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Anxiety is debilitating and associated with numerous mental and physical comorbidities. There is a need to identify and investigate low-risk prevention and treatment strategies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between different volumes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) and anxiety symptoms and status among older adults in Ireland.
Participants (n = 4175; 56.8% female) aged ⩾50 years completed the International PA Questionnaire (IPAQ) at baseline, and the anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at baseline and follow-up (2009–2013). Participants were classified according to meeting World Health Organisation PA guidelines, and divided into IPAQ categories. Respondents without anxiety at baseline (n = 3165) were included in prospective analyses. Data were analysed in 2017.
Anxiety symptoms were significantly higher among females than males (p < 0.001). Models were adjusted for age, sex, waist circumference, social class, smoking status and pain. In cross-sectional analyses, meeting PA guidelines was associated with 9.3% (OR = 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.78–1.06) lower odds of anxiety. Compared with the inactive group, the minimally- and very-active groups were associated with 8.4% (OR = 0.92, 0.76–1.10) and 18.8% (OR = 0.81, 0.67–0.98) lower odds of anxiety, respectively. In prospective analyses, meeting guidelines was associated with 6.3% (OR = 0.94, 0.63–1.40) reduced odds of anxiety. Compared with the inactive group, the minimally and very-active groups were associated with 43.5% (OR = 1.44, 0.89–2.32) increased, and 4.3% (OR = 0.96, 0.56–1.63) reduced odds of anxiety. The presence of pain, included in models as a covariate, was associated with a 108.7% (OR = 2.09, 1.80–2.42) increase in odds of prevalent anxiety, and a 109.7% (OR = 2.10, 1.41–3.11) increase in odds of incident anxiety.
High volumes of PA are cross-sectionally associated with lower anxiety symptoms and status, with a potential dose–response apparent. However, significant associations were not observed in prospective analyses. The low absolute number of incident anxiety cases (n = 109) potentially influenced these findings. Further, as older adults may tend to experience and/or report more somatic anxiety symptoms, and the HADS focuses primarily on cognitive symptoms, it is plausible that the HADS was not an optimal measure of anxiety symptoms in the current population.
The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of cow genetic merit on enteric methane (CH4) emission rate. The study used a data set from 32 respiration calorimeter studies undertaken at this Institute between 1992 and 2010, with all studies involving lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Cow genetic merit was defined as either profit index (PIN) or profitable lifetime index (PLI), with these two United Kingdom genetic indexes expressing the expected improvement in profit associated with an individual cow, compared with the population average. While PIN is based solely on milk production, PLI includes milk production and a number of other functional traits including health, fertility and longevity. The data set had a large range in PIN (n=736 records, −£30 to +£63) and PLI (n=548 records, −£131 to +£184), days in milk (18 to 354), energy corrected milk yield (16.0 to 45.6 kg/day) and CH4 emission (138 to 598 g/day). The effect of cow genetic merit (PIN or PLI) was evaluated using ANOVA and linear mixed modelling techniques after removing the effects of a number of animal and diet factors. The ANOVA was undertaken by dividing each data set of PIN and PLI into three sub-groups (PIN:<£3, £3 to £15 and >£15, PLI:<£23, £23 to £67 and >£67) with these being categorised as low, medium and high genetic merit. Within the PIN and PLI data sets there was no significant differences among the three sub-groups in terms of CH4 emission per kg feed intake or per kg energy corrected milk yield, or CH4 energy (CH4-E) output as a proportion of energy intake. Linear regression using the whole PIN and PLI data sets also demonstrated that there was no significant relationship between either PIN or PLI, and CH4 emission per kg of feed intake or CH4-E output as a proportion of energy intake. These results indicate that cow genetic merit (PIN or PLI) has little effect on enteric CH4 emissions as a proportion of feed intake. Instead enteric CH4 production may mainly relate to total feed intake and dietary nutrient composition.
