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Late-life depression has substantial impacts on individuals, families and society. Knowledge gaps remain in estimating the economic impacts associated with late-life depression by symptom severity, which has implications for resource prioritisation and research design (such as in modelling). This study examined the incremental health and social care expenditure of depressive symptoms by severity.
We analysed data collected from 2707 older adults aged 60 years and over in Hong Kong. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Client Service Receipt Inventory were used, respectively, to measure depressive symptoms and service utilisation as a basis for calculating care expenditure. Two-part models were used to estimate the incremental expenditure associated with symptom severity over 1 year.
The average PHQ-9 score was 6.3 (standard deviation, s.d. = 4.0). The percentages of respondents with mild, moderate and moderately severe symptoms and non-depressed were 51.8%, 13.5%, 3.7% and 31.0%, respectively. Overall, the moderately severe group generated the largest average incremental expenditure (US$5886; 95% CI 1126–10 647 or a 272% increase), followed by the mild group (US$3849; 95% CI 2520–5177 or a 176% increase) and the moderate group (US$1843; 95% CI 854–2831, or 85% increase). Non-psychiatric healthcare was the main cost component in a mild symptom group, after controlling for other chronic conditions and covariates. The average incremental association between PHQ-9 score and overall care expenditure peaked at PHQ-9 score of 4 (US$691; 95% CI 444–939), then gradually fell to negative between scores of 12 (US$ - 35; 95% CI - 530 to 460) and 19 (US$ -171; 95% CI - 417 to 76) and soared to positive and rebounded at the score of 23 (US$601; 95% CI -1652 to 2854).
The association between depressive symptoms and care expenditure is stronger among older adults with mild and moderately severe symptoms. Older adults with the same symptom severity have different care utilisation and expenditure patterns. Non-psychiatric healthcare is the major cost element. These findings inform ways to optimise policy efforts to improve the financial sustainability of health and long-term care systems, including the involvement of primary care physicians and other geriatric healthcare providers in preventing and treating depression among older adults and related budgeting and accounting issues across services.
The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) is the first large-area survey to be conducted with the full 36-antenna Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. RACS will provide a shallow model of the ASKAP sky that will aid the calibration of future deep ASKAP surveys. RACS will cover the whole sky visible from the ASKAP site in Western Australia and will cover the full ASKAP band of 700–1800 MHz. The RACS images are generally deeper than the existing NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey radio surveys and have better spatial resolution. All RACS survey products will be public, including radio images (with
15 arcsec resolution) and catalogues of about three million source components with spectral index and polarisation information. In this paper, we present a description of the RACS survey and the first data release of 903 images covering the sky south of declination
made over a 288-MHz band centred at 887.5 MHz.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
To describe the infection control preparedness measures undertaken for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 (previously known as 2019 novel coronavirus) in the first 42 days after announcement of a cluster of pneumonia in China, on December 31, 2019 (day 1) in Hong Kong.
A bundled approach of active and enhanced laboratory surveillance, early airborne infection isolation, rapid molecular diagnostic testing, and contact tracing for healthcare workers (HCWs) with unprotected exposure in the hospitals was implemented. Epidemiological characteristics of confirmed cases, environmental samples, and air samples were collected and analyzed.
From day 1 to day 42, 42 of 1,275 patients (3.3%) fulfilling active (n = 29) and enhanced laboratory surveillance (n = 13) were confirmed to have the SARS-CoV-2 infection. The number of locally acquired case significantly increased from 1 of 13 confirmed cases (7.7%, day 22 to day 32) to 27 of 29 confirmed cases (93.1%, day 33 to day 42; P < .001). Among them, 28 patients (66.6%) came from 8 family clusters. Of 413 HCWs caring for these confirmed cases, 11 (2.7%) had unprotected exposure requiring quarantine for 14 days. None of these was infected, and nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was not observed. Environmental surveillance was performed in the room of a patient with viral load of 3.3 × 106 copies/mL (pooled nasopharyngeal and throat swabs) and 5.9 × 106 copies/mL (saliva), respectively. SARS-CoV-2 was identified in 1 of 13 environmental samples (7.7%) but not in 8 air samples collected at a distance of 10 cm from the patient’s chin with or without wearing a surgical mask.
Appropriate hospital infection control measures was able to prevent nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2.
