The aim of this study was to assess the effect of two doses of 40 mg/kg praziquantel with 2 weeks interval versus a standard single dose of 40 mg/kg on cure rates, egg reduction, intensity of infection, and micro-haematuria in Schistosoma haematobium infections. A randomised controlled intervention study was carried out among school-aged children in two different endemic settings with follow-up at 3, 6 and 18 months following drug administration. Differences in cure rates between the two treatment regimens were not significant. However, in high transmission areas, the double treatment regimen was more effective in egg reduction than single treatment regimen and the difference in egg reduction between the two treatments was significant at 3 months (P<0·005), 6 months (P<0·0001) and 18 months (P<0·003) after treatment. There was a significant difference in the effect of the two treatments on prevalence of micro-haematuria at 18-month follow-up in both Koulikoro (P<0·001) and Selingue (P<0·003). The study shows that although no significant difference could be observed in the overall cure-rates between the two treatment regimens, the effect of double treatment was a significant reduction in infection intensity as well as micro-haematuria which may have a great impact in reducing subtle morbidity.