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Studies suggest that around 25% of the European population receive treatment for a chronic condition. As the population ages, the prevalence of chronic diseases increases, with an average of two per person in their mid-60s and three for those surviving to their mid-70s (Barnett et al., 2012). People with chronic diseases now form a sizeable proportion of all hospital admissions both elective and emergency. Once admitted to hospital, people with multiple complex conditions may require a long length of stay and place a significant demand on acute hospital services.
The majority of available US-published reports present populations with community spread in urban areas. The objective of this report is to describe a rural healthcare system's utilisation of therapeutic options available to treat Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and subsequent patient outcomes. A total of 150 patients were treated for COVID-19 at three hospitals in the Dakotas from 21 March 2020 to 30 April 2020. The most common pharmacological treatment regimens administered were zinc, hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin and convalescent plasma. Adjunctive treatments included therapeutic anticoagulation, tocilizumab and corticosteroids. As of 1 June 2020, 127 patients have survived to hospital discharge, 12 patients remain hospitalised and 11 patients have expired. The efficacy of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin use has yet to be determined but was not without risks of corrected QT interval prolongation and arrhythmias in our cohort. We did not appreciate any adverse effects that appeared related to tocilizumab or convalescent plasma administration in those patient subsets. These findings may provide insight into disease severity and treatment options in the rural setting with limited resources to participate in clinical trials and encourage larger comparative studies evaluating treatment efficacy.
The COVID-19 outbreak could be considered as an uncontrollable stressful life event. Lockdown measures have provoked a disruption of daily life with a great impact over older adults’ health and well-being. Nevertheless, eudaimonic well‐being plays a protective role in confronting adverse circumstances, such as the COVID-19 situation. This study aims to assess the association between age and psychological well-being (personal growth and purpose in life). Young–old (60–70 years) and old–old (71–80 years) community-dwelling Spaniards (N = 878) completed a survey and reported on their sociodemographic characteristics and their levels of health, COVID-19 stress-related, appraisal, and personal resources. Old–old did not evidence poorer psychological well-being than young–old. Age has only a negative impact on personal growth. The results also suggest that the nature of the COVID-19 impact (except for the loss of a loved one) may not be as relevant for the older adults’ well-being as their appraisals and personal resources for managing COVID-related problems. In addition, these results suggest that some sociodemographic and health-related variables have an impact on older adults’ well-being. Thus, perceived-health, family functioning, resilience, gratitude, and acceptance had significant associations with both personal growth and purpose in life. Efforts to address older adults’ psychological well-being focusing on older adults’ personal resources should be considered.
Until now, no reliable biological markers of risk and relapse in substance-dependent patients have been identified. The yawn-inducing test with apomorphine has been proposed as a marker of the functional status of the dopaminergic system and therefore a predictor of suffering an addiction or predisposition to relapse.
Studying the safety and efficacy of apomorphine test as a predictor of relapse in intranasal cocaine dependent, diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR.
We performed the test of apomorphine at the beginning (day 1) and end (day 11/12) of a detoxification program in 33 patients (29 men). The majority of patients relapsed after 22 weeks of follow up (87% relapse). The average yawns in the sample were 10.9 ± 9.3 in the initial test (Apo 1) and 10.2 ± 10.2 in the final test (Apo 2). The 42% of patients relapsed early (before 4 weeks) and 45% late (afther 4 weeks). 58% of the sample (N = 19), which did not fall belatedly filled an average of 8.0 yawns in Apo1 and 8.1 on Apo2 and 42% who did so early (N = 14), 14,8 in Apo1 and 14.6 in Apo2. Therefore there are an increased number of yawns in patients with early relapse. No important side effects were reported.
Patients with early relapse have a higher number of yawns that those falling late or abstainers The apomorphine test is a safe test and it is a readily applicable tool in clinical practice and may be a biological marker of risk.
According to 2008 data, there are 80.000 patients undergoing replacement opiate programs (RMP) in Spain. However, the clinical therapeutic management and the psychiatric and medical comorbidities have not been well described.