Uniform and multilayered nanocomposites are of growing interest due to their desirable mechanical properties and their performance under high stress, wear, and impact conditions. Composite structures offer an opportunity to combine the useful properties from multiple materials. Controlled variations in composition and microstructure within a composite material allow for tunable local variations in properties. The simplest version of such a variation is to periodically change the composite volume fraction to create a multilayered composite material. Such structures would have hard layers to maintain strength and softer layers to allow for greater plasticity and prevent brittle failure. We are able to manufacture uniform and layered composites of nickel matrices embedded with alumina nanoparticles using electrodeposition. In this method a rotating disk electrode (RDE) is used to directly control the rate of particle incorporation. Uniform composites are made by holding a constant RDE rotation rate while layered composites are manufactured by periodically varying the rotation rate during deposition. We have demonstrated this novel manufacturing process for large-scale samples, several square centimeters in area and hundreds of microns thick, while maintaining submicron microstructural resolution.
The World Mental Health Survey Initiative (WMHSI) has advanced our understanding of mental disorders by providing data suitable for analysis across many countries. However, these data have not yet been fully explored from a cross-national lifespan perspective. In particular, there is a shortage of research on the relationship between mood and anxiety disorders and age across countries. In this study we used multigroup methods to model the distribution of 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI mood and anxiety disorders across the adult lifespan in relation to determinants of mental health in 10 European Union (EU) countries.
Logistic regression was used to model the odds of any mood or any anxiety disorder as a function of age, gender, marital status, urbanicity and employment using a multigroup approach (n = 35500). This allowed for the testing of specific lifespan hypotheses across participating countries.
No simple geographical pattern exists with which to describe the relationship between 12-month prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders and age. Of the adults sampled, very few aged ⩾80 years met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for these disorders. The associations between these disorders and key sociodemographic variables were relatively homogeneous across countries after adjusting for age.
Further research is required to confirm that there are indeed stages in the lifespan where the reported prevalence of mental disorders is low, such as among younger adults in the East and older adults in the West. This project illustrates the difficulties in conducting research among different age groups simultaneously.
In the aftermath of the major earthquake that hit Pakistan in 2005, there appeared to be a paucity of psychometric tools validated in Urdu. It was decided to translate the Impact of Event Scale - Revised (IES-R) so as to obtain an internationally validated and recognised psychometric tool for use in research into post-traumatic stress disorder. The resulting Urdu and English versions of the IES-R were compared for linguistic, conceptual and scale equivalence. The Urdu version of the IES-R (UIES-R) can be used for clinical, psychological trauma populations in Pakistan with evidence of good reliability and satisfactory validity. In trauma research in Pakistan the UIES-R will be an extremely useful psychometric tool.
Coccidioidomycosis results from inhaling spores of the fungus Coccidioides spp. in soil or airborne dust in endemic areas. We investigated an outbreak of coccidioidomycosis in a 12-person civilian construction crew that excavated soil during an underground pipe installation on Camp Roberts Military Base, California in October 2007. Ten (83·3%) workers developed symptoms of coccidioidomycosis; eight (66·7%) had serologically confirmed disease, seven had abnormal chest radiographs, and one developed disseminated infection; none used respiratory protection. A diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis in an eleventh worker followed his exposure to the outbreak site in 2008. Although episodic clusters of infections have occurred at Camp Roberts, the general area is not associated with the high disease rates found in California's San Joaquin Valley. Measures to minimize exposure to airborne spores during soil-disrupting activities should be taken before work begins in any coccidioides-endemic area, including regions with only historic evidence of disease activity.
The concurrent validity of a 1 minute walk test at a child's maximum walking speed was assessed in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (BSCP). The distance covered during the 1 minute walk test was compared with the children's gross motor function as assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). Twenty-four male and 10 female children with CP (mean age 11y, range 4 to 16y) participated in the study. Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels were; level I (n=3), level II (n=17), level III (n=10), and level IV (n=4). Participants had clinical diagnoses of symmetrical diplegia (n=19), asymmetrical diplegia (n=14), and quadriplegia (n=1). Results showed a significant correlation between GMFM score and the distance covered during the 1 minute walk (r=0.92; p<0.001). There was also a significant decrease in the distance walked with increasing GMFCS level (p<0.001). We concluded that the 1 minute walk test is a valid measure for assessing functional ability in children with ambulatory BSCP. Its cost-effectiveness and user friendliness make it a potentially useful tool in the clinical setting. Further study needs to address its reliability and ability to detect change over time.
