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Presenting new approaches to studying food webs, this book uses practical management and policy examples to demonstrate the theory behind ecosystem management decisions and the broader issue of sustainability. All the information that readers need to use food web analyses as a tool for understanding and quantifying transition processes is provided. Advancing the idea of food webs as complex adaptive systems, readers are challenged to rethink how changes in environmental conditions affect these systems. Beginning with the current state of thinking about community organisation, complexity and stability, the book moves on to focus on the traits of organisms, the adaptive nature of communities and their impacts on ecosystem function. The final section of the book addresses the applications to management and sustainability. By helping to understand the complexities of multispecies networks, this book provides insights into the evolution of organisms and the fate of ecosystems in a changing world.
Se is an essential micronutrient for human health, and fluctuations in Se levels and the potential cellular dysfunction associated with it may increase the risk for disease. Although Se has been shown to influence several biological pathways important in health, little is known about the effect of Se on the expression of microRNA (miRNA) molecules regulating these pathways. To explore the potential role of Se-sensitive miRNA in regulating pathways linked with colon cancer, we profiled the expression of 800 miRNA in the CaCo-2 human adenocarcinoma cell line in response to a low-Se (72 h at <40 nm) environment using nCounter direct quantification. These data were then examined using a range of in silico databases to identify experimentally validated miRNA–mRNA interactions and the biological pathways involved. We identified ten Se-sensitive miRNA (hsa-miR-93-5p, hsa-miR-106a-5p, hsa-miR-205-5p, hsa-miR-200c-3p, hsa-miR-99b-5p, hsa-miR-302d-3p, hsa-miR-373-3p, hsa-miR-483-3p, hsa-miR-512-5p and hsa-miR-4454), which regulate 3588 mRNA in key pathways such as the cell cycle, the cellular response to stress, and the canonical Wnt/β-catenin, p53 and ERK/MAPK signalling pathways. Our data show that the effects of low Se on biological pathways may, in part, be due to these ten Se-sensitive miRNA. Dysregulation of the cell cycle and of the stress response pathways due to low Se may influence key genes involved in carcinogenesis.