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A developing application of laser-driven currents is the generation of magnetic fields of picosecond–nanosecond duration with magnitudes exceeding
. Single-loop and helical coil targets can direct laser-driven discharge currents along wires to generate spatially uniform, quasi-static magnetic fields on the millimetre scale. Here, we present proton deflectometry across two axes of a single-loop coil ranging from 1 to 2 mm in diameter. Comparison with proton tracking simulations shows that measured magnetic fields are the result of kiloampere currents in the coil and electric charges distributed around the coil target. Using this dual-axis platform for proton deflectometry, robust measurements can be made of the evolution of magnetic fields in a capacitor coil target.
With the recent discovery of a dozen dusty star-forming galaxies and around 30 quasars at z > 5 that are hyper-luminous in the infrared (μ LIR > 1013 L⊙, where μ is a lensing magnification factor), the possibility has opened up for SPICA, the proposed ESA M5 mid-/far-infrared mission, to extend its spectroscopic studies toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and scientific potential of such observations with SPICA’s far-infrared spectrometer SAFARI, which will probe a spectral range (35–230 μm) that will be unexplored by ALMA and JWST. Our simulations show that SAFARI is capable of delivering good-quality spectra for hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z = 5 − 10, allowing us to sample spectral features in the rest-frame mid-infrared and to investigate a host of key scientific issues, such as the relative importance of star formation versus AGN, the hardness of the radiation field, the level of chemical enrichment, and the properties of the molecular gas. From a broader perspective, SAFARI offers the potential to open up a new frontier in the study of the early Universe, providing access to uniquely powerful spectral features for probing first-generation objects, such as the key cooling lines of low-metallicity or metal-free forming galaxies (fine-structure and H2 lines) and emission features of solid compounds freshly synthesised by Population III supernovae. Ultimately, SAFARI’s ability to explore the high-redshift Universe will be determined by the availability of sufficiently bright targets (whether intrinsically luminous or gravitationally lensed). With its launch expected around 2030, SPICA is ideally positioned to take full advantage of upcoming wide-field surveys such as LSST, SKA, Euclid, and WFIRST, which are likely to provide extraordinary targets for SAFARI.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
Introduction: In the past few years, there has been an increase in awareness of the challenge of managing work related stress in EMS. Extant research has liked different types of chronic and critical incident stress to stress reactions like posttraumatic stress. However, there is no tool to capture the transactional stresses which are associated with the day to day provision of service (e.g., dealing with offload delays or mandatory overtime) and interacting with allied professions (e.g., emergency department staff) or allied agencies (e.g., law enforcement). The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a measure which captured transactional stresses in paramedics Methods: An online survey was conducted with ten Canadian Paramedic Services with a 40.5% response rate (n= 717). Factor analysis was used to identify variation in responses related to the latent factor of transactional stress. The scale was validated using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results: The sample of transactional stress questions was split to allow for multiple analyses (EFA n=360/ CFA n=357). In the exploratory factor analysis, principal axis factoring with an oblique rotation revealed a two-factor, twelve item solution, (KMO=.832, x2=1440.19, df=66, p<.001). Confirmatory factor analysis also endorsed a two factor, 12 item solution, (x2 =130.39, df=51, p<.001, CFI=.95, TLI= .93, RMSEA= .07, SRMR= .06). Results supported two groups of six-item factors that captured transactional stress in the provision of service. The factors, clearly aligned with transactional stress issues internal to the ambulance and transactional stress relationships external to the ambulance. Both subscales demonstrated good internal reliability (= .843/ =.768) and were correlated (p.01) with a convergent validity measure. Conclusion: This study successfully validated a two-factor scale which captures stress associated with the day to day provision of EMS and the interaction with allied professions. The development of this measure of transactional stresses further expands the potential that paramedics, Paramedic Services, employers, and prehospital physicians may understand the dynamics that influence provider health and safety. As a result, there may be greater opportunities to intervene holistically to improve paramedic health and well-being.