To describe the current therapeutic management and psychiatric comorbilities of opiate-dependent patients undergoing a RMP in Spain.
We carried out an observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study from September 2008 to February 2009. Patients > 18 years, with written informed consent, with a opiate-dependence according to DSM-IV-TR criteria and currently scheduled in a RMP in Spain were included.
624 patients (38.89±7.95 y.o.,84% men) were included in the study from 74 centers.
Psychiatric comorbidities were clinically detected in 68% of all valuable patients, most frequently anxiety (53%), mood (48%) and sleep disorders (41%). Patients receiving buprenorphine-naloxone suffered less sleep disorders (19% vs. 43%; p=0.0327) The proportion of patients with at least one psychiatric comorbidity was directly related to methadone dose (p=0.0066).
The most frequent replacement therapy was methadone (94%), usually in ≤ 40 mg/day (38%) and 40-80 mg/day doses (40%); mean follow up period being 45.88±51.86 months. Significant differences were found between methadone doses and retention. Patients with HIV and HCV infection received higher doses of methadone (HIV+ patients (p=0.0024) and HCV+/ HIV+ patients (p=0.0250) due to ARV treatment; and showed less PMM retention.
Patients present high rates of dual diagnosis, and infectious and non-infectious comorbidities, expecting higher doses of methadone than found (54.04±47.26 mg/day) in the study to assure a proper retention in the maintenance programs.
Cocaine consumption can induce transient psychotic symptoms, expressed as paranoia or hallucinations. Cocaine induced psychosis (CIP) is common but not developed in all cases.
To describe the Risk Factors for developing cocaine-induced psychosis in cocaine dependent patients, according DSM-IV-TR criteria.
This is the first European study about the relationship of CIP with consumption pattern variables and personality disorders, we evaluated 220 cocaine dependents over 18 years, 80'5% males, mean age 33.9 years (SD = 7.6). Patients were recluted from an outpatient clinic department and subsequently systematically evaluated using SCID I and SCID II interviews for comorbidity disorders, and a clinical-based systematic psychotic symptoms form.
A high proportion of cocaine dependent patients reported psychotic symptoms (51.8%) under influence of cocaine. The most frequent reported psychotic symptoms were paranoid beliefs and suspiciousness (42.4%). After a logistic regression analysis we found that a model consisted of high cocaine consumption (mean of 12.01 grams per week), cannabis dependence history and to use intranasal or smoked rout of administration had a sensitivity of 63.2% and a specificity of 70.2%.
We conclude that is relevant to evaluate CIP in patients consuming high amounts of cocaine, with cannabis dependence history and who do not use intranasal rout. It could be useful for preventing consequences or risks of psychotic states for themselves or others.
There are few studies about the characteristics of Substance Use Disorder patients that relapse, defined by restart of the substance use that motivated the intake, after discharge from a Detoxification Unit.
To analyze the percentage of patients who had a relapse in the following 3 months after discharge and to describe their sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutical characteristics.
We prospectively studied drug dependents patients admitted to our Detoxification Unit from June 2008 to August 2009. Data was gathered at admission on demographic (gender, age), clinical (main abused drug, psychiatric comorbidities, polydrug users) and therapeutical variables (hospitalisation duration, prescribed treatment). Patients were followed up for 3 months and assessed for relapse at 1 and 3 months by clinical interview, alcohol screening test and/or urinalysis. Results from patients with and without relapses were compared.
The study sample included 103 patients (77,7% men, average age 38,31±9). At month 3, 57,3% of the patients had relapsed. We found significant differences between the relapse and the non-relapse group on the percentage of polydrug users (68,6% vs 31,4%, p=0,05), on heroine as main drug of abuse (76% vs 24%, p=0,05) and psychiatric comorbidities (60,8% vs 39,2%, p=0,04), being psychotic disorders the most frequent. No significant differences were found between the 2 groups concerning therapeutical variables.
More than half of the patients that ended the detoxification process relapsed in the first 3 months. Polydrug use, opiate dependence and having a psychiatric comorbidity might be considered as risk factors for relapse.
