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Did the American public become more protectionist during the Great Recession of 2007–09? If so, why? During this period, many observers expressed concern that rising unemployment would stimulate protectionist pressures. The results of this study indicate that although increased unemployment did not affect the trade preferences of most Americans, individuals working in import-competing industries who lost their jobs during the Great Recession did grow more hostile to trade. However, even greater hostility to trade stemmed from a variety of non-material factors. Increasing ethnocentrism and opposition to involvement in world affairs between 2007 and 2009 help account for growing antipathy toward trade. But most importantly, increasing anxiety that foreign commerce would harm people in the future, even if it had not done so thus far, contributed to mounting opposition to trade among the American public.
Here is a study of what Leo Strauss in his marvelous book, Thoughts on Machiavelli (1958), tells us about Machiavelli's The Prince, and how he tells it. The “how” is quite remarkable: his book is unlike any other book that has ever been written on Machiavelli. For the first time Machiavelli's esotericism is not only alluded to or introduced but explained at length. In explaining, Strauss shows how he arrived at his discoveries in Machiavelli's texts, teaching his readers the proper mixture of innocence and savvy. With his book Strauss gives a wholly new picture of an author who set store by being “wholly new.” All scholarly studies on Machiavelli can now be divided into those written before Strauss and those written after him, and the latter between those that take account of him in some fashion and those that willfully, or blithely, ignore him.
Economists have argued that outsourcing is another form of international trade. However, based on a representative national survey of Americans conducted in 2007 and 2009, the distribution of preferences on these two issues appears to be quite different. This article examines the origins of attitudes toward outsourcing, focusing on the extent to which it reflects (1) the economic vulnerabilities of individuals; (2) the information they receive about outsourcing, including their subjective understanding of what constitutes outsourcing; and (3) noneconomic attitudes toward foreign people and foreign countries. The findings emphasize the importance of variations in understandings of the term, as well as the highly symbolic nature of attitudes toward this issue. Individuals who believe the US should distance itself from international affairs more generally, who are nationalistic, or who feel that members of other ethnic and racial groups within the US are less praiseworthy than their own group tend to have particularly hostile reactions to outsourcing. The informational cues people receive are also important influences on their understanding of and attitudes toward outsourcing. Experimental results further emphasize the symbolic nature of attitudes toward outsourcing. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that attitudes are shaped less by the economic consequences of outsourcing than by a sense of “us” versus “them.”
The teaching of citizenship might seem inappropriate for a political scientist. Such teaching is normative, it might be said, but political science is empirical. And, it might be added, citizenship is a parochial concern for the good of one's own country, whereas political science is based on a universal love of truth. These objections will have to be made more precise, even recast; but insofar as they suggest that good citizen and good political scientist may not be the same thing, they are perfectly reasonable.
The distinction between empirical and normative, or fact and value (which cannot be explored theoretically here), means that a political scientist, as political scientist, cannot tell citizens whether citizenship is a good thing, or say that political science is a good thing and ought to be welcomed or tolerated by citizens. A political scientist might perhaps remark empirically, or half-empirically, that love of one's country animates the citizens as citizen and love of truth inspires the political scientist as political scientist. But instead of leading to conflict between citizens and political scientists and hence to a problem for political scientists, who must be both, this observation is made to yield a queer harmony between the two. It is thought that since political scientists cannot pronounce upon the worth of citizenship, they do not get in the way of citizens. Their work is neutral to that of citizens. Love of truth does not interfere with love of country because all loves, being “values,” are incommensurable. Thus, the methodology of the fact-value distinction provides a lefthanded endorsement of (at least democratic) citizenship.
Most of what Professors Hawkinson and Rosenblum have written on behalf of the proposed new Constitution for the Association—about membership qualifications, about purpose and about taking positions on current public issues—appears to me to argue equally in favor of the Constitution we already have. On these matters the two documents are not far apart. Since I find their arguments for the status quo well stated and persuasive, I shall confine my comments to some major points of difference between the documents, and to changes proposed that would, as I think, be for the worse.
1. The draft is loaded with unnecessary and impractical detail. To be sure, Hawkinson and Rosenblum make a virtue out of relieving the membership of the power to pass on the dues structure by way of constitutional amendment. I will not dispute that view myself, but I can sympathize with those who feel that a referendum on dues is not merely “pointless and wasteful.” On the other hand, what is gained by specifying that the President shall (Art. VII, Sec. 2(f)) “be responsible for the preparation of the budget…” and that the Executive Director shall (Art. IX, Sec. 4 (b)) “assist the President in preparing the annual budget”? Who else, when the natural office for that responsibility, an elected Treasurer, is to be abolished?
This chapter clarifies and differentiates changes in cognitive functioning among the oldest old at the group and individual levels. Cross-sectionally, the oldest old demonstrate normative differences of being more physically and cognitively frail compared to younger groups. More variation and successful aging is observed at the individual level. Some oldest-old individuals can perform at the same levels as adults 20 to 40 years younger. Recent literature has recognized that the concept of cognitive vitality transcends the absence of dementia or dementing processes. We seek to clarify the concept of cognitive vitality because it has not been well defined in the literature either theoretically or operationally. This chapter addresses the following questions: 1) What is cognitive vitality and how does it contribute to the well-being of older adults? 2) What factors or resources contribute to cognitive vitality among the oldest old? and 3) What new directions can be identified for future research?
COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND VITALITY AMONG THE OLDEST OLD: IMPLICATIONS FOR WELL-BEING
Lay people and professionals alike fall prey to aging stereotypes and myths (Ory, Hoffman, Hawkins, Sanner, & Mockenhaupt, 2003), namely that cognitive decline is inevitable and there is nothing we can do about it. Empirical research has focused on comparing the cognitive performance of younger and older adults, often noting “deficits” in older adults' abilities without taking into account context and potentially meaningful qualitative differences in older adults' approaches to cognitive problems (e.g., Marsiske & Margrett, 2006).
We have used neutron reflectivity to measure the concentration profile of carboxylic acid-terminated polystyrene at the liquid/solid interface. Two isotopic systems were studied: (1) deuterated polystyrene (DPS) in cyclohexane and (2) polystyrene (PS) in deuterated cyclohexane. Although measured at 24°C (a poor solvent condition), the high grafting density of PS tethered chains causes the chains to weakly stretch to 3-5 times its unperturbed dimension. Although of similar molecular weight, the height of the DPS layer is about 50% higher than that of the PS. In both systems, the volume fraction of polymer near the wall is ∼ 0.60. For the DPS system, reflectivity profiles can be simulated using a parabolic profile with a depletion layer at the silicon-liquid interface. However, in the PS system, no depletion is observed. Here, the shape. of the PS concentration profile is parabolic with a rounded tail.