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When a liquid stream is injected into a gaseous atmosphere, it destabilizes and continuously passes through different states characterized by different morphologies. Throughout this process, the flow dynamics may be different depending on the region of the flow and the scales of the involved liquid structures. Exploring this multi-scale, multi-dimensional phenomenon requires some new theoretical tools, some of which need yet to be elaborated. Here, a new analytical framework is proposed on the basis of two-point statistical equations of the liquid volume fraction. This tool, which originates from single phase turbulence, allows us notably to decompose the fluxes of liquid in flow–position space and scale space. Direct numerical simulations of liquid–gas turbulence decaying in a triply periodic domain are then used to characterize the time and scale evolution of the liquid volume fraction. It is emphasized that two-point statistics of the liquid volume fraction depend explicitly on the geometrical properties of the liquid–gas interface and in particular its surface density. The stretch rate of the liquid–gas interface is further shown to be the equivalent for the liquid volume fraction (a non-diffusive scalar) of the scalar dissipation rate. Finally, a decomposition of the transport of liquid in scale space highlights that non-local interactions between non-adjacent scales play a significant role.
The aim of our study was to describe and to investigate the factors associated with glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE) acquisition during a single-strain outbreak which occurred in several wards of hospital from September 2013 to January 2014. We designed a case–control study. Analyses were performed using Bayesian methods. Univariate logistic regressions with informative priors from published studies were conducted. A multivariate model was build including variables with a probability of odd-ratio exceeding one (Pr) >85% or <15%. Thirteen cases and 52 controls were recruited. The description of this outbreak highlighted the importance to quickly detect patients at risk of GRE carriage in order to implement the isolation measures and to transfer to dedicated department if they are effectively carriers. Following multivariate analysis, antibiotics during hospitalisation (Pr = 0.968), number of hospitalisation days in the year (Pr = 0.964), antacids intake (Pr = 0.878) (with a risk increase), immunosuppression (Pr = 0.026) and isolation measures (Pr = 0.003) (both with protective effect) were associated with GRE acquisition. The use of Bayesian statistics was useful because of our study's small population size and prior information availability.
Improving neurocognitive outcomes following treatment for brain metastases have become increasingly important. We propose that a brief telephone-based neurocognitive assessment may improve follow-up cognitive assessments in this palliative population. Aim: To prospectively assess the feasibility and reliability of a telephone based brief neurocognitive assessment compared to the same tests delivered face-to-face. Methods: Brain metastases patients to be treated with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) were assessed using a brief validated neurocognitive battery at baseline, at 1 month and 3 months following WBRT (in person and over the phone). The primary outcome was feasibility and inter-procedural (in person versus telephone) reliability. The secondary objective was to evaluate the change in neurocognitive function before and after WBRT. Results: Out of 39 patients enrolled, 82% of patients completed the baseline in-person and telephone neurocognitive assessments. However, at 1 month, only 41% of enrolled patients completed the in-person and telephone cognitive assessments and at 3 months, only 10% of patients completed them. Results pertaining to reliability and change in neurocognitive function will be updated. Conclusion: The pre-defined definition of feasibility (at least 80% completion for face to face and telephone neurocognitive assessments) was met at baseline. However, a large proportion of participants did not complete either telephone or in person neurocognitive follow-up at 1 month and at 3 months post-WBRT. Attrition remained a challenge for neurocognitive testing in this population even when a telephone-based brief assessment was used.
Multi-agent models can bear several names depending on the field they were initially developed in (e.g. agent-based model in social science, individual-based model in ecology). Agent- and individual-based models (ABMs and IBMs) are becoming tools of choice to simulate complex social–ecological systems (Gimblett, 2002; Janssen & Ostrom, 2006; Monticino et al., 2007; Bennett & McGinnis, 2008). The recent development of dedicated programming platforms and libraries has also contributed to the expansion of multi-agent models coupled with geographic information systems (GIS) (Railsback et al., 2006). Such models have been applied in a wide variety of natural resource management contexts where heterogeneous actors interact, including rangeland management in arid zones (Gross et al., 2006), management of water use and access in river basins (Schlüter & Pahl-Wostl, 2007), control of irrigation channels (van Oel et al., 2010), agriculture management (Manson, 2005), and forest clearing for agriculture (Moreno et al., 2007). ABMs have also been used to support national parks and recreation areas' managers by simulating visitor movements to predict over-crowded areas along vehicular routes and hiking trails (Itami et al., 2003), or along riverside rest areas and attraction sites for rafting trips on the Colorado River (Roberts et al., 2002).
DX Cha (HD 104237) is a southern, optically bright Herbig Ae star with an infrared excess, that is part of a small stellar group younger than 5 Myr. We used the APEX and ASTE submillimeter telescopes in Chile to search for continuum and gas emission around this system. Using LABOCA on APEX we detect strong continuum emission around HD104237-A and system component HD104237-E. Our ASTE spectrum detects a double-peaked 12CO(3-2) line profile towards the system, typical of a rotating disk. The new data are used as constraints with MCFOST to produce a disk model that fits the entire SED as well as the observed CO line profile.