Drug substance abuse has been related with chronic insomnia and other sleep disorders that are thought to interfere in detoxification treatment and relapse induction. These disorders can persist after drug detoxification.
To describe sleep disorders refered by drug dependents patients in an inpatient detoxification unit.
We prospectively studied drug dependents patients admitted to our Detoxification Unit from January 2005 to March 2009. The first night, patients were asked to complete an 11-item questionnaire measure designed to assess the relationship between sleep disorders and drug use. Responses ranged from 1 to 7. The questionnaire measured the following:
a) insomnia before hospitalization;
b) patients’ beliefs about the relationship between insomnia and drug use;
c) insomnia in previous detoxifications;
d) patients’ worry about insomnia;
e) treatment of sleep disorder with benzodiazepines.
The study sample included 150 patients (75.3% men). 39% of the patients suffered from alcohol abuse, 34.67% from cocaine abuse, 22.67% from opiod abuse, 21% from cannabis abuse, 18% from benzodiazepine abuse, and 12.67% of patients were polydrug users.Lifetime prevalence of sleep disorders was 68.1%. 64% had suffered insomnia the months previous to detoxification. 80.1% of patients’ refered sleep disorders in relationship with substance abuse. 69.4% were worried about insomnia during detoxification. 75.4% of patients took benzodiazepines without prescription.
Sleep disorders in patients with drug abuse are frequent. A high prevalence of patients having worries about insomnia during the detoxification treatment and believing in a relationship between their sleep disorders and the drug abuse was found.
To examine whether drug use (DU) is higher in people with eating disorders (EDs) than in matched comparison groups and to collate, summarize and perform a meta analysis where possible on the literature related to DU in people with EDs.
We searched electronic databases including Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL and reviewed studies published from 1994 to August, 2007, in English, German or Spanish against a priori inclusion/exclusion criteria. A total of 248 papers were eligible for inclusion. Only a total of 16 papers fulfilled all the inclusion criteria and were finally included in the systematic review.
The meta-analysis including all the different drugs for every sort of ED revealed a negligible albeit significant (z=2.34, p<.05), pooled standardized effect size of 0.119. The data showed a high degree of heterogeneity across the studies (X2(74)= 1267.61, p<.001). When ED subdiagnoses were assessed individually, DU was found to be higher in people with bulimia nervosa (BN) as a moderate sized increase in DU was found in this ED subtype (δ =0.462, z=6.69, p=<.001). People with binge eating disorder (BED) had a small increased risk of DU (δ =0.14, z=2.28, p<.05). In contrast, people with anorexia nervosa (AN) had a lower risk of DU (δ=-.167, z=1.81, p=.070, p=NS).
The differential risk observed in BN patients might be related to differences in temperament or might be the result of reward sensitisation as a result of the ED behaviours specifically associated with BN.
In the last years, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered an emergent pathological entity. For this reason, a bibliometric analysis regarding scientific publications related to ADHD and its pharmacological treatment has been considered out, as well as its evolution during 1980-2005 period.
Using the EMBASE and MEDLINE database, we selected those documents whose title included the descriptors attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, attention deficit disorder, ADHD y ADD, and that included the country of origin of the work. Altogether, 4423 original documents were obtained. In this social-health analysis, the national participation index (PaI) into global scientific production about ADHD was calculated. We have correlated it with global PaI in Biomedicine and Health Sciences, with the PaI in the Psychiatry discipline and with Social-Health index of the main productive countries in this field, like per capita health expenditure, number of physicians or per capita gross domestic product.
United States is the most productive country (participation index, PaI=44.2), followed, at a long distance, by Canada (PaI=6.14), United Kingdom (PaI=5.07) and Germany (PaI=4.33). Of the most productive in Health Sciences, only 4 countries exceed their own PaI in the Psychiatry field (Brazil, China, Spain, and USA). Correlation between PaI and per capita health expenditure offers a similar distribution to productivity ranking, except to China, Brazil and Turkey. On the contrary, correlation between PaI and total number of physicians in each country finds in better position Canada, Australia, USA and Israel.
