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Organic carbon (C) plays an essential role in the denitrification process as it supplies energy for N2O, N2 and CO2 producing reactions. The objectives of this study were to: (i) rank the reactivity of different C compounds found in manures based on their availability for denitrification and (ii) explore C-quality in different C sources based on their capacity to promote denitrification. Evaluation of different C-sources in promoting denitrification was conducted based on the molar ratio of CO2 production to NO3− reduction after incubation. Results of the first experiment (a 12-day investigation) showed that glucose and glucosamine were highly reactive C compounds with all applied NO3− being exhausted by day 3, and glucosamine had significantly high amount of NH4+-N present at end of the experiment. The glucose and glucosamine treatments resulted in significantly greater cumulative CO2 production, compared to the other treatments. In the second experiment (a 9-day investigation), all NO3− had been depleted by day 6 and 9 from acetic acid and glucose, respectively, and the greatest cumulative CO2 production was from acetic acid. The CO2 appearance to NO3− molar ratios revealed that glucose and glucosamine were compounds with highly available C in the first experiment. In the second experiment, the pig slurry and acetic acid were found to be C-sources that promoted potential denitrification. The application of slurry to soil results in the promotion of denitrification and this depends on the availability of the C compounds it contains. Understanding the relationship between C availability and denitrification potential is useful for developing denitrification mitigation strategies for organic soil amendments.
Investigate protein intake patterns over the day and their association with total protein intake in older adults.
Cross-sectional study utilising the dietary data collected through two non-consecutive, dietary record-assisted 24-h recalls. Days with low protein intake (n 290) were defined using the RDA (<0·8 g protein/kg adjusted BW/d). For each day, the amount and proportion of protein ingested at every hour of the day and during morning, mid-day and evening hours was calculated. Amounts and proportions were compared between low and high protein intake days and related to total protein intake and risk of low protein intake.
739 Dutch community-dwelling adults ≥70 years.
The mean protein intake was 76·3 (sd 0·7) g/d. At each hour of the day, the amount of protein ingested was higher on days with a high protein intake than on days with a low protein intake and associated with a higher total protein intake. The proportion of protein ingested during morning hours was higher (22 v. 17 %, P < 0·0001) on days with a low protein intake, and a higher proportion of protein ingested during morning hours was associated with a lower total protein intake (P < 0·0001) and a higher odds of low protein intake (OR 1·04, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·06). For the proportion of protein intake during mid-day or evening hours, opposite but weaker associations were found.
In this sample, timing of protein intake was associated with total protein intake. Additional studies need to clarify the importance of these findings to optimise protein intake.
Generalization of conditioned-fear, a core feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), has been the focus of several recent neuroimaging studies. A striking outcome of these studies is the frequency with which neural correlates of generalization fall within hubs of well-established functional networks including salience (SN), central executive (CEN), and default networks (DN). Neural substrates of generalization found to date may thus reflect traces of large-scale brain networks that form more expansive neural representations of generalization. The present study includes the first network-based analysis of generalization and PTSD-related abnormalities therein.
fMRI responses in established intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) representing SN, CEN, and DN were assessed during a generalized conditioned-fear task in male combat veterans (N = 58) with wide-ranging PTSD symptom severity. The task included five rings of graded size. Extreme sizes served as conditioned danger-cues (CS+: paired with shock) and safety-cues (CS−), and the three intermediate sizes served as generalization stimuli (GSs) forming a continuum-of-size between CS+ and CS–. Generalization-gradients were assessed as behavioral and ICN response slopes from CS+, through GSs, to CS–. Increasing PTSD symptomatology was predicted to relate to less-steep slopes indicative of stronger generalization.
SN, CEN, and DN responses fell along generalization-gradients with levels of generalization within and between SN and CEN scaling with PTSD symptom severity.
Neural substrates of generalized conditioned-fear include large-scale networks that adhere to the functional organization of the brain. Current findings implicate levels of generalization in SN and CEN as promising neural markers of PTSD.
Sensory system information is thought to play an important role in drug addiction related responses. However, how somatic sensory information participates in the drug related behaviors is still unclear. Many studies demonstrated that drug addiction represents a pathological usurpation of neural mechanisms of learning and memory that normally relate to the pursuit of rewards. Thus, elucidate the role of somatic sensory in drug related learning and memory is of particular importance to understand the neurobiological mechanisms of drug addiction.