We present detailed models of the edge-on protoplanetary disk ESO Hα 569 (SSTgbs J111110.7-764157) from resolved scattered light images from HST and a complete spectral energy distribution. Data was obtained as part of an HST campaign to catalogue edge-on disks around young stars in nearby star forming regions (HST program 12514, PI: Karl Stapelfeldt). We confirm that this object is an optically thick edge-on disk around a young star with an outer radius of 125 AU. Using full radiative transfer models, we probe the distribution of dust grains and overall shape of the disk (inclination, scale height, dust mass, maximum particle size, inner radius, flaring exponent and surface/volume density exponent).
Among the numerous known extrasolar planets, only a handful have been imaged directly so far, at large orbital radii and in rather evolved systems. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) will have the capacity to observe these wide planetary systems at a younger age, thus bringing a better understanding of the planet formation process. Here we explore the ability of ALMA to detect the gaps carved by planets on wide orbits.
We present new high-resolution observations and modeling of SSTtau J042021+ 281349, a 400 AU-radius edge-on protoplanetary disk. We have gathered visible and near-infrared scattered light images of the system with the Hubble Space Telescope and Keck adaptive optics system, as well as a 1.3 mm continuum map with CARMA. Compared to the well-known HH 30 disk, this new system is remarkable because of its spectacular bipolar jet and the high degree of lateral symmetry of the disk. Indeed, we argue that this system is a “cleaner” prototype for edge-on disks. In addition, the apparent achromaticity of dust properties (most notably the almost grey opacity law) from the visible to the near-infrared in this disk suggests that it is in an advanced stage of dust evolution.
Studying the inner regions of protoplanetary disks (1-10 AU) is of importance to understand the formation of planets and the accretion process feeding the forming central star. Herbig AeBe stars are bright enough to be routinely observed by Near IR interferometers. The data for the fainter T Tauri stars is much more sparse. In this contribution we present the results of our ongoing survey at the VLTI. We used the PIONIER combiner that allows the simultaneous use of 4 telescopes, yielding 6 baselines and 3 independent closure phases at once. PIONIER's integrated optics technology makes it a sensitive instrument. We have observed 22 T Tauri stars so far, the largest survey for T Tauri stars to this date.
Our results demonstrate the very significant contribution of an extended component to the interferometric signal. The extended component is different from source to source and the data, with several baselines, offer a way to improve our knowledge of the disk geometry and/or composition. These results validate an earlier study by Pinte et al. 2008 and show that the dust inner radii of T Tauri disks now appear to be in better agreement with the expected position of the dust sublimation radius, contrary to previous claims.
Over the past decade, a growing number of deep imaging surveys have started to provide meaningful constraints on the population of extrasolar giant planets at large orbital separation. Primary targets for these surveys have been carefully selected based on their age, distance and spectral type, and often on their membership to young nearby associations where all stars share common kinematics, photometric and spectroscopic properties. The next step is a wider statistical analysis of the frequency and properties of low mass companions as a function of stellar mass and orbital separation. In late 2009, we initiated a coordinated European Large Program using angular differential imaging in the H band (1.66 μm) with NaCo at the VLT. Our aim is to provide a comprehensive and statistically significant study of the occurrence of extrasolar giant planets and brown dwarfs at large (5-500 AU) orbital separation around ~150 young, nearby stars, a large fraction of which have never been observed at very deep contrast. The survey has now been completed and we present the data analysis and detection limits for the observed sample, for which we reach the planetary-mass domain at separations of ≳50 AU on average. We also present the results of the statistical analysis that has been performed over the 75 targets newly observed at high-contrast. We discuss the details of the statistical analysis and the physical constraints that our survey provides for the frequency and formation scenario of planetary mass companions at large separation.
Edge-on, optically thick circumstellar disks have been previously imaged at subarcsecond resolution around about a dozen nearby young stellar objects. In these systems the central star is occulted from direct view, bright star image artifacts are absent, and the disk reflected light is clearly seen. Comparison of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) edge-on disk images with scattered light models has allowed key disk structural parameters and dust grain properties to be determined. Edge-on disks have been systematically undercounted to date: while 10% of young stars should statistically be occulted by their disk, the observed frequency is much less. Thus there is a significant potential for discovering and imaging new examples. Spitzer Space Telescope legacy science programs have provided the first good spectral energy distribution (SED) measurements for the previously known edge-on disks. These can be used as templates to identify new candidates in far-infrared survey datasets.
We report on the results of our HST program to image twenty-one edge-on disk candidates mostly selected from their SEDs. Eleven are well-resolved with radii ranging from 30-400 AU, nine for the first time and six showing highly collimated jets. Outstanding individual sources include a large and symmetric new template object, a highly flattened disk not accreting onto its central star, and an asymmetric disk with a misaligned jet which likely traces tidal perturbations in a binary system. Follow-up work to obtain ancillary data and perform scattered light modeling of the most symmetric disks is now being pursued. The results of this program will guide a new round of searches for these rare but important snapshots of protoplanetary disk evolution.