In different areas of Therapy, included Psychiatry, herbal medicine has had an increasing interest during the last years. Plants are traditional uses, but only a few have been approved therapeutically. However, we do not know any bibliometric analysis about herbs that are used in Psychiatry.
We have conducted a bibliometric study regarding scientific publications related to phytotherapy in the Psychiatry area during 1986-2006 period. Using the platform Embase.com (Elservier, Amsterdam), including EMBASE and MEDLINE database, we selected those documents whose included the descriptors plant, herb, phytotherap, and psychiatr (with all diagnostic criteria). Plants' indications had been selected according to PDR for Herbal Medicines. As bibliometric indicator of the production, Price's Law was applied.
A total of 21.409 original documents were obtained. Our data confirm a fulfilment of the Price' Law related to scientific production about medicinal plants in Psychiatry. We had observed it after carring out a lineal adjustment (y=135,08x-466,38 r=0.92) an another adjustment exponential curve (y=132,26e0.1497x; r=0.99). The plants more mentioned in the psychiatric literature have been St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum; n=937) and Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba; n=694). The countries with more percentage of documents were the Unites States (29,44%), Germany (9,41%) and Japan (8,75%), and the country with highest Index of Participation (number of documents per country / number of documents in our repertory) was India (IPa= 0,935) and China (IPa=0,721).
Productivity medicinal plants in the Psychiatry area increased during the period 1986-2006. Nevertheless, documents about therapeutic herbs in this field are rather little.
To know prevalence of depression in Spanish nursing home(NH) by analysing the clinical profile of residents from RESYDEM study (Identification of patients with cognitive deterioration and dementia in NH).
A multicentral, transversal, observational study was carried out in April 2005. 71 geriatrician from 54 NH representing the Spanish state participated. Depression was analysed in patient´s history and determined by NPI of Cummings, NH version.
1037 residents were randomized, 1020 were used by clinical data analysis. 941 were used to determine depression prevalence. Median age 83,4yo, 66.6% were women, 70.9% with basic educational level, 57.4% widows, 25.7% single, 41.5% had some degree of functional deterioration, 22.1% had delirium. In 26.4% were documented Stroke(17,9% TIA). 61.7% had dementia.
Depression appears in 31.4% of elderly institutionalized with the only diagnosis of depression or independent of others. There were no significant differences in age groups. However, was most frequent in women. 95.7% of patients with diagnosis of dementia had at least one drug for depression. Most used anti-depressants were trazadone (23%), citalopram (20.9%), sertraline (15.8%), fluoxetine (10.1%). No tricyclical anti-depressant reached 1% of consumption.
Depression affects practically one in three institutionalized elderly in Spain
Institutionalized elderly with depression are largely treated with ISRS. It is believed that the use of trazadone is linked with the effects on sleep and anxiety.
The high prevalence of depression, its overlapping with other processes and the comorbility of residents requires a careful search and approach in NH which implies a challenge for professionals in order to treat it.
In the last years, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered an emergent pathological entity. For this reason, a bibliometric analysis regarding scientific publications related to ADHD and its pharmacological treatment has been considered out, as well as its evolution during 1980-2005 period.
Using the EMBASE and MEDLINE database, we selected those documents whose title included the descriptors attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, attention deficit disorder, ADHD y ADD.
A total of 5269 original documents were obtained, and 2325 of these documents are corresponding to some aspects about drugs therapy. As bibliometric indicators of the production and dispersion, Price´s and Bradord´s Laws, were applied, respectively. Our data confirm the Price´ Law since scientific production about ADHD have an exponential growth (correlation coefficient r=0.9859, vs. r=0.9011 after a linear adjustment), without to estimate a saturation point. The more studied drugs are methylphenidate (1251 documents), mixed amphetamine salts (250), atomoxetine (204) and dexamphetamine (143). The division into Bradford´s areas shows a central nucleus occupied by Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (500 articles) exclusively. Other papers are distributed into 10 areas with a mean of 505.4 documents. A total of 886 different journals were used. The highest participation index (PaI) corresponds to Journal of Attention Disorders (PaI=64.96). The more frequently used support journals have a high impact factors (IF) (12 of the 20 first have a IF>2)
Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder appear to have more difficulties with smoking cessation than the general population. Moreover, gender and unsuccessful smoking cessation are associated with depression and negative emotional experience. Less attention has been given to the association of cigarette smoking in women and the use of other substances.
