To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
There is little tolerance for deviation in time, budget and quality in the execution of product development projects. On the other hand, the project environment is gaining complexity. Changes on project scope are daily business. We set up an initial hypothesis, that unplanned changes -newness- has negative impact on projects. We developed and executed therefore a survey about factors belonging to innovation, complexity and newness to test their perceived impact on project success. Our data show a positive correlation between unsuccessful projects and newness, which is discussed in the paper.
Rates of common mental health problems (depression/anxiety) rise sharply in adolescence and peak in young adulthood, often coinciding with the transition to parenthood. Little is known regarding the persistence of common mental health problems from adolescence to the perinatal period in both mothers and fathers.
A total of 393 mothers (686 pregnancies) and 257 fathers (357 pregnancies) from the intergenerational Australian Temperament Project Generation 3 Study completed self-report assessments of depression and anxiety in adolescence (ages 13–14, 15–16, 17–18 years) and young adulthood (ages 19–20, 23–24, 27–28 years). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to assess depressive symptoms at 32 weeks pregnancy and 12 months postpartum in mothers, and at 12 months postpartum in fathers.
Most pregnancies (81%) in which mothers reported perinatal depression were preceded by a history of mental health problems in adolescence or young adulthood. Similarly, most pregnancies (83%) in which fathers reported postnatal depression were preceded by a preconception history of mental health problems. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds of self-reporting perinatal depression in both women and men were consistently higher in those with a history of persistent mental health problems across adolescence and young adulthood than those without (ORwomen 5.7, 95% CI 2.9–10.9; ORmen 5.5, 95% CI 1.03–29.70).
Perinatal depression, for the majority of parents, is a continuation of mental health problems with onsets well before pregnancy. Strategies to promote good perinatal mental health should start before parenthood and include both men and women.
Maternal mental health during pregnancy and postpartum predicts later emotional and behavioural problems in children. Even though most perinatal mental health problems begin before pregnancy, the consequences of preconception maternal mental health for children's early emotional development have not been prospectively studied.
We used data from two prospective Australian intergenerational cohorts, with 756 women assessed repeatedly for mental health problems before pregnancy between age 13 and 29 years, and during pregnancy and at 1 year postpartum for 1231 subsequent pregnancies. Offspring infant emotional reactivity, an early indicator of differential sensitivity denoting increased risk of emotional problems under adversity, was assessed at 1 year postpartum.
Thirty-seven percent of infants born to mothers with persistent preconception mental health problems were categorised as high in emotional reactivity, compared to 23% born to mothers without preconception history (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4–3.1). Ante- and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms were similarly associated with infant emotional reactivity, but these perinatal associations reduced somewhat after adjustment for prior exposure. Causal mediation analysis further showed that 88% of the preconception risk was a direct effect, not mediated by perinatal exposure.
Maternal preconception mental health problems predict infant emotional reactivity, independently of maternal perinatal mental health; while associations between perinatal depressive symptoms and infant reactivity are partially explained by prior exposure. Findings suggest that processes shaping early vulnerability for later mental disorders arise well before conception. There is an emerging case for expanding developmental theories and trialling preventive interventions in the years before pregnancy.
Self-harm in young people is associated with later problems in social and emotional development. However, it is unknown whether self-harm in young women continues to be a marker of vulnerability on becoming a parent. This study prospectively describes the associations between pre-conception self-harm, maternal depressive symptoms and mother–infant bonding problems.
The Victorian Intergenerational Health Cohort Study (VIHCS) is a follow-up to the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) in Australia. Socio-demographic and health variables were assessed at 10 time-points (waves) from ages 14 to 35, including self-reported self-harm at waves 3–9. VIHCS enrolment began in 2006 (when participants were aged 28–29 years), by contacting VAHCS women every 6 months to identify pregnancies over a 7-year period. Perinatal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale during the third trimester, and 2 and 12 months postpartum. Mother–infant bonding problems were assessed with the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire at 2 and 12 months postpartum.
Five hundred sixty-four pregnancies from 384 women were included. One in 10 women (9.7%) reported pre-conception self-harm. Women who reported self-harming in young adulthood (ages 20–29) reported higher levels of perinatal depressive symptoms and mother–infant bonding problems at all perinatal time points [perinatal depressive symptoms adjusted β = 5.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.42–7.39; mother–infant bonding problems adjusted β = 7.51, 95% CI 3.09–11.92]. There was no evidence that self-harm in adolescence (ages 15–17) was associated with either perinatal outcome.
Self-harm during young adulthood may be an indicator of future vulnerability to perinatal mental health and mother–infant bonding problems.
We examined prospective associations between men's common mental disorders in the decades prior to offspring conception and subsequent paternal antenatal mental health problems. Data came from a prospective intergenerational cohort study which assessed common mental disorder nine times from age 14 to 29 years, and in the third trimester of subsequent pregnancies to age 35 years (N = 295 pregnancies to 214 men). Men with histories of adolescent and young adult common mental disorders were over four times more likely to experience antenatal mental health problems. Future research identifying modifiable perinatal factors that counteract preconception risk would provide further targets for intervention.
