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Maternal perinatal depression exerts pervasive effects on the developing brain, as evidenced by electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns that differ between children of women who do and do not meet DSM or ICD diagnostic criteria. However, little research has examined if the same EEG pattern of right-frontal alpha asymmetry exists in newborns and thus originates in utero independent of postnatal influences, and if depressive symptoms are associated with this neural signature. Utilizing 125-lead EEG (n=18), this study considered clinician-rated maternal prenatal depressive symptoms in relation to newborn EEG. Maternal depressive symptomatology was associated with greater relative right-frontal alpha asymmetry during quiet sleep. These results suggest that even subclinical levels of maternal depression may influence infant brain development, and further support the role of the prenatal environment in shaping children’s future neurobehavioral trajectories.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) has consistently been linked with adverse outcomes including substance use disorders and adult sexual revictimization. Adult sexual victimization itself has been linked with psychopathology but has predominately been studied in women. The current investigation examines the impact of CM and co-occurring psychopathology on adult sexual victimization in men and women, replicating findings in three distinct samples.
We investigated the association between continuous CM factor scores and adult sexual victimization in the Childhood Trauma Study (CTS) sample (N = 2564). We also examined the unique relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual victimization while adjusting for co-occurring substance dependence and psychopathology. We replicated these analyses in two additional samples: the Comorbidity and Trauma Study (CATS; N = 1981) and the Australian Twin-Family Study of Alcohol Use Disorders (OZ-ALC; N = 1537).
Analyses revealed a significant association with CM factor scores and adult sexual victimization for both men and women across all three samples. The CSA factor score was strongly associated with adult sexual victimization after adjusting for substance dependence and psychopathology; higher odds ratios were observed in men (than women) consistently across the three samples.
A continuous measure of CSA is independently associated with adult sexual trauma risk across samples in models that included commonly associated substance dependence and psychopathology as covariates. The strength of the association between this CSA measure and adult sexual victimization is higher in magnitude for men than women, pointing to the need for further investigation of sexual victimization in male community samples.
We studied the effect of a cross-conjugated bridging group (χC) on charge-transfer in a push-pull chromophore system. The hyperpolarizability of such molecules was found to be comparable to that of a fully π-conjugated molecule (πC) with the same donor and acceptor. The cross-conjugated moiety was then applied as a pendant to a fully π-conjugated chromophore containing a tricyanopyrroline acceptor (TCP). The addition of a χC moiety did not alter the intrinsic hyperpolarizability and provides an avenue for extending and aiding πC systems. The molecules were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), hyper-Raleigh scattering (HRS) and UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Experimental results were compared with the predictions of density functional theory (DFT). Cross-conjugated molecules have comparable β values, relative to πC molecules, due to reduced spatial overlap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). Thus, the χC architecture could facilitate independent modification of donor and acceptor strengths while minimizing unfavorable effects on electronic transitions and dipole moments.
Developing countries have adopted universal, high-potency vitamin A (VA) supplementation and food fortification as major strategies to control deficiency, prevent nutritional blindness and reduce child mortality. Yet questions persist regarding how best to measure impact and when to phase out supplementation. The present paper provides guidance on the use and interpretation of serum retinol (SROL) distributions as indicators of both programme impact and adequate VA intake in a population.
We reviewed extant data on SROL's response to high-potency VA supplementation and VA-fortified foods in children.
Supplementation virtually eliminates xerophthalmia and reduces child mortality; however, it shifts the SROL distribution only transiently (<2 months). Regular consumption of VA-fortified foods prevents xerophthalmia, lowers mortality and sustainably improves SROL distributions, from which both compliance and public health impact can be inferred.
Given SROL's limited responsiveness to high-potency VA supplementation, target population coverage remains the preferred performance indicator. However, periodic SROL surveys do reflect underlying dietary risk and can guide programming: low or marginal SROL distributions in areas with high supplementation coverage do not signify programme failure, but rather suggest the need to continue supplementation while working to effectively raise dietary VA intakes. We propose that a sustained rise in the SROL distribution, defined as ≤5 % prevalence of SROL < 0·70 μmol/l among vulnerable population groups in at least two consecutive surveys (≥1 year apart), be used as an indicator of stable and adequate dietary VA intake and status in a population, at which point programmes may re-evaluate the need for continued universal supplementation.
Arid and semi-arid climates are mainly characterised as those areas where precipitation is less (and often considerably less) than potential evapotranspiration. These climate regions are ideal environments for salt to accumulate in natural soil and groundwater settings since evaporation and transpiration essentially remove freshwater from the system, leaving residual salts behind. Similarly, the characteristically low precipitation rates reduce the potential for salt to be diluted by rainfall. Thus arid and semi-arid regions make ideal ‘salt concentrator’ hydrologic environments. Indeed, salt flats, playas, sabkhas and saline lakes, for example, are ubiquitous features of arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world (Yechieli and Wood,2002). In such settings, variable density flow phenomena are expected to be important, especially where hypersaline brines overlie less dense groundwater at depth. In contrast, seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is a global phenomenon that is not constrained to only arid and semi-arid regions of the globe and is inherently a variable density flow problem by its very nature. These two examples make it clear that variable density flow problems occur in, but importantly extend beyond, arid and semi-arid regions of the globe. The intention of this chapter is therefore not to limit ourselves to modelling arid zone hydrological systems, but rather to present a more general treatment of variable density groundwater flow and solute transport phenomena and modelling. The concepts presented in this chapter are therefore not climatologically constrained to arid or semi-arid zones of the world, although they do apply equally there.