The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) measures three aspects of catastrophic cognitions about pain—rumination, magnification, and helplessness. To facilitate assessment and clinical application, we aimed to (a) develop a short version on the basis of its factorial structure and the items’ correlations with key pain-related outcomes, and (b) identify the threshold on the short form indicative of risk for depression.
Social centers for older people.
664 Chinese older adults with chronic pain.
Besides the PCS, pain intensity, pain disability, and depressive symptoms were assessed.
For the full scale, confirmatory factor analysis showed that the hypothesized 3-factor model fit the data moderately well. On the basis of the factor loadings, two items were selected from each of the three dimensions. An additional item significantly associated with pain disability and depressive symptoms, over and above these six items, was identified through regression analyses. A short-PCS composed of seven items was formed, which correlated at r=0.97 with the full scale. Subsequently, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted against clinically significant depressive symptoms, defined as a score of ≥12 on a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. This analysis showed a score of ≥7 to be the optimal cutoff for the short-PCS, with sensitivity = 81.6% and specificity = 78.3% when predicting clinically significant depressive symptoms.
The short-PCS may be used in lieu of the full scale and as a brief screen to identify individuals with serious catastrophizing.
Background: Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease. In June 2017, Health Canada approved Nusinersen, currently the only available drug for SMA. Since 2016, patients in Ontario have been treated clinically with Nusinersen through different access programs. Methods: Retrospective case series of patients with SMA treated clinically with Nusinersen in Ontario, describing clinical characteristics and logistics of intrathecal Nusinersen administration. Results: Twenty patients have been treated across four centres. To date, we have reviewed 8 cases at one centre (seven SMA Type I, one SMA Type II). Age at first dose ranged from 3-156 months and disease duration 9-166 months. Patients had received 4-7 doses at last evaluation. Three patients with scoliosis (2 with spinal rods) required fluoroscopy-guided radiologist administration, and 4 required general anesthesia. No complications/adverse events were reported. At last follow up, 5/8 families reported improved daily activities. Of 5 patients with baseline and follow up motor function testing, 3 demonstrated improved scores. One patient died due to respiratory decline at age 9 months, despite improved motor outcome scores. Conclusions: We describe the first Canadian post-marketing experience with Nusinersen. Timely dissemination of this information is needed to guide clinicians, hospital administrators, and policy-makers.
Introduction: Diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE) can be challenging because the signs and symptoms are often non-specific. Studies have shown that evidence-based algorithms are not always adhered to in the Emergency Department (ED) and are often not used correctly, which leads to unnecessary CT scanning. The YEARS diagnostic algorithm, consisting of three items (clinical signs of deep vein thrombosis, hemoptysis, and whether pulmonary embolism is the most likely diagnosis) and D-dimer, is a novel and simplified way to approach suspected acute PE. The purpose of this study was to 1) evaluate the use of the YEARS algorithm in the ED and 2) to compare the rates of testing for PE if the YEARS algorithm was used. Methods: This was a health records review of ED patients investigated for PE at two emergency departments over a two-year period (April 2013-March 2015). Inclusion criteria were ED physician ordered CT pulmonary angiogram, ventilation-perfusion scan, or D-dimer for investigation of PE. Patients under the age of 18 and those without a D-dimer test were excluded. PE was considered to be present during the emergency department visit if PE was diagnosed on CT or VQ (subsegmental level or above), or if the patient was subsequently found to have PE or deep vein thrombosis during the next 30 days. Trained researchers extracted anonymized data. The rate of CT/VQ imaging and the false negative rate was calculated. Results: There were 1,163 patients that were tested for PE and 1,083 patients were eligible for our analysis. Of the total, 317/1,083 (29.3%; 95%CI 26.6-32.1%) had CT/VQ imaging for PE, and 41/1,083 (3.8%; 95%CI 2.8-5.1%) patients were diagnosed with PE at baseline. Three patients had a missed PE, resulting in a false negative rate of 0.4% (95%CI 0.1-1.2%). If the YEARS algorithm was used, 211/1,083 (19.5%; 95%CI 17.2-22.0%) would have required imaging for PE. Of the patients who would not have required imaging according to the YEARS algorithm, 8/872 (0.9%; 95%CI 0.5-1.8%) would have had a missed PE. Conclusion: If the YEARS algorithm was used in all patients with suspected PE, fewer patients would have required imaging with a small increase in the false negative rate.