We aimed to describe the natural history of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and associated harms from adolescence to young adulthood in a large Australian population cohort study.
The Australian Temperament Project consists of mothers and babies (4–8 months) recruited from Infant Welfare Centres and followed every 2 to 4 years until age 28 years. Analyses were based on data from 1156 young people (497 male; 659 female) surveyed repeatedly at ages 16, 18, 20, 24 and 28 years. We used dual processes latent class growth analysis to estimate trajectories of HED and associated harms, employing a piecewise approach to model the hypothesized rise and subsequent fall across adolescence and the late twenties, respectively.
We identified four sex-specific trajectories and observed little evidence of maturing-out across the twenties. In males, a normative pattern of increasing HED across the twenties with little related harm was observed (40% of the male sample). Early and late starter groups that peaked in harms at age 20 years with only minor attenuation in binging thereafter were also observed (6.1% and 35%, respectively). In females, a normative pattern of increasing, but moderate, HED with little related harm was observed (44% of the female sample). Early and late starter groups were also identified (18% and 17%, respectively); however, unlike males, the female late starter group showed a pattern of increasing HED and related harms.
Continued patterns of risky alcohol use and related harms are apparent for both males and females across the twenties.
The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) hypothesizes that intellectually stimulating activities provide resilience against brain pathology/disease. Whereas brain abnormalities and cognitive impairment are frequently reported in bipolar disorder (BD), it is unknown whether the impact of brain alterations can be lessened by higher CR in BD.
We tested if higher CR would reduce the influence of total volumes of deep white matter hypointensities (WMH), ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and prefrontal cortex on memory, executive, and attention/speed functions in patients with BD (n = 75). Linear regression models with interaction terms for CR and brain volumes were applied to directly test if CR reduces the influence of brain pathology on cognitive domains.
CR reduced the influence of total volumes of deep WMH (β = −0.38, Q = 0.003) and ventricular CSF (β = −41, Q = 006) on executive functions.
The interactions between CR and total volumes of deep WMH/ventricular CSF appear to account for executive functioning in BD. The results suggest that the concept of CR is applicable in BD. Higher reserve capacity in BD alters the relationship between brain pathology and clinical presentation.
The aims of the study were to describe the patterning and persistence of anxiety and depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood and to examine long-term developmental relationships with earlier patterns of internalizing behaviours in childhood.
We used parallel processes latent growth curve modelling to build trajectories of internalizing from adolescence to adulthood, using seven waves of follow-ups (ages 11–27 years) from 1406 participants of the Australian Temperament Project. We then used latent factors to capture the stability of maternal reported child internalizing symptoms across three waves of early childhood follow-ups (ages 5, 7 and 9 years), and examined relationships among these patterns of symptoms across the three developmental periods, adjusting for gender and socio-economic status.
We observed strong continuity in depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood. In contrast, adolescent anxiety was not persistent across the same period, nor was it related to later depressive symptoms. Anxiety was, however, related to non-specific stress in young adulthood, but only moderately so. Although childhood internalizing was related to adolescent and adult profiles, the associations were weak and indirect by adulthood, suggesting that other factors are important in the development of internalizing symptoms.
Once established, adolescent depressive symptoms are not only strongly persistent, but also have the potential to differentiate into anxiety in young adulthood. Relationships with childhood internalizing symptoms are weak, suggesting that early adolescence may be an important period for targeted intervention, but also that further research into the childhood origins of internalizing behaviours is needed.
A dietary survey was performed during a large screening study in Sweden among 13-year-old adolescents. The aim was to study how the intake of food groups was affected by a screening-detected diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD) and its gluten-free (GF) treatment. Food intake was reported using a FFQ, and intake reported by the adolescents who were diagnosed with CD was compared with the intake of two same-aged referent groups: (i) adolescents diagnosed with CD prior to screening; and (ii) adolescents without CD. The food intake groups were measured at baseline before the screening-detected cases were aware of their CD, and 12–18 months later. The results showed that food intakes were affected by screen-detected CD and its dietary treatment. Many flour-based foods were reduced such as pizza, fish fingers and pastries. The results also indicated that bread intake was lower before the screened diagnosis compared with the other studied groups, but increased afterwards. Specially manufactured GF products (for example, pasta and bread) were frequently used in the screened CD group after changing to a GF diet. The present results suggest that changing to a GF diet reduces the intake of some popular foods, and the ingredients on the plate are altered, but this do not necessarily include a change of food groups. The availability of manufactured GF replacement products makes it possible for adolescents to keep many of their old food habits when diagnosed with CD in Sweden.
