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Pork and pork products are recognised as vehicles of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in humans. Seaweed-derived polysaccharides (SWE) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) have shown to exhibit antimicrobial, prebiotic and immunomodulatory activity. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary GOS and SWE supplementation on reducing S. Typhimurium numbers and intestinal inflammation in vivo. In total, 30 pigs (n=10/treatment, BW 30.9 kg) were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments: (1) basal diet; (2) basal diet+2.5 g GOS/kg diet; (3) basal diet+SWE (containing 180 mg laminarin/kg diet+340 mg fucoidan/kg diet). Following an 11-day dietary adaptation period, pigs were orally challenged with 108 colony-forming units/ml S. Typhimurium (day 0). Pigs remained on their diets for a further 17 days and were then sacrificed for sample collection. The SWE supplementation did not affect S. Typhimurium numbers on days 2 and 4 post-challenge but reduced S. Typhimurium numbers in faecal samples collected day 7 post-challenge (−0.80 log gene copy numbers (GCN)/g faeces) and in caecal and colonic digesta (−0.62 and −0.98 log GCN/g digesta, respectively; P<0.05) compared with the control treatment. Lactobacillus numbers were increased in caecal and colonic digesta after GOS supplementation (+0.70 and +0.35 log GCN/g digesta, respectively; P<0.05). In colonic tissue, both GOS and SWE supplementation resulted in reduced messenger RNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-22, tumour necrosis factor-α and regenerating islet-derived protein 3-γ (P<0.05). It can be concluded that dietary supplementation of SWE reduced faecal and intestinal S. Typhimurium numbers compared with the basal diet, whereas dietary GOS supplementation increased Lactobacillus numbers in caecal and colonic digesta but did not affect S. Typhimurium numbers. Supplementation of GOS and SWE reduced the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in colonic tissue of pigs after the experimental S. Typhimurium challenge.
Theoretical and empirical evidence suggest that the way in which parents discuss everyday emotional experiences with their young children (i.e., elaborative reminiscing) has significant implications for child cognitive and socioemotional functioning, and that maltreating parents have a particularly difficult time in engaging in this type of dialogue. This dyadic interactional exchange, therefore, has the potential to be an important process variable linking child maltreatment to developmental outcomes at multiple levels of analysis. The current investigation evaluated the role of maternal elaborative reminiscing in associations between maltreatment and child cognitive, emotional, and physiological functioning. Participants included 43 maltreated and 49 nonmaltreated children (aged 3–6) and their mothers. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about four past emotional events, and children participated in assessments of receptive language and emotion knowledge. Child salivary cortisol was also collected from children three times a day (waking, midday, and bedtime) on 2 consecutive days to assess daily levels and diurnal decline. Results indicated that maltreating mothers engaged in significantly less elaborative reminiscing than did nonmaltreating mothers. Maternal elaborative reminiscing mediated associations between child maltreatment and child receptive language and child emotion knowledge. In addition, there was support for an indirect pathway between child maltreatment and child cortisol diurnal decline through maternal elaborative reminiscing. Directions for future research are discussed, and potential clinical implications are addressed.
The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the value of whole genome sequencing (WGS) compared to conventional typing methods in the investigation and control of an outbreak of Shigella sonnei in the Orthodox Jewish (OJ) community in the UK. The genome sequence analysis showed that the strains implicated in the outbreak formed three phylogenetically distinct clusters. One cluster represented cases associated with recent exposure to a single strain, whereas the other two clusters represented related but distinct strains of S. sonnei circulating in the OJ community across the UK. The WGS data challenged the conclusions drawn during the initial outbreak investigation and allowed cases of dysentery to be implicated or ruled out of the outbreak that were previously misclassified. This study showed that the resolution achieved using WGS would have clearly defined the outbreak, thus facilitating the promotion of infection control measures within local schools and the dissemination of a stronger public health message to the community.
The objective of this study was to determine the intracranial, cardiovascular and respiratory changes induced by conversion to high-frequency oscillator ventilation from conventional mechanical ventilation at increasing airway pressures.
In this study, 11 anaesthetized sheep had invasive cardiovascular and intracranial monitors placed. Lung injury was induced by saline lavage and head injury was induced by inflation of an intracranial balloon catheter. All animals were sequentially converted from conventional mechanical ventilation to high-frequency oscillator ventilation at target mean airway pressures of 16, 22, 28, 34 and 40 cm H2O. The mean airway pressure was achieved by adjusting positive end expiratory pressure while on conventional mechanical ventilation, and continuous distending pressures while on high-frequency oscillator ventilation. Cerebral lactate production, oxygen consumption and venous oximetry were measured and analysed in relation to changes in transcranial Doppler flow velocity. Transcranial Doppler profiles together with other physiological parameters were measured at each airway pressure.