Introduction: Diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE) can be challenging because the signs and symptoms are often non-specific. Studies have shown that evidence-based algorithms are not always adhered to in the Emergency Department (ED), which leads to unnecessary CT scanning. The pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC) can identify patients who can be safely discharged from the ED without further investigation for PE. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of the PERC rule in the ED and to compare the rates of testing for PE if the PERC rule was used. Methods: This was a health records review of ED patients investigated for PE at two emergency departments over a two-year period (April 2013-March 2015). Inclusion criteria were ED physician ordered CT pulmonary angiogram, ventilation-perfusion scan, or D-dimer for investigation of PE. Patients under the age of 18 were excluded. PE was considered to be present during the emergency department visit if PE was diagnosed on CT or VQ (subsegmental level or above), or if the patient was subsequently found to have PE or deep vein thrombosis during the next 30 days. Trained researchers extracted anonymized data. The rate of CT/VQ imaging and the negative predictive value was calculated. Results: There were 1,163 patients that were tested for PE and 1,097 patients were eligible for our analysis. Of the total, 330/1,097 (30.1%; 95%CI 27.4-32.3%) had CT/VQ imaging for PE, and 48/1,097 (4.4%; 95%CI 3.3-5.8%) patients were diagnosed with PE. 806/1,097 (73.5%; 95%CI 70.8-76.0%) were PERC positive, and of these, 44 patients had a PE (5.5%; 95%CI 4.1-7.3%). Conversely, 291/1,097 (26.5%; 95%CI 24.0-29.2%) patients were PERC negative, and of these, 4 patients had a PE (1.4%; 95%CI 0.5-3.5%). Of the PERC negative patients, 291/291 (100.0%; 95%CI 98.7-100.0%) had a D-dimer test done, and 33/291 (11.3%; 95%CI 8.2-15.5%) had a CT angiogram. If PERC was used, CT/VQ imaging would have been avoided in 33/1,097 (3%; 95%CI 2.2-4.2%) patients and the D-dimer would have been avoided in 291/1,097 (26.5%; 95%CI 24.0-29.2%) patients. Conclusion: If the PERC rule was used in all patients with suspected PE, fewer patients would have further testing. The false negative rate for the PERC rule was low.
Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) programmes facilitate hospital discharge, but patients remain at risk of complications and consequent healthcare utilisation (HCU). Here we elucidated the incidence of and risk factors associated with HCU in OPAT patients. This was a retrospective, single-centre, case–control study of adult patients discharged on OPAT. Cases (n = 63) and controls (n = 126) were patients that did or did not utilise the healthcare system within 60 days. Characteristics associated with HCU in bivariate analysis (P ≤ 0.2) were included in a multivariable logistic regression model. Variables were retained in the final model if they were independently (P < 0.05) associated with 60-day HCU. Among all study patients, the mean age was 55 ± 16, 65% were men, and wound infection (22%) and cellulitis (14%) were common diagnoses. The cumulative incidence of 60-day unplanned HCU was 27% with a disproportionately higher incidence in the first 30 days (21%). A statin at discharge (adjusted odds ratios (aOR) 0.23, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 0.09–0.57), number of prior admissions in past 12 months (aOR 1.48, 95% CIs 1.05–2.10), and a sepsis diagnosis (aOR 4.62, 95% CIs 1.23–17.3) were independently associated with HCU. HCU was most commonly due to non-infection related complications (44%) and worsening primary infection (31%). There are multiple risk factors for HCU in OPAT patients, and formal OPAT clinics may help to risk stratify and target the highest risk groups.