The SPICA mid- and far-infrared telescope will address fundamental issues in our understanding of star formation and ISM physics in galaxies. A particular hallmark of SPICA is the outstanding sensitivity enabled by the cold telescope, optimised detectors, and wide instantaneous bandwidth throughout the mid- and far-infrared. The spectroscopic, imaging, and polarimetric observations that SPICA will be able to collect will help in clarifying the complex physical mechanisms which underlie the baryon cycle of galaxies. In particular, (i) the access to a large suite of atomic and ionic fine-structure lines for large samples of galaxies will shed light on the origin of the observed spread in star-formation rates within and between galaxies, (ii) observations of HD rotational lines (out to ~10 Mpc) and fine structure lines such as [C ii] 158 μm (out to ~100 Mpc) will clarify the main reservoirs of interstellar matter in galaxies, including phases where CO does not emit, (iii) far-infrared spectroscopy of dust and ice features will address uncertainties in the mass and composition of dust in galaxies, and the contributions of supernovae to the interstellar dust budget will be quantified by photometry and monitoring of supernova remnants in nearby galaxies, (iv) observations of far-infrared cooling lines such as [O i] 63 μm from star-forming molecular clouds in our Galaxy will evaluate the importance of shocks to dissipate turbulent energy. The paper concludes with requirements for the telescope and instruments, and recommendations for the observing strategy.
Recent evidence suggests that exercise plays a role in cognition and that the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) can be divided into dorsal and ventral subregions based on distinct connectivity patterns.
To examine the effect of physical activity and division of the PCC on brain functional connectivity measures in subjective memory complainers (SMC) carrying the epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE 4) allele.
Participants were 22 SMC carrying the APOE ɛ4 allele (ɛ4+; mean age 72.18 years) and 58 SMC non-carriers (ɛ4–; mean age 72.79 years). Connectivity of four dorsal and ventral seeds was examined. Relationships between PCC connectivity and physical activity measures were explored.
ɛ4+ individuals showed increased connectivity between the dorsal PCC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the ventral PCC and supplementary motor area (SMA). Greater levels of physical activity correlated with the magnitude of ventral PCC–SMA connectivity.
The results provide the first evidence that ɛ4+ individuals at increased risk of cognitive decline show distinct alterations in dorsal and ventral PCC functional connectivity.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has long been recognized as a heterogeneous illness, with a common clinical presentation of progressive amnesia and less common “atypical” clinical presentations, including syndromes dominated by visual, aphasic, “frontal,” or apraxic symptoms. Our knowledge of atypical clinical phenotypes of AD comes from clinicopathologic studies, but with the growing use of in vivo molecular biomarkers of amyloid and tau pathology, we are beginning to recognize that these syndromes may not be as rare as once thought. When a clinician is evaluating a patient whose clinical phenotype is dominated by progressive aphasia, complex visual impairment, or other neuropsychiatric symptoms with relative sparing of memory, the differential diagnosis may be broader and a confident diagnosis of an atypical form of AD may require the use of molecular biomarkers. Despite the evolving sophistication in our diagnostic tools, and the acknowledgment of atypical AD syndromes in the 2011 revised diagnostic criteria for AD, the assessment of such patients still poses substantial challenges. We use a case-based approach to review the clinical and imaging phenotypes of a series of patients with typical and atypical AD, and discuss our current approach to their evaluation. One day, we hope that regardless of whether a patient exhibits typical or atypical symptoms of AD pathology, we will be able to identify the condition at a prodromal phase and institute a combination of symptomatic and disease-modifying therapies to support cognitive processes, function, and behavior, and slow or halt progression to dementia.
Several studies demonstrating that central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are preventable prompted a national initiative to reduce the incidence of these infections.
We conducted a collaborative cohort study to evaluate the impact of the national “On the CUSP: Stop BSI” program on CLABSI rates among participating adult intensive care units (ICUs). The program goal was to achieve a unit-level mean CLABSI rate of less than 1 case per 1,000 catheter-days using standardized definitions from the National Healthcare Safety Network. Multilevel Poisson regression modeling compared infection rates before, during, and up to 18 months after the intervention was implemented.
A total of 1,071 ICUs from 44 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, reporting 27,153 ICU-months and 4,454,324 catheter-days of data, were included in the analysis. The overall mean CLABSI rate significantly decreased from 1.96 cases per 1,000 catheter-days at baseline to 1.15 at 16–18 months after implementation. CLABSI rates decreased during all observation periods compared with baseline, with adjusted incidence rate ratios steadily decreasing to 0.57 (95% confidence intervals, 0.50–0.65) at 16–18 months after implementation.
Coincident with the implementation of the national “On the CUSP: Stop BSI” program was a significant and sustained decrease in CLABSIs among a large and diverse cohort of ICUs, demonstrating an overall 43% decrease and suggesting the majority of ICUs in the United States can achieve additional reductions in CLABSI rates.
