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In recent decades, concern about rabbit welfare and sustainability has increased. The housing system is a very important factor for animal welfare. However, information about how different available housing types for female rabbits affect their health status is scarce, but this is an important factor for their welfare. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the health status of female rabbits in five common housing systems: three different single-housing systems with distinct available surfaces and heights; a single-housing system with a platform; a collective system. Female rabbits in the collective and platform cages had greater cortisol concentrations in hair than those in the single-housing system with no platform. Haptoglobin concentrations and kit mortality rates during lactation were greater for the collective-cage female rabbits. The collective group had more culled females and more lesions than in the other groups. The main reasons for culling in all the groups were reproduction problems and presence of abscesses, and the collective group of females was the most affected. In conclusion, it appears that keeping females together in collective systems negatively affects their health status and welfare, while single-housing systems imply lower kit mortality rates during lactation and cortisol concentrations, and fewer lesions in female rabbits.
The purpose of this update is to provide the most current information about both the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP) and the Longitudinal Twin Study (LTS) and to introduce the Colorado Adoption/Twin Study of Lifespan behavioral development and cognitive aging (CATSLife), a product of their merger and a unique study of lifespan behavioral development and cognitive aging. The primary objective of CATSLife is to assess the unique saliency of early childhood genetic and environmental factors to adult cognitive maintenance and change, as well as proximal influences and innovations that emerge across development. CATSLife is currently assessing up to 1600 individuals on the cusp of middle age, targeting those between 30 and 40 years of age. The ongoing CATSLife data collection is described as well as the longitudinal data available from the earlier CAP and LTS assessments. We illustrate CATSLife via current projects and publications, highlighting the measurement of genetic, biochemical, social, sociodemographic and environmental indices, including geospatial features, and their impact on cognitive maintenance in middle adulthood. CATSLife provides an unparalleled opportunity to assess prospectively the etiologies of cognitive change and test the saliency of early childhood versus proximal influences on the genesis of cognitive decline.
Due to their rareness, it is not known if the clinicopathological features of cerebellar glioblastomas (cGBMs) are different from supratentorial GBMs (sGBMs). We reviewed all 16 cases of cGBMs (total GBMs: 1350) at St. Michael’s Hospital over 18 years and assessed their clinicopathologic features. The mean age at diagnosis was 57 years. The most common presentations were headache (56%) and gait instability (56%). The majority (81%) of cGBMs were hemispheric while 19% involved the midline. There was radiologic evidence of brainstem infiltration at presentation in one case. Radiologically, peritumoral edema (63%) and heterogeneous contrast enhancement (50%) were common. Histologically, cGBM showed leptomeningeal involvement in 10/12 of cases. Uncommon histologic variants included 3 giant cell GBMs, a gliosarcoma, and a tumor with Rosenthal fibres and eosinophilic granular bodies. IDH1 R132H mutation was detected in 3/14 cases, a rate much higher than sGBMs. Additionally, 7/11 tumors had widespread p53 immunopositivity suggestive of TP53 mutation which is in accordance with previous reports in the literature. Of 9 cases tested, none had histone H3 K27M or G34R/V mutation. In summary, cGBMs have unique features that distinguishes them from sGBMs.