In the present study, we investigated the role of somatosensory system in reward-related associative learning using the conditioned place preference model. Lesions were made in somatosensory cortices either before or after conditioning training. We found that lesion of somatosensory cortices before, rather than after morphine conditioning impaired the acquisition of place preference.
These results demonstrate that somatosensory cortices are necessary for the acquisition but not retention of morphine induced place preference.
White matter abnormalities have been repeatedly reported in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) diseases from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies respectively, while the empirical evidences about the diagnostic specificity of white matter abnormalities in these disorders are still limited.
25 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 18 patients with bipolar mania were recruited from the in-patient unit of the Mental Health Centre, West China Hospital, China.
Patients were diagnosed according to the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Version IV (DSM- IV). 30 healthy controls were recruited from the community by means of leaflets distributed throughout Chengdu city.
This study sought to investigate the alterations in fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter throughout the entire brain of patients from Chengdu, China with paranoid schizophrenia and bipolar mania.
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to assess white matter integrity in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and bipolar mania, as well as in normal controls. The differences in FA were measured by use of voxel-based analysis.
Reduced FA was found in the left posterior corona radiate (PCR) in patients with bipolar mania and paranoid schizophrenia compared to the controls. Patients with bipolar mania also showed a significant reduction in FA in right posterior corona radiate and in right anterior thalamic radiation (ATR).
Common abnormalities in the left PCR might imply an overlap in white matter pathology of both diseases and might be related to the shared risk factors for both disorders.
From 20,000 households regularly surveyed by a national survey institute (Sofres), two groups were selected and questioned (using a 23-item questionnaire) about sleep vigilance and quality of life. The first group was composed of insomniacs using zopiclone for the last 12 months and no other CNS treatments (167 subjects). The second group was composed of 381 “good sleepers” selected as having no or occasionally one sleep disturbance in the last 12 months. No difference was found between the two groups in average total sleep time. Sleep disturbances were statistically equal in the two groups except for difficulties in initiating sleep which is more present for zopiclone users (13% vs 3%). Vigilance was mostly comparable in both groups.Five aspects of quality of life explored by the questionnaires (the professional, relational and sentimental, domestic, leisure and safety aspects) appeared to be comparable in the two groups.
It is to estimate the trend of suicide rate changes during the past three decades in China and try to identify its social and economic correlates.
Official data of suicide rates and economic indexes during 1982–2005 from Shandong Province of China were analyzed. The suicide data were categorized for the rural / urban location and gender, and the economic indexes include GDP, GDP per capita, rural income, and urban income, all adjusted for inflation.
We found a significant increase of economic development and decrease of suicide rates over the past decades under study. The suicide rate decrease is correlated with the tremendous growth of economy.
The unusual decrease of Chinese suicide rates in the past decades is accounted for within the Chinese cultural contexts and maybe by the Strain Theory of Suicide.
Tests of both structure and function of the corpus callosum have revealed abnormalities in schizophrenic patients. One such functional test employed lateralised Stroop stimuli presented tachistoscopically, to measure the transfer of interference and facilitation between the cerebral hemispheres. An attempt was made to relate indices of callosal transfer to clinical and demographic variables, including family history, as well as to indices of brain morphology. The latter included ventricle: brain ratio (VBR) measured by computed tomography (CT) scanning on 31 DSMIII schizophrenics, and the cross-sectional area of the corpus callosum from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), obtained from 20 of these patients. VBR did not relate to functional measures; however, anterior callosal area correlated with indices of callosal connectivity. Patients with auditory hallucinations had smaller anterior callosal areas and tended to show less connectivity. The results show links between functional and structural measures of the corpus callosum, but their precise nature remains unclear.
The relative effect of the atypical antipsychotic drugs and conventional agents on neurocognition in patients with early-stage schizophrenia has not been comprehensively determined.
The present study aimed to assess the cognitive effects of atypical and conventional antipsychotic drugs on neurocognition under naturalistic treatment conditions.
In a 12 months open-label, multicenter study, 698 patients with early-stage schizophrenia (< 5 years) were monotherapy with chlorpromazine, sulpiride, clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine or aripiprazole. Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised Visual Reproduction Test, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised Digit Symbol Test and Digit-span Task Test, Trail Making Tests Part A and Part B, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were administered at baseline and 12 months follow-up evaluation. The primary outcome was change in a cognitive composite score after 12 months of treatment.