Critical dimension (CD) shrink and patterning of contact features via plasma etching were studied for typical resistive random access memory (RRAM) stacks. These consist of SiO2 and Si3N4 (total thickness of 65 80 nm) with NiO or pure Ni at the bottom. First, the contact patterning of RRAM stacks was investigated for 90 nm contacts. Thus, a standard high power contact etch recipe was shown to give rise to resist strip challenges due to the incorporation of sputtered Ni in the resist film. Therefore, a low-sputter-yield contact etch recipe based on a CF4/H2/Ar gas chemistry was introduced. The ion sputter efficiency of the recipe was estimated from a blanket SiO2 sputter-yield experiment in Ar plasma for the same recipe settings: this yielded values close to the Ni sputter-yield threshold. Second, plasma-assisted CD shrink was studied in combination with the newly developed patterning scheme to get the contact CD well below the initial 90-nm litho print size. It was shown that a low contact etch power regime could also provide a larger window for contact CD shrink using a C2H4-based chemistry: e.g. the demonstrated CD shrink from 90 nm down to sub-40 nm was shown to be extremely challenging in the case of a high power regime due to polymer instability enhanced with the resulting thickness increase. Perhaps, the relaxation of the polymer film stress, which was measured to be in the range of 1200-1500 MPa, is more easily triggered at higher power settings, which leads to polymer blistering. Finally, the optimization of the plasma-assisted CD shrink step in combination with the low-sputter-yield contact etch recipe was demonstrated to be able to provide CDs as small as 27 nm. The demonstrated approach shows that plasma-assisted CD shrink can provide a robust test vehicle for research programs that require the patterning of small features in the sub-40-nm CD range.
Different strategies are available for the management of patients with early (i.e. tumour stage one or two) oral or oropharyngeal carcinoma and a clinically negative neck.
Material and methods:
In 2006, a questionnaire was sent to the eight head and neck cancer centres of the Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group. This questionnaire covered: the factors influencing the decision to perform an elective neck dissection; the neck staging procedure; and the types of neck dissection undertaken.
All eight questionnaires were returned completed. Respondents indicated that the site (n = 6), size (n = 7) and thickness (n = 6) of the primary tumour were important in decisions regarding elective neck dissection. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology was the most frequently used diagnostic technique (n = 7). Depending on the site and stage of the primary tumour presented, in the different cases 3–7 of the centres would perform an elective neck dissection. Selective neck dissections (i.e. levels I to III/IV) were more frequently performed than modified radical neck dissections.
There was no uniformity regarding management of the clinically negative neck in patients with early stage oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma, within The Netherlands.
We investigated an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections linked to raw mung bean sprouts in 2000 with two case-control studies and reviewed six similar outbreaks that occurred in 2000–2002. All outbreaks were due to unusual phage types (PT) of SE and occurred in the United States (PT 33, 1, and 913), Canada (PT 11b and 913), and The Netherlands (PT 4b). PT 33 was in the spent irrigation water and a drain from one sprout grower. None of the growers disinfected seeds at recommended concentrations. Only two growers tested spent irrigation water; neither discarded the implicated seed lots after receiving a report of Salmonella contamination. We found no difference in the growth of SE and Salmonella Newport on mung beans. Mung bean sprout growers should disinfect seeds, test spent irrigation water, and discontinue the use of implicated seed lots when pathogens are found. Laboratories should report confirmed positive Salmonella results from sprout growers to public health authorities.
Commission 36 covers all the physics of stellar atmospheres. The scientific activity in this large field has been very intense during the last triennium and led to the publication of a large number of papers which makes an exhaustive report practically not feasible. As a consequence we decided to keep the format of the preceding report: first a list of areas of current research, then web links for obtaining further information.
In the filled gallium-germanium clathrates, R8Ga16Ge30, where R is Ba, Sr, or Eu, the guests are located in two large cages and are weakly bound to the crystalline clathrate framework. The caged guests exhibit a localized “rattling” vibrational mode that provides an efficient mechanism for reducing the thermal conductivity. Inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear inelastic scattering measurements have yielded the phonon density of states in R8Ga16Ge30; the line width of the localized vibrational modes is found to be an important parameter in determining the lattice thermal conductivity. Neutron diffraction studies on R8Ga16Ge30 have shown that the guests in the larger cage are located off-center, and it was proposed that their jumping about the four off-center locations is responsible for the observed glass-like thermal conductivity at temperatures below 10 K. The detection of such slow guest motion is challenging because the typical time and energy scales involved are ca. 4 ns and 1 µeV, respectively. We have studied the slow europium tunneling dynamics in Eu4Sr4Ga16Ge30 by both Mössbauer and microwave absorption spectroscopy.
