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Global healthcare systems have been particularly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are widely reported to have experienced increased levels of baseline psychological distress relative to the general population, and the COVID-19 pandemic may have had an additive effect. However, previous studies are typically restricted to physicians and nurses with limited data available on hospital HCWs. We aimed to conduct a cross-sectional, psychological evaluation of Irish HCWs during COVID-19.
HCWs across five adult acute level-4 Dublin-based hospitals completed an online survey of wellbeing and COVID-19 experience.
There were 1898 HCWs who commenced the survey representing 10% of the total employee base. The sample comprised nurses (33%), doctors (21%), Health and Social Care Professionals (HSCPs) (24%) and ‘Other’ disciplines (22%), and 81% identified as female. Clinical levels of depression, anxiety and PTSD symptoms were endorsed by 31%, 34% and 28% of respondents, respectively. Professional grouping effects included: nurses reporting significantly greater levels of COVID-19 exposure, infection, COVID-fear, moral injury, and post-traumatic distress; HSCPs were significantly less likely to report mood dysfunction. In terms of gender, males were significantly less likely to report negative pandemic experiences, low resilience, and significantly more likely to endorse ‘minimal’ depression, anxiety, and traumatic distress. Logistic regression modelling revealed mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety and PTSD symptoms) were associated with increased frontline exposure, fewer career years’ experience, elevated pre-pandemic stress, and female gender.
To our knowledge, this is the largest evaluation of psychological wellbeing amongst HCWs in acute hospitals in the Dublin region. Our findings have implications for healthcare workforce wellbeing and future service delivery.
The cosmic evolution of the chemical elements from the Big Bang to the present time is driven by nuclear fusion reactions inside stars and stellar explosions. A cycle of matter recurrently re-processes metal-enriched stellar ejecta into the next generation of stars. The study of cosmic nucleosynthesis and this matter cycle requires the understanding of the physics of nuclear reactions, of the conditions at which the nuclear reactions are activated inside the stars and stellar explosions, of the stellar ejection mechanisms through winds and explosions, and of the transport of the ejecta towards the next cycle, from hot plasma to cold, star-forming gas. Due to the long timescales of stellar evolution, and because of the infrequent occurrence of stellar explosions, observational studies are challenging, as they have biases in time and space as well as different sensitivities related to the various astronomical methods. Here, we describe in detail the astrophysical and nuclear-physical processes involved in creating two radioactive isotopes useful in such studies,
. Due to their radioactive lifetime of the order of a million years, these isotopes are suitable to characterise simultaneously the processes of nuclear fusion reactions and of interstellar transport. We describe and discuss the nuclear reactions involved in the production and destruction of
, the key characteristics of the stellar sites of their nucleosynthesis and their interstellar journey after ejection from the nucleosynthesis sites. This allows us to connect the theoretical astrophysical aspects to the variety of astronomical messengers presented here, from stardust and cosmic-ray composition measurements, through observation of
rays produced by radioactivity, to material deposited in deep-sea ocean crusts and to the inferred composition of the first solids that have formed in the Solar System. We show that considering measurements of the isotopic ratio of
eliminate some of the unknowns when interpreting astronomical results, and discuss the lessons learned from these two isotopes on cosmic chemical evolution. This review paper has emerged from an ISSI-BJ Team project in 2017–2019, bringing together nuclear physicists, astronomers, and astrophysicists in this inter-disciplinary discussion.
Recent literature suggests that over 70% of cases of antibody-mediated encephalitis present to psychiatry services with features of psychosis predominantly.
To investigate the seroprevalence of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor antibodies (NMDAr-Ab) in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP)
Following ethical approval, all cases meeting entry criteria were invited to participate. Participants were interviewed with SCID to obtain a DSM diagnosis. NMDAr-Ab were identified in serum by cell based assay using co-transfected Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK)cells. Positive cases were reviewed by clinical neurology. Decision to treat with immunotherapy was made on a case by case basis.