This presentation will enable the learner to:
1.Identify the clinicopathological features of cerebellar GBMs including major molecular alterations
2.Compare cerebellar and supratentorial GBMs and describe the distinguishing features of each type of tumor
Weaning is a critical transition phase in swine production in which piglets must cope with different stressors that may affect their health. During this period, the prophylactic use of antibiotics is still frequent to limit piglet morbidity, which raises both economic and public health concerns such as the appearance of antimicrobial-resistant microbes. With the interest of developing tools for assisting health and management decisions around weaning, it is key to provide robustness indexes that inform on the animals’ capacity to endure the challenges associated with weaning. This work aimed at developing a modelling approach for facilitating the quantification of piglet resilience to weaning. A total of 325 Large White pigs weaned at 28 days of age were monitored and further housed and fed conventionally during the post-weaning period without antibiotic administration. Body weight and diarrhoea scores were recorded before and after weaning, and blood was sampled at weaning and 1 week later for collecting haematological data. A dynamic model was constructed based on the Gompertz–Makeham law to describe live weight trajectories during the first 75 days after weaning, following the rationale that the animal response is partitioned in two time windows (a perturbation and a recovery window). Model calibration was performed for each animal. Our results show that the transition time between the two time windows, as well as the weight trajectories are characteristic for each individual. The model captured the weight dynamics of animals at different degrees of perturbation, with an average coefficient of determination of 0.99, and a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.99. The utility of the model is that it provides biologically meaningful parameters that inform on the amplitude and length of perturbation, and the rate of animal recovery. Our rationale is that the dynamics of weight inform on the capability of the animal to cope with the weaning disturbance. Indeed, there were significant correlations between model parameters and individual diarrhoea scores and haematological traits. Overall, the parameters of our model can be useful for constructing weaning robustness indexes by using exclusively the growth curves. We foresee that this modelling approach will provide a step forward in the quantitative characterisation of robustness.
Describe the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of an outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)–producing organisms and the novel use of a cohorting unit for its control.
A 566-room academic teaching facility in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Solid-organ transplant recipients.
Infection control bundles were used throughout the time of observation. All KPC cases were intermittently housed in a cohorting unit with dedicated nurses and nursing aids. The rooms used in the cohorting unit had anterooms where clean supplies and linens were placed. Spread of KPC-producing organisms was determined using rectal surveillance cultures on admission and weekly thereafter among all consecutive patients admitted to the involved units. KPC-positive strains underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing.
A total of 8 KPC cases (5 identified by surveillance) were identified from April 2016 to April 2017. After the index patient, 3 patients acquired KPC-producing organisms despite implementation of an infection control bundle. This prompted the use of a cohorting unit, which immediately halted transmission, and the single remaining KPC case was transferred out of the cohorting unit. However, additional KPC cases were identified within 2 months. Once the cohorting unit was reopened, no additional KPC cases occurred. The KPC-positive species identified during this outbreak included Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae complex, and Escherichia coli. blaKPC was identified on at least 2 plasmid backbones.
A complex KPC outbreak involving both clonal and plasmid-mediated dissemination was controlled using weekly surveillances and a cohorting unit.
The disease caused by the influenza virus is a global public health problem due to its high rates of morbidity and mortality. Thus, analysis of the information generated by epidemiological surveillance systems has vital importance for health decision making. A retrospective analysis was performed using data generated by the four molecular diagnostic laboratories of the Mexican Social Security Institute between 2010 and 2016. Demographics, influenza positivity, seasonality, treatment choices and vaccination status analyses were performed for the vaccine according to its composition for each season. In all cases, both the different influenza subtypes and different age groups were considered separately. The circulation of A/H1N1pdm09 (48.7%), influenza A/H3N2 (21.1%), influenza B (12.6%), influenza A not subtyped (11%) and influenza A/H1N1 (6.6%) exhibited well-defined annual seasonality between November and March, and there were significant increases in the number of cases every 2 years. An inadequate use of oseltamivir was determined in 38% of cases, and the vaccination status in general varied between 12.1 and 18.5% depending on the season. Our results provide current information about influenza in Mexico and demonstrate the need to update both operational case definitions and medical practice guidelines to reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics and antivirals.
The continual rise of anthropogenic disturbance of ecosystems has been associated with an increasing incidence of emerging diseases. The largest amount of data on emerging diseases relates to bacterial and viral pathogens, but there is a lack of parasite data, especially from wildlife. Monitoring wildlife parasitic diseases should be considered a priority, especially in high biodiversity regions with strong anthropogenic impacts, like Mexico, where the wildlife/livestock/human interface is associated with increased risk of disease transmission. Mexico belongs to the top-ten megadiverse countries and is located between two biogeographic regions. This situation makes Mexico a favourable region for the spillover of animal pathogens to human beings, causing pandemics, such as the one recently caused by influenza virus A (H1N1). The current state of knowledge of Mexican wildlife parasites is scarce and focuses mainly in Neotropical fauna. Moreover, this knowledge is heterogeneous for different parasite groups, especially concerning their pathologic effects and epidemiology. The goals of this review are to compile information on Mexican wildlife parasites and to identify knowledge gaps in order to stimulate research on pending epidemiological, public health, ecological and pathological areas, and to encourage the creation of more specialized groups from the perspective of the One-Health concept.