To determine the influence of gender and substance abuse on smoking cessation in a long-term follow up after a first psychotic episode.
Patients were evaluated at years 1, 3, and 5 obtaining information about functional outcome, positive and negative symptoms and substance use. At 8th year, functional outcome and use of substance were recorded. Patients were classified in two groups: those who stopped smoking during follow-up, and those who did not stop.
At baseline, rates of tobacco smoking were high with no differences between genders. Difficulty with smoking cessation was associated with female (p = 0.017) and typical antipsychotics (p = 0.032). Those who used alcohol continuously were less likely to stop smoking (p = 0.050) controlling for typical antipsychotics. The interaction with gender was not significant. Continuous cannabis use was not associated with smoking cessation, but women who use cannabis continuously were less able to stop smoking than men (adjusted p = 0.036).
Women are less prone to quit smoking than men during long-term follow-up after the development of psychosis. Different treatments should be considered for men and women in relation to tobacco dependence in patients with psychotic disorder. Treatment for women smokers should probably be more supportive and intensive.
We aimed to study the relationship between impulsivity and the addiction severity in 3 groups of outpatients attending our clinic, through the Barrat Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and the standarized, semistructured interview EuropAsi.
174 outpatients were analized (82.6% men, 113 cocaine-dependent as main drug (mean age 32.71 y.o. (31.45–33.96)), 43 cocaine and heroin-dependent (mean age 36.68 y.o. (33.52–39.85)) and 18 heroin dependent (mean age 37.94 (32.71–41.50)). 26.3% were cannabis-dependent and 10.9% abused of Cannabis. Statistical analysis used was the Kruskal-Wallis Test.
Differences in motor impulsivity were found between the 2 groups with cocaine dependency and the only heroin-dependent (mean = 20.59, ST ± 7.7 and mean = 17.11, ST ± 7.3, respectively; W: .019). EuropASI, showed intergroup differences in the medical, use of alcohol and legal areas. In the medical area the most affected were the heroin dependent group (mean score = .40), followed by cocaine and heroin group (mean score = .27) and the cocaine-dependent (Mean = .10). In the use of alcohol area the most affected were the cocaine group (Mean = .16) followed by the cocaine and heroin-dependent (mean = .11) and heroin dependent (Mean = .06). In the legal area the most affected were the the cocaine and heroin-dependent (Mean =.22) followed by heroin-dependent (Mean = .09) and cocaine-dependent (Mean = .07).
Patients suffering from stimulant dependency alone or together with heroin dependency show different impulsivity levels. The addiction severity varies depending on the substance of abuse. Treatment programs should be designed attending patients’ needs.
