To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Nuclear star clusters hosted by dwarf galaxies exhibit similar characteristics to high-mass, metal complex globular clusters. This type of globular clusters could, therefore, be former nuclei from accreted galaxies. M54 resides in the photometric center of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy, at a distance where resolving stars is possible. M54 offers the opportunity to study a nucleus before the stripping of their host by the tidal field effects of the Milky Way. We use a MUSE data set to perform a detailed analysis of over 6600 stars. We characterize the stars by metallicity, age, and kinematics, identifying the presence of three stellar populations: a young metal-rich (YMR), an intermediate-age metal-rich (IMR), and an old metal-poor (OMP). The evidence suggests that the OMP population is the result of accretion of globular clusters in the center of the host, while the YMR population was born in-situ in the center of the OMP population.
Social support has been shown to be an important factor in improving depression symptom outcomes, yet less is known regarding its impact on antidepressant medication adherence. This study sought to evaluate the role of perceived social support on adherence to new antidepressant medication prescriptions in later-life depression.
Data from two prospective observational studies of participants ≥60 years old, diagnosed with depression, and recently prescribed a new antidepressant (N = 452). Perceived social support was measured using a subscale of the Duke Social Support Index and medication adherence was assessed using a validated self-report measure.
At four-month follow up, 68% of patients reported that they were adherent to antidepressant medication. Examining the overall sample, logistic regression analysis demonstrated no significant relationship between perceived social support and medication adherence. However, when stratifying the sample by social support, race, and gender, adherence significantly differed by race and gender in those with inadequate social support: Among those with low social support, African-American females were significantly less likely to adhere to depression treatment than white females (OR = 4.82, 95% CI = 1.14–20.28, p = 0.032) and white males (OR = 3.50, 95% CI = 1.03–11.92, p = 0.045).
There is a significant difference in antidepressant medication adherence by race and gender in those with inadequate social support. Tailored treatment interventions for low social support should be sensitive to racial and gender differences.
To determine the impact of an environmental disinfection intervention on the incidence of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).
A multicenter randomized trial.
In total,16 acute-care hospitals in northeastern Ohio participated in the study.
We conducted a 12-month randomized trial to compare standard cleaning to enhanced cleaning that included monitoring of environmental services (EVS) personnel performance with feedback to EVS and infection control staff. We assessed the thoroughness of cleaning based on fluorescent marker removal from high-touch surfaces and the effectiveness of disinfection based on environmental cultures for C. difficile. A linear mixed model was used to compare CDI rates in the intervention and postintervention periods for control and intervention hospitals. The primary outcome was the incidence of healthcare-associated CDI.
Overall, 7 intervention hospitals and 8 control hospitals completed the study. The intervention resulted in significantly increased fluorescent marker removal in CDI and non-CDI rooms and decreased recovery of C. difficile from high-touch surfaces in CDI rooms. However, no reduction was observed in the incidence of healthcare-associated CDI in the intervention hospitals during the intervention and postintervention periods. Moreover, there was no correlation between the percentage of positive cultures after cleaning of CDI or non-CDI rooms and the incidence of healthcare-associated CDI.
An environmental disinfection intervention improved the thoroughness and effectiveness of cleaning but did not reduce the incidence of healthcare-associated CDI. Thus, interventions that focus only on improving cleaning may not be sufficient to control healthcare-associated CDI.
To define the scope of an outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease (LD), to identify the source, and to stop transmission.
DESIGN AND SETTING
Epidemiologic investigation of an LD outbreak among patients and a visitor exposed to a newly constructed hematology-oncology unit.
An LD case was defined as radiographically confirmed pneumonia in a person with positive urinary antigen testing and/or respiratory culture for Legionella and exposure to the hematology-oncology unit after February 20, 2014. Cases were classified as definitely or probably healthcare-associated based on whether they were exposed to the unit for all or part of the incubation period (2–10 days). We conducted an environmental assessment and collected water samples for culture. Clinical and environmental isolates were compared by monoclonal antibody (MAb) and sequence-based typing.
Over a 12-week period, 10 cases were identified, including 6 definite and 4 probable cases. Environmental sampling revealed Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) in the potable water at 9 of 10 unit sites (90%), including all patient rooms tested. The 3 clinical isolates were identical to environmental isolates from the unit (MAb2-positive, sequence type ST36). No cases occurred with exposure after the implementation of water restrictions followed by point-of-use filters.