Herpes virus infections can cause cognitive impairment during and after acute encephalitis. Although chronic, latent/persistent infection is considered to be relatively benign, some studies have documented cognitive impairment in exposed persons that is untraceable to encephalitis. These studies were conducted among schizophrenia (SZ) patients or older community dwellers, among whom it is difficult to control for the effects of co-morbid illness and medications. To determine whether the associations can be generalized to other groups, we examined a large sample of younger control individuals, SZ patients and their non-psychotic relatives (n=1852).
Using multivariate models, cognitive performance was evaluated in relation to exposures to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), controlling for familial and diagnostic status and sociodemographic variables, including occupation and educational status. Composite cognitive measures were derived from nine cognitive domains using principal components of heritability (PCH). Exposure was indexed by antibodies to viral antigens.
PCH1, the most heritable component of cognitive performance, declines with exposure to CMV or HSV-1 regardless of case/relative/control group status (p = 1.09 × 10−5 and 0.01 respectively), with stronger association with exposure to multiple herpes viruses (β = −0.25, p = 7.28 × 10−10). There were no significant interactions between exposure and group status.
Latent/persistent herpes virus infections can be associated with cognitive impairments regardless of other health status.
We present Herschel-SPIRE imaging spectroscopy (194-671 μm) of the bright starburst galaxy M82. We use RADEX and a Bayesian Likelihood Analysis to simultaneously model the temperature, density, column density, and filling factor of both the cool and warm components of molecular gas traced by the entire CO ladder up to J=13-12. The high-J lines observed by SPIRE trace much warmer gas (~500 K) than those observable from the ground. The addition of 13CO (and [C I]) is new and indicates that [C I] may be tracing different gas than 12CO. At such a high temperature, cooling is dominated by molecular hydrogen; we conclude with a discussion on the possible excitation processes in this warm component. Photon-dominated region (PDR) models require significantly higher densities than those indicated by our Bayesian likelihood analysis in order to explain the high-J CO line ratios, though cosmic-ray enhanced PDR models can do a better job reproducing the emission at lower densities. Shocks and turbulent heating are likely required to explain the bright high-J emission.
It is clinically important to understand the factors that increase the likelihood of the frequent and recurrent suicide attempts seen in those with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Although several studies have examined this subject in a cross-sectional manner, the aim of this study was to determine the most clinically relevant baseline and time-varying predictors of suicide attempts over 16 years of prospective follow-up among patients with BPD.
Two-hundred and ninety in-patients meeting Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines (DIB-R) and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD were assessed during their index admission using a series of semistructured interviews and self-report measures. These subjects were then reassessed using the same instruments every 2 years. The generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach was used to model the odds of suicide attempts in longitudinal analyses, controlling for assessment period, yielding an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each predictor.
Nineteen variables were found to be significant bivariate predictors of suicide attempts. Eight of these, seven of which were time-varying, remained significant in multivariate analyses: diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), substance use disorder (SUD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), presence of self-harm, adult sexual assault, having a caretaker who has completed suicide, affective instability, and more severe dissociation.
The results of this study suggest that prediction of suicide attempts among borderline patients is complex, involving co-occurring disorders, co-occurring symptoms of BPD (self-harm, affective reactivity and dissociation), adult adversity, and a family history of completed suicide.
Physical inactivity poses a major risk for obesity and chronic disease, and is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. However, the genetic association between physical activity (PA) level and obesity is not well characterized. Our aims were to: (i) estimate the extent of additive genetic influences on physical activity while adjusting for household effects; and (ii) determine whether physical activity and adiposity measures share common genetic effects.
The sample included 521 (42 % male) adult relatives, 18–86 years of age, from five large families in the Southwest Ohio Family Study.
Sport, leisure and work PA were self-reported (Baecke Questionnaire of Habitual Physical Activity). Total body and trunk adiposity, including percentage body fat (%BF), were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue mass were measured using MRI.
Heritabilities for adiposity and PA traits, and the genetic, household and environmental correlations among them, were estimated using maximum likelihood variance components methods. Significant genetic effects (P < 0·05) were found for sport (h2 = 0·26) and leisure PA (h2 = 0·17). Significant (P < 0·05) household effects existed for leisure PA (c2 = 0·25). Sport PA had a negative genetic correlation with central adiposity measurements adjusted for height (ρG > |−0·40|). Sport and leisure PA had negative genetic correlations with %BF (ρG > |−0·46|).
The results suggest that the association of sport and leisure PA with lower adiposity is due, in part, to a common genetic inheritance of both reduced adiposity and the predisposition to engage in more physical activity.