We present the first results from a Chandra survey of the central region of the Small Magellanic Cloud. We detect a total of 122 sources down to a limiting luminosity of ~4.3 x 1033erg s–1, including 4 pulsars, 5 SNRs and two new transient sources. We also identify 18 more transient candidates based on comparison with ROSAT and ASCA surveys.
Interventions for prevention and treatment of childhood obesity typically target increases in physical activity and, more recently, reductions in physical inactivity (sedentary behaviour such as television viewing). However, the evidence base for such strategies is extremely limited. The main aim of the present review was to update the systematic review and critical appraisal of evidence in the light of the recent rapid expansion of research in this area. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) that targeted activity or inactivity, that followed up children or adolescents for at least 1 year and that included an objective weight-related outcome measure were included. Trials were appraised using previously published criteria (Harbour & Miller, 2001), and literature search strategies described previously (Reilly et al. 2002) were updated to May 2002. A total of four new RCT, two new systematic reviews and one meta-analysis were identified. The evidence base has increased markedly since the completion of earlier reviews, although high-quality evidence is still lacking. The evidence on childhood obesity prevention is not encouraging, although promising targets for prevention are now clear, notably reduction in sedentary behaviour. There is stronger evidence that targeting activity and/or inactivity might be effective in paediatric obesity treatment, but doubts as to the generalisability of existing interventions, and the clinical relevance of the interventions is unclear. Further research in settings outside the USA is urgently needed, and two ongoing RCT in Scotland are summarised.
This study compared phosphorus (P) speciation and the relationship between bicarbonate extractable (Olsen) P and 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable P (a measure of potentially mobile P) in soils from plots of the Park Grass experiment started in 1856 at IACR-Rothamsted, UK and with and without nitrogen as (NH4)2SO4 and with and without calcium carbonate (CaCO3, lime). A point, termed the change point, was noted in Olsen P, above which 0.01 M CaCl2-P increased at a greater rate per unit increase in Olsen P than below this point. Previous findings have shown a change point for soils with a pH>5.8 at 56 mg Olsen P/kg and at 120 mg Olsen P/kg for soils below this pH. Soils given (NH4)2SO4 annually since 1856 and with lime periodically since 1903 mostly had a pH between 3.7 to 5.7, some of these (NH4)2SO4 treated soils were limed to pH 6.5 and above from 1965. Irrespective of their pH in 1991/92 all the soils had a similar change point (120 mg Olsen P/kg) to that found for other soils with pH<5.8 (112 mg Olsen P/kg). In a laboratory study lasting 30 days, the addition of CaCO3 to acid soils from the field experiment that had received (NH4)2SO4 had a similar change point to soils with pH<5.8 irrespective of pH, suggesting soil P chemistry was controlled by the long period of soil acidity and this was not reversed by a short period at a higher pH. The effect of pH was attributed to the creation of P sorptive surfaces on aluminium precipitates compared with less acidic soils (pH>5.8) where there was less exchangeable Al to be precipitated. This was confirmed with solid-state 31P nuclear magnetic resonance, which indicated that for soils of similar total P concentration and pH, there was twice as much amorphous Al-P in soils given (NH4)2SO4 compared with those without. Changes in pH as a result of applications of (NH4)2SO4 or lime can greatly change the concentration of potentially mobile P due to the effects on Al solubility. Although there was less potentially mobile P in soils with pH<5.8 than in soils above this pH, it is usually advised in temperate regions to maintain soils about pH 6.5 for arable crops.
To study the effect of advice to increase dietary soluble fibre, including fruit and vegetables, on plasma folate and homocysteine in men with angina.
Data were collected on a subset of subjects from the Diet and Angina Randomised Trial (DART II). In a randomised (2 × 2) factorial design, subjects received advice on either, neither or both interventions to: (1) increase soluble fibre intake to 8.0 g day−1 (fruit, vegetables and oats); (2) increase oily fish intake to 2 portions week−1. Those who received soluble fibre advice were compared with those who did not. Subjects were genotyped for C677T variant 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR).