Contamination of the unit’s potable water system with Lp1 strain ST36 was the likely source of this outbreak. Healthcare providers should routinely test patients who develop pneumonia at least 2 days after hospital admission for LD. A single case of LD that is definitely healthcare associated should prompt a full investigation.
Various transmission routes contribute to spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in hospitalized patients. Patients with readmissions during which CRKP is again isolated (“CRKP readmission”) potentially contribute to transmission of CRKP.
To evaluate CRKP readmissions in the Consortium on Resistance against Carbapenems in K. pneumoniae (CRaCKLe).
Cohort study from December 24, 2011, through July 1, 2013.
Multicenter consortium of acute care hospitals in the Great Lakes region.
All patients who were discharged alive during the study period were included. Each patient was included only once at the time of the first CRKP-positive culture.
All readmissions within 90 days of discharge from the index hospitalization during which CRKP was again found were analyzed. Risk factors for CRKP readmission were evaluated in multivariable models.
Fifty-six (20%) of 287 patients who were discharged alive had a CRKP readmission. History of malignancy was associated with CRKP readmission (adjusted odds ratio [adjusted OR], 3.00 [95% CI, 1.32–6.65], P<.01). During the index hospitalization, 160 patients (56%) received antibiotic treatment against CRKP; the choice of regimen was associated with CRKP readmission (P=.02). Receipt of tigecycline-based therapy (adjusted OR, 5.13 [95% CI, 1.72–17.44], using aminoglycoside-based therapy as a reference in those treated with anti-CRKP antibiotics) was associated with CRKP readmission.
Hospitalized patients with CRKP—specifically those with a history of malignancy—are at high risk of readmission with recurrent CRKP infection or colonization. Treatment during the index hospitalization with a tigecycline-based regimen increases this risk.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(3):281–288
In this review, we discuss the potential role of metabolomics to enhance understanding of obesity-related developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD). We first provide an overview of common techniques and analytical approaches to help interested investigators dive into this relatively novel field. Next, we describe how metabolomics may capture exposures that are notoriously difficult to quantify, and help to further refine phenotypes associated with excess adiposity and related metabolic sequelae over the life course. Together, these data can ultimately help to elucidate mechanisms that underlie fetal metabolic programming. Finally, we review current gaps in knowledge and identify areas where the field of metabolomics is likely to provide insights into mechanisms linked to DOHaD in human populations.
To determine the effectiveness of a pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV) disinfection device for reduction in recovery of healthcare-associated pathogens.
Two acute-care hospitals.
We examined the effectiveness of PX-UV for killing of Clostridium difficile spores, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) on glass carriers and evaluated the impact of pathogen concentration, distance from the device, organic load, and shading from the direct field of radiation on killing efficacy. We compared the effectiveness of PX-UV and ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation, each delivered for 10 minutes at 4 feet. In hospital rooms, the frequency of native pathogen contamination on high-touch surfaces was assessed before and after 10 minutes of PX-UV irradiation.
On carriers, irradiation delivered for 10 minutes at 4 feet from the PX-UV device reduced recovery of C. difficile spores, MRSA, and VRE by 0.55±0.34, 1.85±0.49, and 0.6±0.25 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/cm2, respectively. Increasing distance from the PX-UV device dramatically reduced killing efficacy, whereas pathogen concentration, organic load, and shading did not. Continuous UV-C achieved significantly greater log10CFU reductions than PX-UV irradiation on glass carriers. On frequently touched surfaces, PX-UV significantly reduced the frequency of positive C. difficile, VRE, and MRSA culture results.
The PX-UV device reduced recovery of MRSA, C. difficile, and VRE on glass carriers and on frequently touched surfaces in hospital rooms with a 10-minute UV exposure time. PX-UV was not more effective than continuous UV-C in reducing pathogen recovery on glass slides, suggesting that both forms of UV have some effectiveness at relatively short exposure times.