The main problem of depression is not only the high prevalence of the disorder but also its serious consequences on the patient’s quality of life and the associated social costs in terms of health care resource utilization and productivity losses. In recent years, there has been a considerable improvement in the knowledge of depression from the pathogenic, clinical and therapeutic perspectives. The present study analyzes whether such advances are reflected in a positive evolution of the treatment of depression in Spain. To this effect we have contrasted the results of two socio-sanitary studies published in this country: the White Book editions of 1982 and 1997 (WB82 and WB97, respectively). From the methodological perspective, the physician selection criteria employed were very uniform (structured questionnaires delivered to 128 (WB82) and 300 (WB97) randomly selected psychiatrists). The origin of patients consulting for specialized care has varied over this 15-year period. In effect, WB82 patients were essentially referred by friends (87.5%) and from the primary care setting (44.5%), whereas in the WB97 study referral from primary care predominated (50.1%), followed by the patient’s personal decision (24.8%). In turn, 40.7% and 51.7% of the psychiatrists in WB97 respectively considered the diagnostic and therapeutic means available in primary care to be insufficient. The priorities for improving patient quality of life, as reflected by both editions of the study, were the training of primary care physicians and the adequate provision of means in the mental health care centers. On the other hand, fewer problems for establishing a correct diagnosis were referred in the 1997 edition of the study (28.7%) than in 1982 (48.4%). In this sense, the main problem reported in WB82 was the lack of specialized training, whereas the masking of depression by some other disease process or symptoms was the main problem in WB97 (67.6% vs 21.1% according to WB82). The main symptoms upon which the diagnosis of depression are based do not seem to have evolved much in the past 15 years. The most frequently cited manifestations were a worsening of mood, loss of interest and leisure capacity, sleep alterations and diminished vitality. A comparative analysis of the therapeutic resources used was not possible, for prior to 1982 the only drugs available to physicians were the classical tricyclic agents and some MAO inhibitors; the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) – possibly the greatest advance in the treatment of depression in these 15 years – had not yet been introduced. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that 98% of the psychiatrists consulted in WB97 considered pharmacologic treatment to be the most widely adopted form of management once depression has been diagnosed.
The prevalence of social anxiety is estimated of 7-12% of the general population and 18% of university student. Social anxiety has a high prevalence of psychiatry and personality comorbidity. At age of 18-25 years old 80% of social anxiety cases have onset. To detect social anxiety at that age maybe important to avoid chronicity of the illness.
To study personality traits associated with social anxiety in university students.
We designed a cross-sectional study at the Autonomous University of Barcelona. Student were recruited by an advertisement. All student signed the informed consent. We collected: Socio-demographic data, personal and family psychiatry history, and the Liebowitz Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and the Temperament and Character Inventory of Cloninger. We defined as a social anxiety group a LSAS ≥50 total score.
Five hundred ninety-one students enter in the study. Final sample after excluded those who did not filled the rating scales was 574 participants: 75% were women, mean age (SD): 22.7 (5.3), 156 (124 women/32 men), 26% had social anxiety. Eighteen percent had family and 22% personal psychiatry history. The personality profile of the social anxiety group was: high harm avoidance (HA) (p< .001), low novelty seeking (NS) (p< .001), and low self-directedness (SD) (p< .001).
By logistic regression, after corrected by sex, age, personal and family psychiatry history, HA (OR=1.118; 95%CI=1.081-1.155), NS (OR=0.954;95%CI=0.927-0.982) and SD (OR=0.957;95%CI=0.930-0.985) predicted social anxiety. R2Nagelkerke=0.442. Hosmer-Lemeshow test (p>.05).
A profile of high HA, low NS and SD personality dimensions may predict those university students with social anxiety.
Chronic consumption of cocaine can induce transient psychotic symptoms, expressed as paranoia or hallucinations. This is typically prevented by abstinence. The term Cocaine-Induced Psychosis (CIP) has been used to describe this syndrome. Impulsivity has been hypothesised are likked with CIP.
This study examined the relationship between CIP and substance consumption variables and impulsivity disorders including ADHD (Axis I) and Borderline personality disorders (BPD) (Axis II), and attempted to evaluated their link as a risk factors for CIP.
Trained psychiatrists systematically conducted a structured interview in which the conclusions from the psychotic symptoms were summarized. We used the CADDID to evaluate Adult ADHD, SCID II for axis II disorders, and the Barrat Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11).
We evaluated 163 (34,16 yo, 85,80% men) cocaine-dependent patients, according to DSM-IV criteria.
We found statistically significant association between CIP and Early age at onset of cocaine addiction (p = 0,04), cocaine use per day 6 months before starting treatment (p = 0,03), Barrat cognitive impulsivity subscale (p < 0,004), and Adult ADHD (p < 0,041). No relationship between BPD and CIP was found.
We confirm previous findings that Impulsivity disorders as ADHD or high impulsivity trails are liked to CIP. Coinciding with our previous findings, relationship between early age of onset cocaine dependence or high amounts of cocaine use and CIP was found. CIP are related with impulsivity disorders spectrum.