In a recent report (Greenwood et al. 1936) we included a short discussion of the few scattered observations that we had made on the effects of the dispersal of an infected herd (pp. 189–92). Briefly, we had found that the division of a herd, in which an epidemic due to Bact. typhi-murium was under way, into small isolated groups was followed by a greatly decreased rate of mortality in those groups when the dispersal was carried out at the beginning of the beginning of the epidemic period. Reaggregation of the groups resulted in a fresh spread of the disease, but the final mortality was lower than in a similar herd which had not been dispersed during the earlier stages of cage life (Topley, 1922). In a subsequent experiment (Topley & Wilson, 1925) dispersal was carried out at a later stage of epidemic spread, and very different results were obtained. For the first three weeks or so after division into small groups there was no material difference between the mortality experienced by the dispersed and not-dispersed mice. But at about the 25th day the death-rate in each of the dispersed herds showed a definite decline, while that in the undispersed herds continued unabated for some further length of time.
Ten generations of mice (with one exception) were inoculated with a partially purified toxic fraction isolated from Bact. typhi-murium, the next generation being bred each time from the survivors to the test. By this selective process a stock was produced with a substantially increased power of resistance to the toxin. For instance, in the fourth and fifth generations (combined), at which point of time the dose inoculated was stabilized at 4 mg., 36% of the mice with resistant ancestors survived inoculation compared with 12% of normal mice derived from the same original stock; in the ninth and tenth generations (combined) 64% of the resistant stock survived and only 14% of the controls. Also, those mice which failed to survive inoculation took slightly longer to die, on the average, in the resistant stock than in the normal stock.
The mice of each generation were not inoculated until about the age of 12 weeks, but to test the possibility of the transference of a passive immunity from mother to young the seventh generation was bred from without previous inoculation. The eighth generation was composed therefore of descendants of animals selected for resistance by inoculation but its own parents had not been tested. Its survival rate, 59%, was substantially greater than that of the normal stock, 17%, proving that the differences observed in previous generations were not the results of a transference of passive immunity.
Some mice of the ninth and tenth generations were inoculated with the living organism Bact. typhi-murium in place of the toxic fraction derived from it. Although these generations were relatively highly resistant to inoculation with the toxin itself they were less resistant than normal mice to the living organism.
The meeting was attended by six from the WG (K. Aksnes, J. Blunck, G. Consolmagno, B. Marsden, R. Schulz, V. Shevchenko) and two from the Task Groups (D. Morrison, J. Watanabe). Also the incoming WG members E. Bowell and R. Courtin, as well as some guests, attended.
The study was designed to provide quantifiable information on both within- and between-herd variation in pig growth rate from birth to slaughter and to examine how this was influenced by moving pigs at a common age to a common environment. Five litters were selected from each of eight pig herds in Northern Ireland with varying growth performance. All eight herds were offered the same nutritional regime. Five pigs (three boars and two gilts) were selected from each litter. In each herd, 22 pigs (12 boars and 10 gilts) were weighed individually, every 4 weeks, from 4 to 20 weeks of age. At 4 weeks of age (weaning) three non-sibling boars were taken from each herd and brought to a common environment where they received medication, were housed individually from 6 weeks of age and offered the same dietary regime. They were weighed and feed intakes were recorded twice weekly. A growth rate difference of 61 g/day (P < 0.001), 112 g/day (P < 0.01) and 170 g/day (P < 0.001) was observed on farm, between the top and bottom quartile of herds during 4 to 8, 8 to 12 and 12 to 20 weeks of age, respectively. This difference in growth rate equated to an average difference in cost of production of ¢13/kg carcass on a birth to bacon unit. When pigs from the different herds were housed in the common environment, large variation in growth performance (143 g/day (P < 0.01) and 243 g/day (P < 0.001) for 8 to 12 and 12 to 20 weeks, respectively) was also observed between the top and bottom quartile of herds. Although feed efficiency was similar, a significant feed intake difference of 329 g/day (P < 0.01) and 655 g/day (P < 0.001) between 8 to 12 and 12 to 20 weeks of age was observed. The variation in growth rate between pigs whether managed on farm or in the common environment was similar (variation in days to 100 kg on farm and in the common environment was 18 and 19 days, respectively). When housed in the common environment, although the top and bottom quartile of pigs converted feed equally efficiently, pigs in the top quartile had significantly higher feed intakes suggesting greater appetites. It is difficult to assess the extent to which these differences can be attributed to genetic effects or pre-weaning environment, and how much the effects of management, disease or genetics contributed to the variation between and within herds.