Cerebral perfusion pressure was significantly lower during high-frequency oscillator ventilation than during conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV: 45, 34, 22, 6, 9 mmHg vs. HFOV: 33, 20, 19, 5, 5 mmHg at airway pressures mentioned above, P = 0.02). Intracranial pressure and cerebrovascular resistance increased with increasing intrathoracic pressures (P = 0.001). Cerebral metabolic indices demonstrated an initial increase in anaerobic metabolism followed by a decrease in cerebral oxygen consumption progressing to cerebral infarction as intrathoracic pressures were further increased in a stepwise fashion. Arterial PaCO2 increased significantly after converting from conventional mechanical ventilation to high-frequency oscillator ventilation (P = 0.001). However, no difference was observed between conventional mechanical ventilation and high-frequency oscillator ventilation when intracranial pressure, metabolic and transcranial Doppler indices were compared at equivalent mean airway pressures.
The use of high positive end expiratory pressure with conventional mechanical ventilation or high continuous distending pressure with high-frequency oscillator ventilation increased intracranial pressure and adversely affected cerebral metabolic indices in this ovine model. Transcranial Doppler is a useful adjunct to intracranial pressure and intracranial venous saturation monitoring when major changes in ventilation strategy are adopted.
The Palaeogene Slieve Gullion Igneous Complex comprises a layered central intrusion surrounded by a slightly older ring dyke. The ring dyke contains two major intrusive rock types. About 70% of the ring dyke is occupied by porphyritic granophyre and 30% by porphyritic felsite. Locally complex relationships between the two lithologies are observed. Major and trace element compositions suggest that there are two distinct chemical groups within each lithology: a Si-rich felsite, concentrated in a ~1 m wide zone at the outer margins of the dyke which grades into a less Si-rich felsite towards the interior. Similarly, a Si-rich granophyre, concentrated in the centre of the intrusion grades outwards into a Si-poor granophyre facies.
These rock relationships and geochemical variations suggest that a complex magma chamber hosted a stratified granitic magma body and various wall/floor magma facies. Low density, high-Si felsite magma from the top of the chamber was tapped first, followed by less Si-rich felsite magma as evacuation proceeded. The granophyres probably originate from the chamber walls/floor, representing more mushy equivalents of the felsite magma. Little granophyre magma was tapped during the early stages of the evacuation sequence. As evacuation continued, probably aided by trap-door caldera collapse, the ‘granophyre magmas’ intruded the already emplaced and slightly cooled felsite, forming the complexly zoned structure of the Slieve Gullion ring intrusion.
Artificial rearing is a common practice for rearing calves from the dairy herd destined for beef production. Calves fed increased amounts of milk replacer in early life have higher live weight gains than those on lower levels of milk and are subsequently heavier at weaning. After a period of nutritional restriction beef animals can exhibit compensatory growth. However it has been suggested that growth restriction in early life can result in reduced levels of compensation (Ryan, 1990). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing the daily allowance of milk replacer offered on a restricted basis to Continental x Holstein beef calves during the first 6 weeks on compensatory growth from weaning to 11 weeks.
Background and objective: Statins are prescribed for patients with hypercholesterolemia. Atorvastatin is metabolized by cytochrome P4503A4 and inhibits P4503A4 activity in vitro. Alfentanil is a potent opioid used in clinical anaesthetic practice and is also metabolized by P4503A4. This study tested the hypothesis that chronic atorvastatin administration inhibits the metabolism of alfentanil.
Methods: Sixteen patients undergoing elective surgery were studied as matched pairs. One member of each pair was maintained on standard doses of atorvastatin for at least 4 months. Each patient received an alfentanil bolus (80 μg kg−1) intravenously (i.v.), followed by an alfentanil infusion (0.67 μg kg−1 min−1) for 90 min. Serial plasma alfentanil concentrations were measured using gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorous detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using two-compartment linear modelling.
Results: One patient and the corresponding match were excluded from the analysis. The elimination half-life of alfentanil was similar in the control and atorvastatin groups (98.8 ± 12.4 versus 98.3 ± 11.3 min, respectively). The clearance (Cl), volume of distribution at steady-state (Vdss) and area under the curve (AUC) were similar in the two groups (Cl = 0.20 (±0.06) and 0.22 (±0.04) L min−1, Vdss = 0.38 (±0.07) and 0.39 (±0.07) L kg−1, AUC = 0.05 (±0.02) and 0.04 (±0.01) mg min mL−1).