A low finishing weight and poor carcass characteristics are major causes of lower incomes in extensive sheep flocks; however, the use of terminal sire crossbreeding would improve lamb performance and carcass traits under these conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate sire breed effects on the performance of lambs born to Corriedale ewes in extensive sheep systems in Western Patagonia. A total of 10 Corriedale, 10 Dorset, nine Suffolk and seven Texel sires, 16 of which were under a genetic recorded scheme and 20 selected from flocks not participating in genetic improvement programmes, were used across six commercial farms for 2 successive years. Data were collected from 685 lambs of the four resulting genotypes. Overall, Corriedale lambs were 0.47 kg lighter at birth than crossbred lambs (P<0.001). Suffolk and Texel sired lambs required more assistance (P<0.01) at birth than Corriedale or Dorset sired lambs, with Suffolk sired lambs requiring the most assistance (8%). Ewes sired with Suffolk rams had larger (P<0.05) litters than ewes sired with Texel or Corriedale rams. Lamb live weight gain from birth to weaning was higher (P<0.001) in crossbred lambs compared with Corriedale lambs, therefore, crossbred lambs averaged 2.9 kg heavier BW (P<0.001) than Corriedale lambs. A significant sire breed x sire source interaction was detected for lamb live weight gain (P<0.05) and lamb live weight at weaning (P<0.01), showing that the heaviest lambs were from recorded sires, except for Suffolk crossbred lambs. Mortality rate to weaning was increased (P<0.05) in Suffolk cross lambs (31%), with Corriedale lambs showing the lowest (17%) mortality. Terminal sire breeds increased (P<0.001) cold carcass weight, with 13.8, 16.0, 15.2 and 14.9 kg for the Corriedale, Dorset, Suffolk and Texel sired lambs, respectively. Carcass length, kidney knob and channel fat, fat grade, grade rule and fat depth measurements were not affected by sire breed (P>0.05). Carcass conformation was higher in Texel sired lambs compared with Corriedale lambs (P<0.05), with Dorset and Suffolk sired lambs being intermediate. Crossbred lambs showed a greater (P<0.001) eye muscle than Corriedale. Commercial cuts were affected by sire breed, as a result of the Corriedale lambs being smaller and having lighter carcass than crossbred lambs. Significant improvement in lamb weights at weaning and carcass traits could be expected when using a terminal sire on Corriedale ewes in Western Patagonia. However, no advantages were detected with the use of recorded sires under these production systems.
The Brangus breed was developed to combine the superior characteristics of both of its founder breeds, Angus and Brahman. It combines the high adaptability to tropical and subtropical environments, disease resistance, and overall hardiness of Zebu cattle with the reproductive potential and carcass quality of Angus. It is known that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC, also known as bovine leucocyte antigen: BoLA), located on chromosome 23, encodes several genes involved in the adaptive immune response and may be responsible for adaptation to harsh environments. The objective of this work was to evaluate whether the local breed ancestry percentages in the BoLA locus of a Brangus population diverged from the estimated genome-wide proportions and to identify signatures of positive selection in this genomic region. For this, 167 animals (100 Brangus, 45 Angus and 22 Brahman) were genotyped using a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism array. The local ancestry analysis showed that more than half of the haplotypes (55.0%) shared a Brahman origin. This value was significantly different from the global genome-wide proportion estimated by cluster analysis (34.7% Brahman), and the proportion expected by pedigree (37.5% Brahman). The analysis of selection signatures by genetic differentiation (Fst) and extended haplotype homozygosity-based methods (iHS and Rsb) revealed 10 and seven candidate regions, respectively. The analysis of the genes located within these candidate regions showed mainly genes involved in immune response-related pathway, while other genes and pathways were also observed (cell surface signalling pathways, membrane proteins and ion-binding proteins). Our results suggest that the BoLA region of Brangus cattle may have been enriched with Brahman haplotypes as a consequence of selection processes to promote adaptation to subtropical environments.