In Depression-era South Georgia, truck farmers experimenting with onion planting found that their crop emerged unusually sweet, due to the region's climate and particular soil content. But what gave Vidalia onions a unique flavor—their low sulfur and high water content—also rendered them nearly impossible to market, as the vegetable spoiled much quicker than regular onions. In their seventy-year quest to overcome the onion's natural limitations, Georgia growers would transform their formerly insular region into a hub of global supermarket capitalism. As onion acreage skyrocketed with the advent of controlled atmosphere storage, growers recruited thousands of Latin American workers. Then, when storage techniques proved imperfect, industry leaders contracted with growers across Central and South America to produce sweet onions for sale during Georgia's off-season. In striking contrast to the Vidalia onion's branding as a “down-home” southern crop, the vegetable's history reveals the contradictions in our modern food system.
Two major causes of hardening and subsequent embrittlement in ferrite steels are the spinodal decomposition of the binary Fe-Cr solid solution and the carbide formation due to the presence of carbon as foreign interstitial atoms. In the present work, simulations of the microstructure evolution due to thermal ageing are performed by means of a kinetic Monte Carlo code and using a state-of-the-art interatomic potential based on density functional theory (DFT) predictions and experimental data. The main issues concern the possibility to perform thermal ageing simulations in an acceptable computational time frame and to reproduce a realistic behavior of carbon kinetics and carbide formation. The simulations on the binary system show the microstructural evolution during thermal ageing and allowed to find an exponential trend related to the acceleration as a function of temperature. With the insertion of carbon in the model, the chromium precipitation tends to accelerate. The carbon clustering, analyzed separately, is faster with higher C concentrations and in lattices with segregated chromium.
We describe an equivalence between the notion of balanced twisted curve introduced by Abramovich and Vistoli, and a new notion of log twisted curve, which is a nodal curve equipped with some logarithmic data in the sense of Fontaine and Illusie. As applications of this equivalence, we construct a universal balanced twisted curve, prove that a balanced twisted curve over a general base scheme admits étale locally on the base a finite flat cover by a scheme, and also give a new construction of the moduli space of stable maps into a Deligne–Mumford stack and a new proof that it is bounded.
Association between prematurity/low birthweight and adolescent depressive disorder studied using a case–control design within a prospective cohort study of 2032 adolescents. Odds for depressive disorder were 11-fold (95% C12–62) higher for the premature/low-birthweight participants after regression adjustment for major confounding factors. For premature/low-birthweight females, cumulative rates of depressive disorder over 30 months were 15.2% (95% C111.1–20.5) v. 1.8% (95% C11.6–2.1) in those with normal deliveries. Physiological adaptations in utero before full term may be implicated causally in some cases of depression in adolescence.
This is the first report of a major foodborne outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in Sweden. It occurred among the nursing staff at a children's hospital with approximately 1600 employees. Contaminated lettuce was the most likely source of infection. Nine persons were culture-positive for Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 and verocytotoxin-positive by PCR and a further two were verocytotoxin-positive by PCR only. All 11 EHEC-positive individuals had attended a party for approximately 250 staff members, which was held at the hospital. In a questionnaire 37 persons stated that they had symptoms consistent with EHEC infection during the weeks after the party. There was no evidence of secondary transmission from staff to patients. The value of PCR as a sensitive and fast method for diagnosis is discussed in this paper. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to ascertain that staff members were infected by the same clone, and that two patients with E. coli O157 infection were not.
Nanocrystalline thin Au films with grain size 10 - 76 nm have been analyzed regarding the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity. A sudden change in the power function, ρ α Tn, was found at ∼10 K, where n = 1.7 in the range 5 - 10 K and n = 3.3 in the range 10 - 15 K. This effect disappears after annealing at 773 K for 0.5 h in air at atmospheric pressure. After the annealing the grain size was ∼ 100 nm. This is an indication of interference between electron-phonon scattering and electron-grain boundary scattering in nanocrystalline materials at low temperatures.
The temperature coefficient of resistivity, TCR, increased with increasing grain size at any temperature and the position of the maximum TCR was shifted towards lower temperatures with increasing grain size.
Sixty-five primiparous cows were used in two experiments to study the effects of feeding high or low levels of concentrate during the last 2 to 3 weeks before calving on performance in early lactation. During early lactation (until 12 or 16 weeks after calving) all the 23 cows in experiment 1 were given the same diet. In experiment 2, the 42 cows were given diets with a ratio of concentrate/forage of either 60:40 or 40: 60, each providing the same energy level.
The food intake of almost all the cows decreased in the few days before calving but the decrease was less pronounced among those on the low concentrate level before calving. The average daily food intake during the calving week gave a metabolizable energy intake about 30 MJ higher on the high compared with the low feeding level. The level of feeding before calving had no effect on the cows' food intake after calving, or on their milk yield, health and fertility, or on scores for udder oedema and sole haemorrhages. The high level offeeding before calving was associated with significantly higher concentrations of insulin and lower concentrations of free fatty acids in the calving week of lactation but the level offeeding either before or after calving had no effect on these concentrations in the 8th week of lactation. The feeding of a high ratio of concentrate/forage after calving was associated with a significantly lower milk fat content. It can be concluded that the concentrate/forage ratio at calving does not seem to have any significance for the performance after calving.