Compared with scores at baseline, the composite cognitive test scores and individual test scores had significant improvement for all seven treatment groups at 12-month follow-up evaluation (all p-values ≤ 0.013). However, olanzapine and quetiapine provided greater improvement than that provided by chlorpromazine and sulpiride in the composite score, processing speed and executive function (all p-values ≤ 0.045).
Both conventional and atypical antipsychotic medication long-term maintenance treatment can benefit congitive function in patients with early-stage schizophrenia, but olanzapine and quetiapine may be superior to chlorpromazine and sulpiride in improving some areas of neurocognitive function.
Hierarchical social relationships are inherent to many species including humans. People evaluate its own actions and achievements using social comparisons. in social scenarios, people are more inclined to monitor for threats and evaluate its own behaviour. Recently it have been reported evidence demostrating that medial frontal negativity (MFN), an electrophysiological index that reflects performance evaluation, is significantly enhanced in situations of social comparisons. A growing cognitive literature in psychiatry have reported similar effects in MFN in OCD patients. in these patients have been documented changes in the modulation of the ERP components, collectively referred to as medial frontal negativities (MFNs)(error related negativity (ERN) and frontal related Negativity (FRN)), which are related with the activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and surrounding medial prefrontal regions. These alterations are related with reported difficulties to supervise the performance and to evaluate the conflictive information. in this research, we have explored how OCD patients process hierarchical social information. To this purpose, we have used a complex computarized game where patients are stimulated to compare their performance in a perceptual task, with players with different social status. As we expected, we have observed increased modulations of MFNs components in the group of OCD patients vs. control group. Interestingly, we have observed different modulations in MFNs in the patients according to the social status of the competitor. These effects suggest that the reported effects in OCD patients to monitorize the performance are differently modulated for the type of hierarchical comparison.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective and fast acting therapy for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Animal research has consistently pointed to neuroplasticity as a central mechanism of ECT action (1), however evidence in humans remains scarce (2; 3).
We assessed two independent samples of TRD patients referred for ECT. The Barcelona-sample included 13 subjects treated with bitemporal ECT and 10 healthy volunteers (HV). Four successive 3T structural MRIs were acquired: baseline, 24-48 hours after the 1st ECT session, 24-48 hours after the 9th ECT, and two weeks after ECT course completion. HV were scanned twice five weeks apart. Within the framework of the Barcelona-Sydney Clinical Imaging Collaboration, we also scanned 10 patients treated mainly with right unilateral ECT (Sydney-sample). Whole-brain longitudinal grey matter (GM) changes were measured using intra-subject diffeomorphic registration, within SPM12b.
In the Barcelona-sample, over the course of treatment bitemporal ECT produced a linear increase of GM volume in the limbic system (involving bilateral hippocampi and amygdalae). Additionally, volumetric increase within the right subgenual cortex was detected from baseline to the 9th ECT session. Such volume changes were not observed in HV. Furthermore, GM volume expansion correlated positively with depressive symptom improvement and neurocognitive performance (memory and executive function). Hippocampal and amygdalar volume increases were replicated in the Sydney-sample, although limited to the stimulated hemisphere.
ECT effects described here could be accounted for by the induction of regionally specific structural plasticity. Nevertheless, other mechanisms such as neurovascular changes should not be discarded.
Research integrating neuroimaging and molecular genetics has yielded important insights into how variability in brain chemistry predicts brain function and structure, behaviour and risk for psychopathology. Disrupted neurotransmission of glutamate within corticalstriatal-thalamocortical circuitry has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Candidate gene studies have identified associations between variants in glutamate system genes and OCD, particularly for SLC1A1, although these results remain controversial after GWAS and meta-analytical approaches.
To examine the effects of multiple polymorphisms of the glutamatergic pathway on frontostriatal connectivity, measured by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in OCD.
Individual multilocus genetic profile scores (MGPS) reflecting the additive effects of multiple alleles of the glutamatergic pathway, analysed by the Affymetrix GeneticChip® SNP array, were compiled for 134 OCD patients and 63 healthy controls. Association between these genetic scores and brain functional connectivity patterns between the dorsal and ventral striatal regions and limbic cortical areas including the orbitofrontal cortex and surrounding areas, such as the anterior prefrontal and perigenual anterior cingulate cortex, were investigated.
In the entire group, glutamatergic MGPS were significantly associated with connectivity patterns involving the ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex. Distinct relationships between MGPS and functional connectivity between the ventral striatum, amygdala, ventromedial frontal cortex and insula between OCD and healthy subjects emerged.