85/115 (72%) of patients with FEP entered the study. 49 (58%) participants were male, mean age (SD) 37 (15.7) years. 42 (52%) were outpatients at the time of assessment. Four cases (5%) were serum NMDAr-Ab positive. 3 of these cases were male, age 48 (16.3) years. All four were admitted as inpatients with normal brain MRI imaging. One case (female, 55) was confirmed as NMDAr-Ab encephalitis based on case presentation, EEG demonstrating bilateral cerebral dysfunction and NMDAr-Ab in CSF. Immunotherapy treatment lead to clinical improvement. In remaining cases, EEG was normal and CSF negative. All 3 of these cases showed clinical improvement following psychiatric treatment as usual.
Our findings support the current estimates as to NMDAr-Ab prevalence in FEP. Increased awareness has lead to rapid treatment of florid cases of NMDAr-Ab encephalitis in our service. Additional seropositive cases are being followed with neuro-cognitive testing for any evidence of decline.
Brumadoite, ideally Cu3Te6+O4(OH)4-5H2O, is a new mineral from Pedra Preta mine, Serra das Eguas. Brumado, Bahia, Brazil. It occurs as microcrystalline aggregates both on and, rarely, pseudomorphous after coarse-grained magnesite, associated with mottramite and quartz. Crystals are platy, subhedral. 1—2 μm in size. Brumadoite is blue (near RHS 114B), has a pale blue streak and a vitreous lustre. It is transparent to translucent and does not fluoresce. The empirical formula is (Cu2.90Pb0.04Ca0.01)Σ2.95 (Te0.936+Si0.05)Σ0.98O3.92(OH)220.127.116.11H2O. Infrared spectra clearly show both (OH) and H2O. Microchemical spot tests using a KI solution show that brumadoite has tellurium in the 6+ state. The mineral is monoclinic, P2/m or P21. Unit-cell parameters refined from X-ray powder data are a 8.629(2) Å, b 5.805(2) Å, c 7.654(2) Å,β 0 103.17(2)°, F 373.3(2) Å3, Z= 2. The eight strongest X-ray powder-diffraction lines [d in Å,(I),(hkl)] are: 8.432,(100),(100); 3.162,(66),(2̄02); 2.385,(27),(220); 2.291,(12),(l̄22); 1.916,(11),(312); 1.666,(14),(4̄22,114); 1.452,(10),(323,040); 1.450,(10),(422,403). The name is for the type locality, Brumado, Bahia, Brazil. The new mineral species has been approved by the CNMNC (IMA 2008-028).
Blood culture contamination (BCC) has been associated with unnecessary antibiotic use, additional laboratory tests and increased length of hospital stay thus incurring significant extra hospital costs. We set out to assess the impact of a staff educational intervention programme on decreasing intensive care unit (ICU) BCC rates to <3% (American Society for Microbiology standard). BCC rates during the pre-intervention period (January 2006–May 2011) were compared with the intervention period (June 2011–December 2012) using run chart and regression analysis. Monthly ICU BCC rates during the intervention period were reduced to a mean of 3·7%, compared to 9·5% during the baseline period (P < 0·001) with an estimated potential annual cost savings of about £250 100. The approach used was simple in design, flexible in delivery and efficient in outcomes, and may encourage its translation into clinical practice in different healthcare settings.
A study to determine the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis was carried out in feral cats in Grenada. Of the 137 feral cats tested for circulating antibodies (IgG; lateral-flow immunoassay) and circulating antigens (Ag; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), 8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5–12.5%) were antibody positive and 5.1% (95% CI 1.4–8.8%) were antigen positive. No significant difference between cats aged>1 to 4 years and cats less than 1 year of age was found (P>0.05, χ2). There was also no significant difference (P>0.05, χ2) between male and female cats. Dirofilaria immitis prevalence is relatively high in the feral cat population of Grenada. Evidence of D. immitis infection in feral cats coupled with the endemic nature of heartworm disease in dogs in Grenada leads us to suggest the introduction of heartworm prophylaxis in cats. To the authors' knowledge, this serological evidence of heartworm infection in feral cats in Grenada is the first report from the Caribbean region.
