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We performed a mixed-methods study to evaluate antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) uptake and to assess variability of program implementation in Missouri hospitals. Despite increasing uptake of ASPs in Missouri, there is wide variability in both the scope and sophistication of these programs.
This chapter considers the emergence of one of the main vehicles for the diffusion of new ideas of religiosity, literary Turkish. In contrast to previous studies which have claimed the emergence of Turkish as an expression of a proto-nationalism, this chapter argues that the emergence of Turkish must be seen against the twin background of the interest of Sufis, especially Jalal al-Din Rumi and his circle, in multi-lingual communication, and the new political circumstances thrown up by the Mongol invasions. Turkish is initially only used extensively for literary works in new cultural centres emerging in his period – the Mongol garrison town of Kırşehir, and the Turkmen principalities of the coastal peripheries. In the old Seljuq urban centres of Anatolia, Konya, Kayseri, Sivas, Persian remains the dominant if not the only form of literary language into the fifteenth century. Turkish thus seems to be a medium not just to communicate with an audience unversed in Persian, but an expression of political and religious aspirations.
The Mongol invasions coincided with a process of Islamisation that had been gathering speed in Anatolia since the second half of the twelfth century. This was accelerated both directly, if not necessarily always intentionally, by Mongol policies and indirectly by the changes Mongol rule wrought on Muslim society. Mongol rule redrew the political landscape of Anatolia, with the collapse of Seljuq authority leading to the emergence of new powers such as the beyliks. From the 1270s, Anatolia became increasingly integrated into the Ilkhanid empire, both through the Mongol military presence there but also the residence of scholars, bureaucrats and even relatively humble artisans such as members of futuwwa organisations from Iran. The marginalisation and eventual abolition of the traditional source of political authority in Anatolia, the Seljuq sultanate, in addition to the broader crisis of authority brought about by the end of the Abbasid Caliphate, forced Anatolia’s new rulers, both Turkmen and Mongol, to seek alternative means to justify their rule. A political rhetoric centred on belief and unbelief took hold, and with the Mongol conversion to Islam its use only increased. Incidents of persecution of non-Muslims, although not systematic, begin to be attested in the sources as the Mongols sought to assert their adherence to the new faith and justify their rule in Islamic terms.
This chapter considers the changes wrought by the Mongol invasions. It first examines briefly the development of Muslim politics and literature in the pre-Mongol period, demonstrating how until the middle of the thirteenth century textual production focused largely on the Seljuq court. It then looks at the impact of Mongol rule, concentrating in particular on the political and religious consequences - the crisis of legitimacy caused by the Seljuq collapse and, the position of the Mongols before and after their conversion, and the persecution of Christians that intensified under Mongol rule. As a result, political discourse was infused with a new concern with unbelief, absent in the Seljuq period.
This chapter considers the new vernacular literature that circulated in the Mongol period, both Turkish works and those expressed in a simple accessible Persian aimed at a wide audience beyond the court. It shows how the concern with the battle against unbelief penetrated not just political but also increasingly religious discourse, as attested by this religious literature which is both evidence for and a product of the process of Islamisation. Concern with holy war (ghaza) were not limited to the Ottomans’ frontier with Byzantium, as is widely thought, but permeated works produced across Anatolia, including those written by Sufis. It thus argues against the widespread paradigm that sees Sufism as a more ‘Christian-friendly’ bridge to Islam.
This chapter considers the emergence of one of the main vehicles for the diffusion of new ideas of religiosity, literary Turkish. In contrast to previous studies which have claimed the emergence of Turkish as an expression of a proto-nationalism, this chapter argues that the emergence of Turkish must be seen against the twin background of the interest of Sufis, especially Jalal al-Din Rumi and his circle, in multi-lingual communication, and the new political circumstances thrown up by the Mongol invasions. Turkish is initially used extensively only for literary works in new cultural centres emerging in his period – the Mongol garrison town of Kırşehir, and the Turkmen principalities of the coastal peripheries. In the old Seljuq urban centres of Anatolia, Konya, Kayseri and Sivas, Persian remained the dominant if not the only form of literary language into the fifteenth century. Turkish thus seems to have been a medium not just to communicate with an audience unversed in Persian, but an expression of political and religious aspirations.
This chapter examines the relationship between political and Sufi elites. Sufis relied on the financial support of Seljuq and Mongol officials, as is amply demonstrated by the correspondence of Jalal al-Din Rumi. It is often suggested that such support is rooted in practical advances for political elites such as legitimacy through association with Sufi saints. I argue that in fact the theology of Sufism itself could provide crucial legitimation to political elites, which helps explain its popularity. In the writings of Sultan Walad, Rumi’s son, we find the theory that the ruler can himself be not just a wali, one of God’s friends, as the saints were known, but even the qutb, the leader of the Sufi hierarchy, but will only be recognised as such by a Sufi saint, forming the ideological groundwork for this alliance. However, not all Sufis were automatically aligned with the status quo, and some sought temporal power for themselves; this chapter also takes up the story of the descendants of the rebel saint Baba Ilyas, and shows that despite his failure to seize secular power, his descendants succeeded in establishing a cult around his shrine that was sufficiently powerful to impress the Ottomans in the fifteenth century.
The Introduction lays out the state of the art of scholarship on history and religious change in medieval Anatolia, arguing that historians’ preoccupation with the Seljuq and Ottoman periods has led to neglect of the rich source material for the Mongol period. It considers approaches by previous scholars such as Vryonis, Köprūlü, Ocak and Kafadar.
This chapter examines the interest in the apocalypse and the Mahdi, the Muslim saviour expected at the end of time, found in works of the Mongol period. While the Mongols were themselves seen by many Muslims as one of the signs of the apocalypse, in fact apocalyptic and Mahdist discourse was adopted by the Mongols on their conversion to Islam to justify their rule. In addition, both Seljuq sultans and Mongol governors of Anatolia sought to assert legitimacy in the face of the political crises of the period by identifying themselves as Mahdis, while the requirement for the Mahdi to impose perfect sharia law led to increase in persecution of Christians, contributing to the process of Islamisation. Yet interest in apocalyptic is reflected only in texts of limited circulation destined for an elite audience; contrary to what is argued in much of the existing literature, there is no evidence that it was either widespread more popularly, especially among the Turkmen, or that is was associated with Shiism.
From a Christian, Greek- and Armenian-speaking land to a predominantly Muslim and Turkish speaking one, the Islamisation of medieval Anatolia would lay the groundwork for the emergence of the Ottoman Empire as a world power and ultimately the modern Republic of Turkey. Bringing together previously unpublished sources in Arabic, Persian and Turkish, Peacock offers a new understanding of the crucial but neglected period in Anatolian history, that of Mongol domination, between c. 1240 and 1380. This represents a decisive phase in the process of Islamisation, with the popularisation of Sufism and the development of new forms of literature to spread Islam. This book integrates the study of Anatolia with that of the broader Islamic world, shedding new light on this crucial turning point in the history of the Middle East.