2008 in Central Chile, ranged from 24 to 76 mm total length and from 25 to 390 days of age. In the six species, sagittal otoliths showed a slightly oval shape, symmetrical and laterally compressed and showed micro-increments distinguishable after a two-side polishing. Increment width of sagittae showed two patterns irrespective of hatch month and species: (i) a parabolic growth with wider increment widths (during the first 150 of YOY life, e.g. B. chilensis, G. nigra and G. laevifrons); and (ii) a more irregular pattern with lower increment widths during most of the seasons in H. chilensis and H. sordidus. Further results were: (i) a unique central primordium enclosed by two checks after which distinctive increments were deposited; (ii) low instantaneous growth rates estimated through the slope of the length-at-age relationship (range 0.1–0.21 mm d−1); and (iii) a linear fish size–otolith size relationship.
GaSb and AlSb are very interesting semiconductors widely used
in multiple applications such as optoelectronics or thermophotovoltaic
cells. AlSb has higher band gap than GaSb but very similar lattice
parameter, which allows the fabrication of lattice-matched films
with different energy band gap over GaSb substrates. Moreover
the ternary alloys, in the system AlxGa1−xSb,
are very interesting for semiconductor device engineering where the
capacity of creating lattice-matched heterostructures with different
band gap is very important. In this work, we present a study on the formation
of AlxGa1−xSb films on GaSb substrates by Al diffusion.
Al thin films were evaporated over GaSb substrates and then annealed
with different time and temperature conditions. RBS measurements
has been performed to analyze the diffusion profile and to calculate
the thickness of the AlxGa1−xSb films. The dependence
of the characteristics of the films with annealing time and temperature
is analyzed. EDAX and XRD analysis have been performed to calculate
the specific composition of the alloy depending on the film growth
A case of right hemidiaphragm rupture and abdominal herniation into the thorax occurring during the immediate post-operative course of double-lung transplantation is reported. This complication has not been reported previously. We examine the possible aetiology and suggest that the direct cause could be an increase in intra-abdominal pressure during chest physiotherapy.