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This article develops a market timing decision rule for cattle feeders based on profit maximization. We then compare it with the “status quo” strategy of feeding cattle to a targeted carcass end point. We estimate individual nonlinear dynamic growth functions to derive each animal's value of the marginal product in relation to days on feed. Given individual marginal factor costs, our results indicate that the use of a profit maximization rule could have increased average profits by $16.56 to $21.09 per head for the cattle of known age, and $7.67 to $11.32 per head if age was unknown.
A non-destructive neutron scattering method was developed to precisely measure the uptake of total hydrogen in nuclear grade Zircaloy-4 cladding. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zircaloy-4 specimens and hydrogen gas. By controlling the initial hydrogen gas pressure in the vessel and the temperature profile, target hydrogen concentrations from tens of ppm to a few thousands of ppm have been successfully achieved. Following hydrogen charging, the hydrogen content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method (VHE), by which the samples with desired hydrogen concentration were selected for the neutron study. Small angle incoherent neutron scattering (SAINS) were performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Our study indicates that a very small amount (≈ 20 ppm) hydrogen in commercial Zircaloy-4 cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes for a wide range of hydrogen concentration by a nondestructive method. The hydrogen distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor, which is determined by calibration process with direct chemical analysis method on the specimen. This scale factor can be used for future test with unknown hydrogen concentration, thus provide a nondestructive method for absolute hydrogen concentration determination.
Thin films of nanocrystalline ceria on a Si substrate have been irradiated with 3 MeV Au+ ions to fluences of up to 1x1016 ions cm-2, at temperatures ranging between 160 to 400 K. During the irradiation, a band of contrast is observed to form at the thin film/substrate interface. Analysis by scanning transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with energy dispersive and electron energy loss spectroscopy techniques revealed that this band of contrast was a cerium silicate amorphous phase, with an approximate Ce:Si:O ratio of 1:1:3.
In November 2009, we initiated a multistate investigation of Salmonella Montevideo infections with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern JIXX01.0011. We identified 272 cases in 44 states with illness onset dates ranging from 1 July 2009 to 14 April 2010. To help generate hypotheses, warehouse store membership card information was collected to identify products consumed by cases. These records identified 19 ill persons who purchased company A salami products before onset of illness. A case-control study was conducted. Ready-to-eat salami consumption was significantly associated with illness (matched odds ratio 8·5, 95% confidence interval 2·1–75·9). The outbreak strain was isolated from company A salami products from an environmental sample from one manufacturing plant, and sealed containers of black and red pepper at the facility. This outbreak illustrates the importance of using membership card information to assist in identifying suspect vehicles, the potential for spices to contaminate ready-to-eat products, and preventing raw ingredient contamination of these products.