Seven hundred and fifty-three male angina patients were recruited from general practice.
Plasma homocysteine concentrations were at the upper end of the normal range (median 11.5, 25% 9.4, 75% 14.0 μmol l−1). Baseline intake of fruit and vegetables was positively correlated with plasma folate (rs = 0.29, P < 0.01). Smokers had lower intakes of fruit and vegetables, lower plasma folate and higher homocysteine (all P < 0.01). Homozygotes for variant MTHFR had higher homocysteine concentrations at low plasma folate (P < 0.01). Reported intakes of fruit and vegetables and estimated dietary folate increased in the intervention group (ca. +75 g day−1, P < 0.01 and ca. +20 g day−1, P < 0.05, respectively). However, neither plasma folate (baseline/follow-up 4.5 vs. 4.4 μg l−1, P = 0.40) nor homocysteine (baseline/follow-up 11.7 vs. 11.7 μmol l−1, P = 0.31) changed.
Plasma homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk factor, is influenced by MTHFR genotype, plasma folate and smoking status. Dietary advice successfully led to changes in fruit and vegetable intake, but not to changes in plasma folate or homocysteine, possibly because the fruits and vegetables that were chosen were not those richest in folate.
Without creating certain illusions, to which hope could also be added as a moving beyond despair, the early Nietzsche felt one would be resigned to a paralysing, despairing life-denying, nausea. After all, some form of hope is necessary to human existence in order to open otherwise closed avenues towards the future, one that can resist the contemporary loss of certain imaginings of our futures.
Excess disability was examined in 17 nursing home residents with dementia by comparing their performance of morning care tasks under two activities of daily living (ADL) caregiving approaches—a dependence-supportive one under usual care and an independence-supportive one under functional rehabilitation. The results suggest that excess disability in severely cognitively impaired and functionally disabled residents can be reduced by increasing opportunities for independent activity, and substituting nondirective and directive verbal assists for physical assists. Further, the findings indicate that increased independence in ADL can be achieved without increasing disruptive behaviors and can foster appropriate requests for task-related help during caregiving. Functional rehabilitation, however, requires more time than usual care.
Polychromatic synchrotron x-ray microbeams offer a very efficient alternative to electron beam methods for quantifying the amount and character of grain subdivision accompanying large deformations. With a 0.01 mm diameter collimator, bending magnet radiation from a 3.0 GeV source and image storage plates, samples of copper with thicknesses greater than 0.1 mm have been studied. Results from an as-received sample and a sample deformed to 100% torsion are compared and illustrate how efficiently grain subdivision can be quantified with polychromatic microbeam diffraction.
The present investigation explores the use of nitride precipitates for grain-size stabilization in a 18Cr-2ONi austenitic stainless steel for high temperature applications in oxidizing atmospheres. The potential for reductions in alloying contents of such steels has become a focus of research out of concern for the conservation of strategic alloying elements such as Cr. In order for the alloy to maintain superior oxidation resistance, it must sustain a fine grain size by virtue of effective grain boundary pinning by stable precipitates.
Al and Ti microalloyed 18Cr-20Ni steels have been nitrided using rapid solidification processing (spray forming) and subjected to thermomechanical treatments to precipitate nitrides from the supersaturated solid solutions. The spray formed deposits were cold rolled to increase the density of dislocations, which act as sites for nucleation of nitride precipitates. The alloys were then annealed to nucleate and grow the precipitates, followed by cold rolling and recrystallization to generate a stable, fine grained microstructure. The Ti-microalloyed steel demonstrated high-temperature grain size stability by maintaining a grain size of≈7μm after 600h at 1000°C.
The Ti-microalloyed steel has been subjected to isothermal oxidation in air at 900°C. The results of preliminary oxidation experiments are reported. The spray deposited and thermomechanically processed alloy demonstrated high-temperature oxidation behavior superior to conventionally processed (hot rolled and annealed) alloys.