Conclusions: Concurrent atorvastatin administration does not alter the pharmacokinetics of alfentanil in patients undergoing elective surgery.
Roman Coinage suffered from severe debasement during the 3rd century AD. By 250 AD., the production of complex copper alloy (Cu-Sn-Pb-Ag) coins with a silvered surface, became common practice. The same method continued to be applied during the 4th century AD for the production of a new denomination introduced by Diocletian in 293/4 AD. Previous analyses of these coins did not solve key technological issues and in particular, the silvering process. The British Museum kindly allowed further research at Bradford to examine coins from Cope's Archive in more detail, utilizing XRF, SEM-EDS metallography, LA-ICP-MS and EPMA. Metallographic and SEM examination of 128 coins, revealed that the silver layer was very difficult to trace because its thickness was a few microns and in some cases it was present under the corrosion layer. Results derived from the LA-ICP-MS and EPMA analyses have demonstrated, for the first time, the presence of Hg in the surface layers of these coins. A review of ancient sources and historic literature indicated possible methods which might have been used for the production of the plating. A programme of plating experiments was undertaken to examine a number of variables in the process, such as amalgam preparation, and heating cycles. Results from the experimental work are presented.
Therapy of hemochromatosis and iron overload
James C. Barton, Southern Iron Disorders Center, Birmingham, Alabama,
Sharon M. McDonnell, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta. Georgia,
Paul C. Adams, London Health Sciences Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada,
Pierre Brissot, Hôpital Universitaire Pontchaillou, Rennes, France,
Lawrie W. Powell, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia,
Corwin Q. Edwards, University of Utah College of Medicine and LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah,
James D. Cook, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas,
Kris V. Kowdley, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
The complications of iron overload in the hemochromatosis can be avoided by early diagnosis and appropriate management. Therapeutic phlebotomy is used to remove excess iron and maintain low normal body iron stores, and it should be initiated in men with serum ferritin levels of 300 g/l or more and in women with serum ferritin levels of 200 μg/l or more, regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms. Typically, therapeutic phlebotomy consist of (i) removal of 1 unit (450 to 500 ml) of blood weekly untilthe serum ferritin level is 10 to 20 μg/l and (ii) maintenance of the serum ferritin level at 50 μg/l or less the reafter by periodic removal of blood. Hyperferritinemia attributable to iron overload is resolved by therapeutic phlebotomy. When applied before iron overload becomes severe, this treatment also prevents complications of iron overload, including hepatic cirrhosis, primary liver cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, joint disease, and cardiomyopathy. In patients with established iron overload disease, weakness, fatigue, increased hepaticenzyme concentrations, right upper quadrant pain, and hyperpigmentation are often substantially alleviated by therapeutic phlebotomy. Patients with liver disease, joint disease, diabetes mellitus and other endocrinopathic abnormalities, and cardiac abnormalities of ten require additional, specific management. Dietary management of hemochromatosis includes avoidance of medicinal iron, mineral supplements, excess vitamin C, and uncooked sea foods. This can reduce the rate of iron reaccumulation; reduce retention of non-ferrous metals; and help reduce complications of liver disease, diabetes mellitus, and Vibrio infection. This comprehensive approach to the management of hemochromatosis can decrease the frequency and severity of iron overload, improve quality of life, and increase longevity.
There is a general malaise concerning trinitarian theology, which usually is attributed to its speculative complexity, or what we are calling in these pages, ‘the far country’. The abstractness of trinitarian theology is partly funded by an overlysharp distinction between the ‘economic’ and the ‘immanent’ trinity, or between God's activity in salvation history, and God's self-relatedness. The marginal position of trinitarian theology is also a direct result of the development of Western trinitarian doctrine apart from its proper home in liturgy and the language of praise. Despite this, there is evidence that the museum days of trinitarian theology are rapidly coming to an end.
As before a number of authors have contributed reviews of their own field. The contributions were editted by the President in order to avoid some overlaps, to reduce the length of the reviews and to add some publications. Reference numbers from “Astronomy and Astrophysics Abstracts” were used when available. In the end of the report a list of references not found in “Abstracts” is given. As editor, the President takes the responsibility for any shortcomings in the report.
Experiments designed for the investigation of the near-Earth micrometeoroid flux on the Space Shuttle Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) are described. The paper examines, in particular, how two of the experiments deploy a series of multiple layer foil arrays to investigate the physical properties of incident meteoroids and lead to partial recovery of the micrometeoroids for laboratory analysis. Several thousand penetrations are expected to be returned after 12 months' exposure in Space.
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