Introduction: Diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE) in the emergency department can be challenging due to non-specific signs and symptoms; this often results in the over-utilization of CT pulmonary angiography (CT-PA). In 2013, the American College of Chest Physicians identified CT-PA as one of the top five avoidable tests. Age-adjusted D-dimer has been shown to decrease CT utilization rates. Recently, clinical-probability adjusted D-dimer has been promoted as an alternative strategy to reduce CT scanning. The aim of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of the age-adjusted D-dimer rule and the clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer rule in Canadian ED patients tested for PE. Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of ED patients investigated for PE at two hospitals from April 2013 to March 2015 (24 months). Inclusion criteria were the ED physician ordered CT-PA, Ventilation-Perfusion (VQ) scan or D-dimer for investigation of PE. Patients under the age of 18 were excluded. PE was defined as CT/VQ diagnosis of acute PE or acute PE/DVT in 30-day follow-up. Trained researchers extracted anonymized data. The age-adjusted D-dimer and the clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer rules were applied retrospectively. The rate of CT/VQ imaging and the false negative rates were calculated. Results: In total, 1,189 patients were tested for PE. 1,129 patients had a D-dimer test and a Wells score less than 4.0. 364/1,129 (32.3%, 95%CI 29.6-35.0%) would have undergone imaging for PE if the age-adjusted D-dimer rule was used. 1,120 patients had a D-dimer test and a Wells score less than 6.0. 217/1,120 patients (19.4%, 95%CI 17.2-21.2%) would have undergone imaging for PE if the clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer rule was used. The false-negative rate for the age-adjusted D-dimer rule was 0.3% (95%CI 0.1-0.9%). The false-negative rate of the clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer was 1.0% (95%CI 0.5-1.9%). Conclusion: The false-negative rates for both the age-adjusted D-dimer and clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer are low. The clinical probability-adjusted D-dimer results in a 13% absolute reduction in CT scanning compared to age-adjusted D-dimer.
Introduction: Diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE) can be challenging because the signs and symptoms are often non-specific. Studies have shown that evidence-based diagnostic algorithms are not always adhered to in the Emergency Department (ED), which leads to unnecessary CT scanning. In 2013, the American College of Chest Physicians identified CT pulmonary angiography as one of the top five avoidable tests. One solution is to use a clinical prediction rule combined with the D-dimer, which safely reduces the use of CT scanning. The objective of this study was to compare the proportion of patients tested for PE in two emergency departments, who 1) had a CT-PE and 2) whose diagnosis of PE was missed. We compared these rates to those if the Wells rule and D-dimer had been applied as standard. Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of ED patients investigated for PE at two hospitals from April 2013 to March 2015 (24 months). Inclusion criteria were the ED physician ordered CT-PE, Ventilation-Perfusion (VQ) scan or D-dimer for investigation of PE. Patients under the age of 18 were excluded. PE was defined as CT/VQ diagnosis of acute PE or acute PE/DVT in 30-day follow-up. Trained researchers extracted anonymized data. The rate of CT/VQ imaging and the false-negative rates were calculated. The false-negative rate was calculated as the number of patients diagnosed with PE within 30 days as a proportion of those patients who did not have a CT/VQ scan at initial presentation. Results: There were 1,189 patients included in this study. 55/1,189 patients (4.6%; 95%CI 3.6-6.0%) were ultimately diagnosed with PE within 30 days. 397/1,189 patients (33.4%; 95%CI 30.8-36.1%) had CT/VQ scans for PE. 3 out of 792 who were not scanned had a missed PE resulting in a false-negative rate of 0.4% (95% CI 0.1-1.1%). 80 patients had an elevated D-dimer or high Wells score but were not imaged. Furthermore, 75 patients who did not have an elevated D-dimer nor a high Wells score were imaged. Had Wells rule/D-dimer been adhered to, 402/1,189 patients (33.8%; 95%CI 31.9-36.6%) would have undergone imaging and the false negative rate would be 0/727, 0% (95%CI 0.0-0.5%). Conclusion: If the Wells rule and D-dimer was used in all patients tested for PE, a similar proportion would have a CT scan but fewer PEs would be missed.
To study the association between gastrointestinal colonization of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).
We analyzed 31,526 patients with prospective collection of fecal specimens for CPE screening: upon admission (targeted screening) and during hospitalization (opportunistic screening, safety net screening, and extensive contact tracing), in our healthcare network with 3,200 beds from July 1, 2011, through December 31, 2015. Specimens were collected at least once weekly during hospitalization for CPE carriers and subjected to broth enrichment culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction.
Of 66,672 fecal specimens collected, 345 specimens (0.5%) from 100 patients (0.3%) had CPE. The number and prevalence (per 100,000 patient-days) of CPE increased from 2 (0.3) in 2012 to 63 (8.0) in 2015 (P<.001). Male sex (odds ratio, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.15–3.18], P=.013), presence of wound or drain (3.12 [1.70–5.71], P<.001), and use of cephalosporins (3.06 [1.42–6.59], P=.004), carbapenems (2.21 [1.10–4.48], P=.027), and PPIs (2.84 [1.72–4.71], P<.001) in the preceding 6 months were significant risk factors by multivariable analysis. Of 79 patients with serial fecal specimens, spontaneous clearance of CPE was noted in 57 (72.2%), with a median (range) of 30 (3–411) days. Comparing patients without use of antibiotics and PPIs, consumption of both antibiotics and PPIs after CPE identification was associated with later clearance of CPE (hazard ratio, 0.35 [95% CI, 0.17–0.73], P=.005).