With the combination of Herschel PACS (far-IR), submillimeter (submm) and millimeter (mm) ground-based observations, we are leading an investigation of all members with spectral types M4 and onwards in the Taurus star-forming region. This complete census spans the stellar to substellar boundary (M6.25), and the wavelength range covers the transition from optically thick to optically thin emission. From our Hershel PACS observations of ~135 sources, we obtain a detection rate of ~40% at 70 μm and a detection rate of ~20% at 160 μm, and provide the first far-IR measurements for the majority of these members. With our complementary submm and mm observations, best fit SED models from the radiative transfer code MCFOST will be used to infer disk properties such as scale height, mass, outer radius and maximum dust grain size. These comprehensive population statistics of disks are critical for testing star/brown dwarf and planet formation models around these later type members of Taurus.
The close environment of Herbig stars starts to be revealed step by step and it appears to be quite complex. Many physical phenomena interplay: the dust sublimation causing a puffed-up inner rim, a dusty halo, a dusty wind or an inner gaseous component. To investigate more deeply these regions, getting images at the first Astronomical Unit scale is necessary. This has become possible with near infrared instruments on the VLTI. We have developed a new imaging method adapted to young stellar objects where we process separately the stellar component from the rest of the image to reveal the environment by using the spectral differences between these two components. We present the result of this method on the first imaging survey of Herbig stars carried out by PIONIER on the VLTI.
Nous avons évalué l’intérêt des gants de radioprotection
de radiologie interventionnelle pour de la manipulation de radionucléides
dans un service de médecine nucléaire. Des mesures d’atténuation
faites par des dosimètres thermo-luminescents placés à l’intérieur
de gants au contact des flacons ont montré une augmentation significative
de la dose aux extrémités dans le cas d’un émetteur γ, et une réduction
de dose pour un émetteur β. Des mesures complémentaires faites au
moyen d’un irradiateur X (150 kV) ont montré qu’il existe une production
d’électrons secondaires dans le gant, dont le parcours dans l’air
est estimé à 6 cm. Étant donné que l’utilisation d’un gant radio-atténuateur
dans une boîte à gants de médecine nucléaire doit être compatible
avec l’ensemble des radionucléides utilisés, notre équipe n’utilisera
pas de tels gants dans la pratique quotidienne.
Conversion of poultry litter to energy can serve as a renewable energy source and provide an alternative to land application in areas where poultry production is intensive. Economies of size may limit a farmer's ability to economically use on-farm conversion. Capital costs can be spread across several poultry farmers to convert poultry litter to energy in a centralized facility. This research determined influences on the amount of litter poultry producers will to sell to a centralized conversion facility, on their willingness to invest in a conversion cooperative, and on the prices for litter required to divert litter from current uses.
A wide range of high-quality data is becoming available for protoplanetary disks. From these data sets many issues have already been addressed, such as constraining the large scale geometry of disks, finding evidence of dust grain evolution, as well as constraining the kinematics and physico-chemical conditions of the gas phase. Most of these results are based on models that emphasise fitting observations of either the dust component (SEDs or scattered light images or, more recently, interferometric visibilities), or the gas phase (resolved maps in molecular lines). In this contribution, we present a more global approach which aims at interpreting consistently the increasing amount of observational data in the framework of a single model, in order to to better characterize both the dust population and the gas disk properties, as well as their interactions. We present results of such modeling applied to a few disks (e.g. IM Lup, see Figure) with large observational data-sets available (scattered light images, polarisation maps, IR spectroscopy, X-ray spectrum, CO maps). These kinds of multi-wavelengths studies will become very powerful in the context of forthcoming instruments such as Herschel and ALMA.
Whereas the understanding of most phases of stellar evolution made
considerable progress throughout the whole of the twentieth century, stellar
formation remained rather enigmatic and poorly constrained by observations
until about three decades ago, when major discoveries (e.g., that protostars
are often associated with highly collimated jets) revolutionized the field.
At this time, it became increasingly clearer that magnetic fields were
playing a major role at all stages of stellar formation. We describe herein a quick overview of the main breakthroughs that observations
and theoretical modelling yielded for our understanding of how stars (and their
planetary systems) are formed and on how much these new worlds are shaped by
the presence of magnetic fields, either those pervading the interstellar medium
and threading molecular clouds or those produced through dynamo processes in
the convective envelopes of protostars or in the accretion discs from which
Les valeurs limites annuelles d’exposition de l’organisme entier des travailleurs et du public sont définies à l’aide de la dose efficace E. Les dosimètres individuels portés par les travailleurs évaluent un estimateur de cette grandeur de protection : l’équivalent de dose individuel. Cet article présente les deux méthodes de calcul des équivalents de dose et de la dose efficace ainsi que les résultats obtenus dans un champ mixte neutronique-photonique auprès d’une boîte à gants. Les équivalents de dose calculés pour ce poste de travail dépendent des hypothèses de calcul. Estimer la dose efficace à partir de ces résultats se révèle de ce fait délicat. Cette étude démontre ainsi l’intérêt de disposer d’un moyen de mesure de la dose efficace.