Daytime restricted feeding (2 h of food access from 12.00 to 14.00 hours for 3 weeks) is an experimental protocol that modifies the relationship between metabolic networks and the circadian molecular clock. The precise anatomical locus that controls the biochemical and physiological adaptations to optimise nutrient use is unknown. We explored the changes in liver oxidative lipid handling, such as β-oxidation and its regulation, as well as adaptations in the lipoprotein profile. It was found that daytime restricted feeding promoted an elevation of circulating ketone bodies before mealtime, an altered hepatic daily rhythmicity of 14CO2 production from radioactive palmitic acid, and an up-regulation of the fatty acid oxidation activators, the α-subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the deacetylase silent mating type information regulation homolog 1, and the transcriptional factor PPARγ-1α coactivator. An increased localisation of phosphorylated α-subunit of AMPK in the periportal hepatocytes was also observed. Liver hepatic lipase C, important for lipoprotein transformation, showed a change of daily phase with a peak at the time of food access. In serum, there was an increase of LDL, which was responsible for a net elevation of circulating cholesterol. We conclude that our results indicate an enhanced fasting response in the liver during daily synchronisation to food access, which involves altered metabolic and cellular control of fatty acid oxidation as well a significant elevation of serum LDL. These adaptations could be part of the metabolic input that underlies the expression of the food-entrained oscillator.
A point mutation resulting in a specific amino acid change(K27M) in either one of the genes encoding histone H3, H3F3A (H3.3) or HIST1H3B/C/I (H3.1)is present in most pediatric intrinsic pontine gliomas, and has been described in other midline locations. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency and location of this mutation in diffuse infiltrating gliomas in young adults. The study group consisted of 22 consecutive diffuse gliomas in patients under the age of 40 treated at St. Michael’s Hospital, an adult hospital in the University of Toronto system. Ultra-sensitive digital droplet PCR, a method capable of highly sensitive and specific mutation detection affecting either H3.3 or H3.1, was performed on sample DNA to determine H3K27M status. The H3K27M mutation was detected in the gliomas of five patients, aged 17 to 34 years. The male: female ratio was 3:2. The allele frequency ranged from 26% to 44%, reflecting the infiltrating character of the tumors. Three of the tumors where located in the thalamus, one in the medulla, and one was intraventricular. In terms of grading, one tumor was considered WHO grade II, two III, and two IV. In contrast, most tumors in patients with gliomas lacking the K27M mutation (17 subjects, age 19 to 39 years) were located in the lobes of the cerebral hemispheres, with the following exceptions: 1 in the thalamus, 1 in the hypothalamus, 1 in the cerebellum, and 1 periventricular. WHO grades were 1 II, 9 III, 7 IV. Correlation with patient outcome is ongoing. We conclude that the H3K27M is common in thalamic gliomas in young adult patients, and rare or absent in lobar hemispheric gliomas.
The importance of PRE herbicide applications in cotton has increased since the evolution of glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth. Cotton producers are relying on residual herbicides for control of Palmer amaranth, as POST options are limited or ineffective. S-Metolachlor, acetochlor, fomesafen, and dicamba all provide PRE control of Palmer amaranth; however, little is known about the effect of irrigation rate on incorporation and herbicidal efficacy. In 2015, an experiment was conducted on fine sand and loamy sand soils to evaluate the influence of irrigation volume (0.0 to 12.7 mm ha−1) on Palmer amaranth control with PRE herbicides. Irrigation volume after herbicide application was significant for both S-metolachlor and acetochlor. Efficacy of S-metolachlor was greatest in plots receiving 6.4 and 12.7 mm of irrigation where Palmer amaranth biomass was reduced to 4 and 2% of a nontreated control (NTC), respectively, compared with 61% in plots with the 0-mm irrigation treatment. Palmer amaranth control by acetochlor incorporated at 3.2- to 12.7-mm irrigation did not differ but did reduce Palmer amaranth biomass compared with the 1.6-mm irrigation rate. Irrigation volume was not significant for the soil incorporation of fomesafen or dicamba. Across all herbicides, fomesafen-treated plots provided the most consistent control of Palmer amaranth, reducing its biomass to < 3% of NTC at all irrigation rates. Dicamba provided the least and most inconsistent control of Palmer amaranth, producing 17 to 51% of NTC biomass.