Glutamatergic genetic risk variants are related to normal frontostriatal connectivity; a fact that might explain the role of glutamatergic pathway disruptions in the susceptibility to develop OCD.
The main aim of the present studies is to determine whether, or to some extent, specific cognitive domains could differentiate the main subtypes of mood disorder in the depressed and clinically remitted status respectively.
Three groups of bipolar I (n = 92), bipolar II (n = 131) and unipolar depression patients (n = 293) were tested with a battery of neuropsychological tests at baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment, contrasting with 202 healthy controls on cognitive performance.
At the acute depressive state, the three patients groups (bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar depression) showed cognitive dysfunction in processing speed, memory, verbal fluency and executive function but not attention compared with controls. And post comparisons revealed that bipolar I patients performed significantly worse in these impaired cognitive domain than bipolar II and unipolar depression patients in verbal fluency and executive function. After treatment, clinically remitted bipolar I and bipolar II patients only displayed cognitive impairment in processing speed and visual memory in relative to controls, while remitted unipolar depression patients showed cognitive impairment in executive function in addition to processing speed and visual memory.
Bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar depression patients have a similar pattern of cognitive impairment during the state of acute depressive episodes. At the clinically remission, still both bipolar disorder and unipolar depression patients showed cognitive deficits in processing speed and visual memory, and executive dysfunction might be a status-maker for bipolar disorder, but a trait-marker for unipolar depression
Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of response inhibition in cannabis users have reported inconsistent results. The age of onset of cannabis use and individual genetic differences may play a critical role in the regulation of inhibition in cannabis users.
We examine the influence of COMT Val158Met functional polymorphism on the response inhibition brain network in a group of early-onset chronic cannabis users compared with healthy controls.
fMRI data was acquired from 27 chronic cannabis users who began use cannabis before 16 years of age, and 29 non-using control subjects matched in terms of age, educational level and intelligence quotient while undergoing the Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT). Participants were male, Caucasians aged between 18 and 30 years. All were assessed by a structured psychiatric interview (PRISM) to exclude any lifetime Axis-I disorder (DSM-IV). COMT genotyping was performed and resonance imaging data was analysed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM).
Both groups did not differ on their behavioural performance and brain responses during the MSIT task. A significant group-by-genotype interaction was observed on task-related brain activation (and on MSIT reaction times), in which met carrier load was associated with increased activation in cannabis users and val carrier load with increased activation in controls. The interaction pattern included the medial frontal cortex, ACC, inferior frontal gyrus, ventral striatum, anterior mesencephalon, inferior parietal and superior temporal cortices and the PCC.
Chronic cannabis exposure interacts with the genetically driven dopamine function in the modulation of the neural mechanisms related to response inhibition.
The main aim of this study is to investigate the capacity of a number of variables from four dimensions (clinical, psychosocial, cognitive and genetic domains) to predict the antidepressant treatment outcome, and combined the predictors in one integrate regression model with the aim to investigate which predictor contributed most.
In a semi-naturalistic prospective cohort study with a total of 241 fully assessed MDD patients, decrease in HAM-D scores from baseline to after 6 weeks of treatment was used to measure the antidepressant treatment outcome.
The clinical and psychosocial model (R2 = 0.451) showed that HAM-D scores at baseline and MMPI-2 scale paranoia was the best clinical and psychosocial predictor of treatment outcome respectively. The cognitive model (R2 = 0.502) revealed that combination of better performance on TMT-B test and worse performance on TOH and WAIS-R Digit Backward testes could predict decline in HAM-D scores. The genetics analysis only found median of percent improvement in HAM-D scores in G-allele of GR gene BclI polymorphism carriers (72.2%) was significant lower than that in non-G allele carriers (80.1%). The integrate model showed that three predictors, combination of HAM-D scores at baseline, MMPI-2 scale paranoia and TMT-B test, explained 57.1% of the variance.
Three markers, HAM-D scores at baseline, MMPI-2 scale paranoia and TMT-B test, might serve as predictor of antidepressant outcome in daily psychiatric practice.
Recently, a triple-network model suggested the abnormal interactions between the executive-control network (ECN), default-mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN) are important characteristics of addiction, in which the SN plays a critical role in allocating attentional resources toward the ECN and DMN. Although increasing studies have reported dysfunctions in these brain networks in Internet gaming disorder (IGD), interactions between these networks, particularly in the context of the triple-network model, have not been investigated in IGD. Thus, we aimed to assess alterations in the inter-network interactions of these large-scale networks in IGD, and to associate the alterations with IGD-related behaviors.