Preferential etching is a simple and fast technique to evaluate the structural
perfection of a single-crystalline material. In the area of defects, the
etching rate of preferential etchants are different, so either hillocks or
pits (etch-pits) appear. But most of the etching solutions reveal the defects
only in thick layers or bulk materials, and often they are very specific for
each material. Hence an appropriate etchant based on the Schimmel solution was
developed by us for thin layer investigation. This modified Schimmel solution
contains 55 Vol% CrO3 (0.4 M) and 45 Vol% HF (49%). The etch rate of
this solution depends on the Ge content and on the degree of relaxation R.
For the investigated thin Si
(x = 0.3–0.5) this solution provides an excellent controllable etch rate
(0.12–0.48 µm/min), and shows a good capability of etch pit revealing,
so the elucidation of countable etch-pits occurs. We implemented also a method
for defect revealing based on the electrochemical capacitance voltage system.
The determination of the etch pit density is performed by optical microscopy
images (inverted dark-field and differential interference contrast) and by
atomic force microscopy.
Background and objective: Sevoflurane and propofol reduce the extent of necrosis and improve neurological outcome in rodent models of cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion. However, the effects of these anaesthetics on programmed cell death (apoptosis) are unclear. The present study investigates whether sevoflurane and propofol affect the expression of apoptosis-regulating proteins after cerebral ischaemia in rats.
Methods: Thirty-two fasted male Sprague–Dawley rats were tracheally intubated and the lungs were ventilated (isoflurane and N2O/O2 anaesthesia). After surgical preparation, the animals were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: control (n = 8): fentanyl intravenous (10 μg kg−1 bolus and 25 μg kg−1 h−1 infusion) with N2O/O2; sevoflurane (n = 8): 2.0% sevoflurane (end-tidal concentration) and O2/air; propofol (n = 8): 0.8–1.0 mg kg−1 min−1 propofol intravenous and O2/air; sham-operated (n = 8): 25 μg kg−1 h−1 fentanyl intravenous and N2O/O2, no cerebral ischaemia. Ischaemia (30 min) was induced by unilateral common carotid artery occlusion plus haemorrhagic hypotension to a mean arterial pressure of 30–35 mmHg. Four hours after cerebral ischaemia the brains were removed and the expression of apoptosis-regulating proteins (Bax, Bcl-2, p53, Mdm-2) was determined using immunofluorescence and Western-blot analyses.
Results: The expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax was greater in control animals than in sevoflurane or propofol anaesthetized rats and than in sham-operated animals. The concentrations of Bcl-2, p53 and Mdm-2 were not changed 4 h after cerebral ischaemia.
Conclusions: In addition to the anti-necrotic effects of sevoflurane and propofol, these anaesthetics also reduce the concentration of the apoptosis-inducing protein Bax as early as 4 h after ischaemia.
Resistance to pod shatter was studied within and between populations of the resynthesized Brassica napus line DK142, grown under glass or in the field, at sites in the UK and Belgium. All populations showed similar ranges of resistance that were greater than that of a commercial cultivar (Apex). The increase in range was at least three-fold greater than the range found in Apex. Only sowing time affected the descriptive statistics of shatter resistance of each line, with spring-sown populations more shatter susceptible than winter-sown populations. The partitioning of dry matter to individual tissues of the pod was different for the two lines, with dry matter biased to the seed in Apex and to the receptacle in the more resistant DK142. In DK142 and Apex, as well as F1 and F2 populations derived from crosses between DK142×Apex, correlations for pod shatter resistance and mature pod characters were high, particularly the weight and length of the valves and septum. Shatter resistance increased in plants when pod numbers were reduced by the removal of whole racemes.
Medium energy ion scattering (MEIS), operated at sub-nm depth resolution in the double alignment configuration, has been used to examine implant and damage depth profiles formed in Si(100) substrates irradiated with 2.5 keV As+ and 1 keV B+ ions. Samples were implanted at temperatures varying between 150°C, and 300°C to doses ranging from 3X1014 to 2X1016 cm-2. For the As implants the MEIS studies demonstrate the occurrence of effects such as a dopant accommodation linked to the growth in depth of the damage layer, dopant clustering, as well as damage and dopant movement upon annealing. Following epitaxial regrowth at 600°C, approximately half of the As was observed to be in substitutional sites, consistent with the reported formation of AsnV complexes (n≤4), while the remainder became segregated and became trapped within a narrow, 1.1 nm wide layer at the Si/oxide interface
MEIS measurements of the B implants indicate the formation of two distinct damage regions each with a different dependence on implant dose, the importance of dynamic annealing for implants at room temperature and above, and a competing point defect trapping effect at the Si/oxide interface. B+ implantation at low temperature resulted in the formation of an amorphous layer due to the drastic reduction of dynamic annealing processes.
Notably different dopant distributions were measured by SIMS in the samples implanted with As at different temperatures following rapid thermal annealing (RTA) up to 1100°C in an oxidising environment. Implant temperature dependent interactions between defects and dopants are reflected in the transient enhanced diffusion (TED) behaviour of As.