This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HIV-1 infections among injecting drug users (IDU) in New Mexico. Serological and behavioural surveys were conducted in conjunction with street-based outreach, education and HIV counselling and testing. High rates of antibody positivity for HCV (82·2%) and HBV (61·1%), and a low rate for HIV (0·5%) were found. In multivariate analyses, both HBV and HCV infection were positively associated with increasing age, increasing years of injection and heroin use. Receipt of a tattoo in prison/jail was associated with HBV (odds ratio = 2·3, 95% confidence interval 1·4, 3·8) and HCV (OR = 3·4, 95% CI = 1·6, 7·5) infections. Prevention of bloodborne pathogens among IDUs should focus on young users, early in their drug use experience. Studies examining the relationship between tattooing and HBV and HCV infection are needed as are efforts to promote sterile tattooing, in prisons and elsewhere.
The relationship between ponderal, linear and lower leg growth in children recovering from severe malnutrition remains unclear. We report on the early growth of 141 severely malnourished Bangladeshi children aged 6 to 36 months of age who were followed for 90 d. Mean (SD) weight for height (WHZ) and height for age (HAZ) catch-up growth Z scores over the 90 d were 1.6 (0.85) and 0.47 (0.325) respectively. mean (SD) lower leg length growth was 10.35 (4.5) mm. Change in HAZ was significantly associated with initial WHZ, but linear growth occurred in the presence of severe wasting and no threshold WHZ score was identified. Lower leg length gain correlated throughout with ponderal indices but with change in HAZ score only after day 45. Only initial WHZ score and maternal height predicted for linear growth and only accounted for 20 % of total variance. We conclude that linear growth occurs early in severely malnourished children but that knemometry behaves as a ponderal index acutely.
The effects on the behavioural and physiological responses of sheep of providing rest, food and water (lairage) during 24 h of either road transport or stationary confinement (treatment) were investigated. Twenty-four hours of continuous treatment was compared with 12 h of treatment followed by either 12 h of lairage, 3 h of lairage or 3 h of food and water on the vehicle, followed by a second 12 h of treatment. A further group of sheep was kept as controls. The plasma cortisol concentration was increased at the start of the journey and after 24 h of continuous transport it was still greater than that in controls (P < 0·05). Apart from a mobilization of body energy reserves as indicated by raised plasma concentrations offree fatty acids after 12 h and β-hydroxybutyrate after 24 h there was no evidence that the welfare of the sheep during the journey was compromised after a particular time. During the lairage and immediately after the second 12-h transport period, the sheep appeared to be hungry. Although sheep transported for 24 h without lairage drank more post transport than controls, there was no biochemical evidence of dehydration during the journey. The sheep lay down during the journey and there was no apparent difference between lairage treatments in the proportion of scans spent lying down during either the second 12-h treatment period or during the first 12 h post treatment. There were fewer potentially traumatic events during the second 22 h of the 24-h journey than during the first 12 h of the journey and no apparent effect of lairage during the journey on the frequency of potentially traumatic events during the second 12-h period of transport.
There was evidence to suggest that a period of lairage during a 24-h journey can be beneficial in providing sheep with an opportunity to eat, drink and avoid the stressors associated with transport. However, providing hay and water on the vehicle during a 3-h stationary period as compared with unloading into a lairage cannot be recommended. Although sheep readily ate hay on the vehicle, they did not drink sufficient water. This resulted in dehydration and a greater plasma cortisol concentration during the remainder of the journey than in those that had been lairaged for 12 h and a greater water intake post transport than in those given either no lairage or 12 h of lairage.
This paper represents a follow-up of work previously reported at an Ordinary Meeting of the Institute and published in the Journal in May 1986 under the title ‘Navigational Aspects of JTIDS’.
Technical studies on JTIDS for the airborne applications are being directed by the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE), Farnborough and by the Admiralty Research Establishment (ARE), Portsdown, for maritime use, for which Systems Designers Scientific is providing technical support in a number of areas. One such field is Relative Navigation (relnav). As part of this MOD-funded work a relnav simulator has been developed at the RAE. This simulator is currently in use for the assessment of the relnav capability and has been used to produce the results presented in following sections.
This report gives a brief description of JTIDS relnav and presents some basic features of relnav performance in simple communities. Then a description of relnav performance in fragmented and loosely coupled communities is presented. Finally a brief summary of the main points and conclusions is given.
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