DMN, ECN and SN were identified using group-level independent component analysis (gICA) in 39 individuals with IGD and 34 age and gender matched healthy controls (HCs). Then alterations in the SN-ECN and SN-DMN connectivity, as well as in the modulation of ECN versus DMN by SN, using a resource allocation index (RAI) developed and validated previously in nicotine addiction, were assessed. Further, associations between these altered network coupling and clinical assessments were also examined.
Compared with HCs, IGD had significantly increased SN-DMN connectivity and decreased RAI in right hemisphere (rRAI), and the rRAI in IGD was negatively associated with their scores of craving.
These findings suggest that the deficient modulation of ECN versus DMN by SN might provide a mechanistic framework to better understand the neural basis of IGD and might provide novel evidence for the triple-network model in IGD.
In prospective and controlled studies followed up until adult age of patients diagnosed with ADHD in their childhood, the most frequent comorbid disorders were major depressive disorder, personality disorder (borderline and antisocial), substance use disorder and, less frequently, panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder.
We report the case of a male patient aged 60, diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder from his adolescence. His psychopathological progress has become aggravated over the years. Nowadays, he presents an important restlessness, which has led him to social isolation and family claudication.
Our patient is admitted to the Psychiatric Day Hospital with an appropriated treatment for his OCD (sertraline and aripiprazole). After several days under observation, we used the scales ASRS-V1.1 y WURS finding results that suggested adult ADHD. Extended release methylphenidate was prescribed, with a fast improving of our patient's symptoms of restlessness, insecurity and impulsion phobia. He was discharged from the Centre for Psychosocial Rehabilitation showing a good evolution.
– Anankastic personality disorder (F60.5);
– Dependent personality disorder (F60.7);
– Hyperkinetic disorders (F90).
Seventy-five percent of adults diagnosed with ADHD have comorbid disorders that should be used as severity rates, since they may cover up the ADHD symptoms or complicate the response to treatment. Adults with ADHD present high score on the scales “social maladjustment” and an often concomitant and polymorphic psychiatric pathology, object of varied diagnoses.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Hoarding disorder is described in the DSM-5 as a new clinical entity whose essential characteristic is the persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of their actual value, arguing reasons of utility, aesthetics, attachment or strong fear of losing Information.
We present the case of an 11-year-old male patient brought to the Health Mental office when his mother found in the school bag debris that he had collected from the garbage, and useless objects in a bedroom drawer. The patient recognizes the nonsense of his behaviour but is unable to get rid of these objects but he allows his mother to do it. He had lowered school performance and showed irritable, shy and solitary, difficulties to sleep and cried often without apparent reason. They also noted since six months before, strange movements with the neck and eyes.
After ruling out, underlying organic pathology, we started treatment with sertraline 50 mg, aripiprazole 2.5 mg and cognitive behavioural therapy, with complete disappearance of symptoms including the movement disorder.
There is a low prevalence of eating disorders among men. In many cases, the disorder arises as a means of avoiding psychosocial maturation. Various psychiatric comorbidities such as depression or obsessive-compulsive disorder are frequently found in these patients.
To analyze psychiatric symptoms in relation to a case of anorexia nervosa.
Pubmed revision on clinical presentation of anorexia nervosa in male. Review of patient medical records.
A 23-years-old male with diagnosis of restricting anorexia nervosa was treated and followed since 2012. In July 2015, the patient, who was clinically stabilized for a year, had decreased gradually intake. Suddenly he showed a decreased consciousness, followed by an absence of response and mutism that motivated hospital admission. The diagnosis was dissociative stupor. A research in women with eating disorders shows a prevalence of pathological dissociation between 4.8 and 48.6%. After recovering a normal consciousness, he presented clinical features of anorexia nervosa according DSM 5 criteria. The patient remained two months until he reached his previous BMI (17) to continue an outcome treatment. Despite of several years of specific treatment for anorexia nervosa, both parents and patient still did not accept the diagnosis. Cultural constructions of eating disorders as a “women's illness” mean that men may fail to recognise their disorder.
There is a delay of diagnosis of anorexia nervosa in men. The lack of research on men's experiences and the cultural construction of anorexia nervosa as a female problem may contribute to underdiagnose eating disorders in men.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.