It is now well established that there is a diffuse ionised medium which extends far beyond the disks of spirals. The mechanism responsible for the ionisation is still an issue of debate, and the method of measuring the total luminosity, independently of the observational set-up, has to be defined. Here we analyse the case of the Magellanic irregular NGC 4449, using Fabry–Perot bidimensional mapping of the Hα emission line, at the 4·2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) telescope on La Palma, Canary Islands. The total spatial coverage of 80×80 arcsec2 allows most of the star forming regions to be sampled at 0·26 arcsec/pixel spatial resolution. Using 3D spectroscopy, it is possible to define the individual star-forming regions and to produce a luminosity versus size diagram. This can be used to estimate directly the number of photons leaking out from those regions exceeding the thickness of the galactic disc. In the case of NGC 4449 it is shown that the large population of GEHRs can be the source of UV photons ionising the diffuse ionised gas (DIG) of the galaxy, and the logL–R diagram can be used to quantify the number of photons leaking out of the material surrounding the star forming regions. In the case of NGC 4449 it is found that 54% of the total luminosity of the giant star-forming regions is lost to the DIG. This implies a contribution of 3·12×1040 erg s−1 (1 erg s−1 = 10−7 J s−1) which amounts to 30% of the galaxy total Hα luminosity.
I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6–7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable.
Disk galaxies in cosmological numerical simulations grow by accreting gas from the cosmic web. This gas reaches the external disk, and then spirals in dragged along by tidal forces and/or disk instabilities. The importance of gas infall is as clear from numerical simulations as it is obscure to observations. Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies seem to be the best example we have of the gas accretion process at work. They have large off-center starbursts which show significant metallicity drop compared with the host galaxy. This observation is naturally explained as a gas accretion event caught in the act. We present preliminary results of the kinematical properties of the metal poor starbursts in XMPs, which suggest that the starbursts are kinematically decoupled entities within the host galaxy.
Accretion of metal-poor gas via cold accretion flows has been recently proposed as a means to trigger/sustain star formation in extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies (XMPs), a scenario in agreement with theoretical predictions. We report on the tentative detection of CaII absorption used to trace the conditions of the gas clouds in the halo of the XMP UGCA 20.
The incidence of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) in Catalonia (Spain) has decreased in the last two decades. The prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii in human beings and dogs in the region of Vallès Occidental (Catalonia) was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence, and the results compared with those obtained in a similar study from 1987. Nineteen (5·0%) out of 383 human serum samples had antibodies to R. conorii. This seroprevalence was significantly lower (11·5%) (P = 0·003) than that recorded in the 1987 survey. Forty-two out (42·0%) of 100 canine serum samples had antibodies to R. conorii. A high proportion of the studied dogs (91·0%) were receiving anti-tick treatment, mainly with permethrin-imidacloprid spot-on (Advantix, Bayer, Germany). The current canine seroprevalence was not significantly different from that recorded in the 1987 survey (36.9%). In conclusion, this study shows a significant decrease in the prevalence of antibodies to R. conorii in the human population of Catalonia in the last 20 years, which corresponds with a decrease in the number of cases of MSF. We suggest that the widespread use of anti-tick treatment in dogs could limit the introduction of ticks to humans due to a reduction of infestation duration in dogs, thus contributing to the decrease in MSF incidence.