Concomitant use of antibiotics and PPIs prolonged duration of gastrointestinal colonization by CPE.
The objectives of this three-phased investigation were to (1) characterize existing recreational programming opportunities for tenants residing in assisted living (AL) and (2) gather perceptions on factors influencing activity program planning and delivery. Using an integrated knowledge translation framework during a one-year collaboration, we targeted 51 publicly funded AL sites from two health authorities in British Columbia. We conducted an activity calendar review, staff survey, and interactive symposia to identify factors that enabled or restricted recreational programming. From the information obtained, we determined that all AL sites delivered recreational programming. Although exercise and physical activity opportunities were perceived as having high importance, most activities were social. Staff reported confidence in delivering this type of programming and believed it met the holistic needs of tenants, including their mental well-being, and fostered a sense of community. Future avenues for increasing physical activity of AL tenants should address individual, site, and organizational characteristics.
Varicella is a common and highly contagious childhood disease which impacts the public worldwide. Hong Kong children can only be vaccinated against the disease in private practice. The varicella vaccination rate of local children in preschool is uncertain. Therefore a cross-sectional kindergarten-based parent-administered questionnaire survey was conducted in Hong Kong during 2012. Twelve kindergartens were randomly selected from a complete school list from the Education Bureau of Hong Kong. In total, 1285/1538 (83·6%) parents consented to join the study and completed the questionnaires. The overall varicella infection rate was 19·5% and the uptake of varicella vaccination rate was 57·6%. Barriers against varicella vaccination were mostly due to parental uncertainties about the effectiveness of vaccine, lack of recommendations from doctors or government, and adverse side-effects of the vaccine. The government and healthcare professional bodies are strongly recommended to further enhance health education among healthcare professionals, encouraging their active promotion of varicella vaccination for their patients. Furthermore, health education through various stakeholders is crucial to enhance parental awareness of varicella, as well as the effectiveness and safety of varicella vaccine.
Hemodynamics is a complex problem with several distinct characteristics; fluid is non-Newtonian, flow is pulsatile in nature, flow is three-dimensional due to cholesterol/plague built up, and blood vessel wall is elastic. In order to simulate this type of flows accurately, any proposed numerical scheme has to be able to replicate these characteristics correctly, efficiently, as well as individually and collectively. Since the equations of the finite difference lattice Boltzmann method (FDLBM) are hyperbolic, and can be solved using Cartesian grids locally, explicitly and efficiently on parallel computers, a program of study to develop a viable FDLBM numerical scheme that can mimic these characteristics individually in any model blood flow problem was initiated. The present objective is to first develop a steady FDLBM with an immersed boundary (IB) method to model blood flow in stenoic artery over a range of Reynolds numbers. The resulting equations in the FDLBM/IB numerical scheme can still be solved using Cartesian grids; thus, changing complex artery geometry can be treated without resorting to grid generation. The FDLBM/IB numerical scheme is validated against known data and is then used to study Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid flow through constricted tubes. The investigation aims to gain insight into the constricted flow behavior and the non-Newtonian fluid effect on this behavior.
One viable approach to the study of haemodynamics is to numerically model this flow behavior in normal and stenosed arteries. The blood is either treated as Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid and the flow is assumed to be pulsating, while the arteries can be modeled by constricted tubes with rigid or elastic wall. Such a task involves formulation and development of a numerical method that could at least handle pulsating flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid through tubes with and without constrictions where the boundary is assumed to be inelastic or elastic. As a first attempt, the present paper explores and develops a time-accurate finite difference lattice Boltzmann method (FDLBM) equipped with an immersed boundary (IB) scheme to simulate pulsating flow in constricted tube with rigid walls at different Reynolds numbers. The unsteady flow simulations using a time-accurate FDLBM/IB numerical scheme is validated against theoretical solutions and other known numerical data. In the process, the performance of the time-accurate FDLBM/IB for a model blood flow problem and the ease with which the no-slip boundary condition can be correctly implemented is successfully demonstrated.