Carrying the apoE ε4 allele (E4+) is the most important genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease. Unlike non-carriers (E4 − ), E4+ seem not to be protected against Alzheimer's disease when consuming fish. We hypothesised that this may be linked to a disturbance in n-3 DHA metabolism in E4+. The aim of the present study was to evaluate [13C]DHA metabolism over 28 d in E4+v. E4 − . A total of forty participants (twenty-six women and fourteen men) received a single oral dose of 40 mg [13C]DHA, and its metabolism was monitored in blood and breath over 28 d. Of the participants, six were E4+ and thirty-four were E4 − . In E4+, mean plasma [13C]DHA was 31 % lower than that in E4 − , and cumulative β-oxidation of [13C]DHA was higher than that in E4 − 1–28 d post-dose (P≤ 0·05). A genotype × time interaction was detected for cumulative β-oxidation of [13C]DHA (P≤ 0·01). The whole-body half-life of [13C]DHA was 77 % lower in E4+ compared with E4 − (P≤ 0·01). In E4+ and E4 − , the percentage dose of [13C]DHA recovered/h as 13CO2 correlated with [13C]DHA concentration in plasma, but the slope of linear regression was 117 % steeper in E4+ compared with E4 − (P≤ 0·05). These results indicate that DHA metabolism is disturbed in E4+, and may help explain why there is no association between DHA levels in plasma and cognition in E4+. However, whether E4+ disturbs the metabolism of 13C-labelled fatty acids other than DHA cannot be deduced from the present study.
Micro air vehicles (MAVs) are typically of low mass and moment of inertia and have flight speeds comparable to birds and the larger insects. Such craft traverse the lower levels of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) which is a significantly different environment than that experienced by larger manned aircraft, which spend the majority of their time in relatively clean air and fly at speeds significantly higher than typical wind speeds in the ABL. Here a new series of measurements dedicated to understanding spatial and temporal velocity fields that MAVs experience are presented. Atmospheric wind measurements were taken by sampling four multi-hole dynamic pressure probes spanned perpendicular to the oncoming wind at spans of between 0·014m and up to 0·45m. It was noted that the variation of both longitudinal velocity and flow pitch angle against spacing followed a fractional power law and as such large variations were present even for the smallest inter-probe separations. This effect is thought to explain the increasing piloting difficulties experienced in maintaining good roll control for decreasing scales of craft.
In November and December 1992, an outbreak of parvovirus B19 infection occurred among patients and staff on an adult mixed surgical ward at a large hospital in London. Three patients and 15 staff members were serologically confirmed as acute cases. The attack rate among susceptible members of staff was 47%. In those infected, arthralgia (80%) and rash (67%) were the most common symptoms. Of six susceptible in-patients on the ward, three became infected. One of the in-patients who had carcinoma of the mouth was viraemic for more than 10 days with marrow suppression resulting in the postponement of chemotherapy until intravenous immunoglobulin was given and he was no longer viraemic. Control measures taken included closure of the ward to new admissions, transfer of only immune staff to the ward, and restriction of the ward nursing staff to working only on that ward. Although no specific exposure was conclusively identified as a risk factor, there was a suggestion of an increased risk of acquiring parvovirus B19 infection among those staff who did not adopt strict hand washing procedures after each physical contact with a patient (RR = 2·33; P = 0·07). Knowledge of parvovirus B19 among interviewed health care workers was poor: only 42% reported knowing about parvovirus B19 and only 38% could name a patient category at risk of a severe outcome following infection. This is the first report of a nosocomial outbreak affecting an adult ward and of possible transmission of parvovirus B19 infection from staff to in-patients. Hospital control of infection teams should include parvovirus B19 in their outbreak containment plans.
We briefly describe how to get the power of logarithm in the asymptotic for the number of vanishings in the family of even quadratic twists of a given elliptic curve. There are four different possibilities, largely dependent on the rational 2-torsion structure of the curve we twist.
Let E be a rational elliptic curve of conductor N and Δ its discriminant, with Ed its dth quadratic twist. The seminal paper modelled the value-distribution of L(Ed, 1) via random matrix theory and applied a discretisation process to the coefficients of an associated modular form of weight 3/2. This led to the conjecture that asymptotically there are cEX3/4 (log X)3/8–1 twists by prime p < X with even functional equation and L(Ep; 1) = 0, where the 3/8 comes from random matrix theory, and the –1 comes from the prime number theorem.
We wish to determine a similar heuristic for the asymptotic for the number of twists by all fundamental discriminants |d| such that L(Ed, s) has even functional equation and L(Ed, 1) = 0. We find that the power of logarithm that we obtain depends on the growth rate of various local Tamagawa numbers of twists of E. Because of this, it is somewhat unfortunate that isogenous curves need not have the same local Tamagawa numbers. This is most particularly a problem when we have a curve with full rational 2-torsion and it is isogenous to one that only has one rational 2-torsion point; in this case, we should work with the curve with full 2-torsion.