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The consumer food environment is changing: an extensive variety of foods are now available in most markets, offering palatability, convenience and novelty. However, little is known about the availability and advertising of food items within food outlets, especially among developing countries. The present study examined these dimensions in 281 food outlets located around eighteen primary healthcare services in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in 2013. These establishments were classified as large-chain supermarkets; specialised fruits and vegetable (F&V) markets; and local grocery stores, convenience stores or bakeries. Availability of F&V, availability of ultra-processed foods (UPF) and food advertising were compared across the food outlet categories by applying the χ2 test. Almost 60 % of the food outlets were specialised F&V markets, 21⋅4 % were large-chain supermarkets and 19⋅2 % were local grocery stores, convenience stores or bakeries. Almost 80 % contained at least eight types of fruits and vegetables, and 60 % contained UPF. Food advertisement was absent in 59⋅8 % of the food outlets, 19⋅6 % were advertising only F&V and 17⋅4 % were advertising only UPF. Higher F&V availability was noted inside specialised F&V markets and large-chain supermarkets than local grocery stores, convenience stores or bakeries. Advertising of F&V was more common within specialised F&V markets. However, large-chain supermarkets and local grocery stores, convenience stores or bakeries contained more frequent UPF food advertising isolated: 38⋅3 and 35⋅2 %, respectively. Therefore, the availability and advertising of food items within food outlets around primary healthcare services are different according to the type of food outlet.
Unlike well-known global patterns of plant species richness along altitudinal gradients, in the mountainous areas of the Brazilian Caatinga, species richness and diversity reach their maxima near mountain tops. The causes of this unusual pattern are not well understood, and in particular the role of edaphic factors on plant community assembly along these gradients has not been investigated. Our goal was to assess the role of edaphic factors (fertility and soil texture) on plant community composition and structure on two mountains of the Brazilian semi-arid region. In 71 plots (Bodocongó site, twenty-one 200-m2 plots, 401–680 m asl; Arara site, fifty 100-m2 plots, 487–660 m asl) we recorded 3114 individuals representing 61 plant species; in addition, at each plot we collected composite soil samples from 0–20 cm depth. Significant altitude-related changes were observed both for community structure and composition, and edaphic variables. A canonical correspondence analysis allowed the distinction of two groups of plots according to species abundances, indicating a preferential habitat distribution of species depending both on altitude and soil variables. Although soil fertility was lowest at the highest altitudes, these areas had high richness and diversity. Conversely, the more fertile foothills were characterized by the dominance of generalist pioneer species. Despite the relatively short altitudinal range that characterizes the studied mountains, this study elucidates the role of edaphic factors on the floristic composition and species richness patterns on the mountains of the Brazilian semi-arid region.
The farrowing process is one of the most energy-demanding activities for the modern hyperprolific sow. This study evaluated the effects of supply of energy on the expected date of farrowing on the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance during the first 24 h after birth. A total of 80 sows were used. The sows and their respective litters were considered as the experimental unit. On the expected day of farrowing, the sows were allocated to one of the following groups: sows that did not have access to feed from farrowing induction until the end of the farrowing process (CON, n = 40); sows fed 500 g of energetic supplement, which consisted of 250 g of the basal lactation diet plus 250 g of cane sugar, 18 h after farrowing induction (SUP, n = 40). The farrowing duration, farrowing assistance, birth interval, number of total born, stillborn and mummified piglets were recorded for each sow. Piglets were weighed individually at birth and 24 h later. The interval from birth to first suckle was evaluated individually for each piglet in 16 randomly selected litters (eight litters per treatment group). Blood glucose concentrations of six sows were measured shortly after expulsion of the first piglet. Farrowing duration, farrowing assistance and stillborn rate tended to be greater (P = 0.06, P = 0.09 and P = 0.07, respectively) in sows from the CON group compared to sows from the SUP group. However, there was no difference (P > 0.05) between the groups for birth interval. Colostrum intake was greater (P < 0.05) for piglets from the SUP group compared to piglets from the CON group. Additionally, BW gain of the piglets suckling the SUP group was greater (P < 0.05) than those suckling the CON group at 24 h after birth. The blood glucose concentrations during the expulsive stage of farrowing were greater (P < 0.05) in the SUP group than for sows from the CON group. In conclusion, supplying modern hyperprolific sows energy on the expected day of farrowing is a valuable nutritional intervention to improve the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance in early life.
The Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease whose treatment requires strict clinical care and continuing education such as medication, nutrition and physical activity. Education is a decisive factor in preventing complications that may arise from the failure of therapy. Therefore, the therapeutic adherence must include a psycho-social approach.
To study the degree of adherence to the pharmacologic treatment and dietary habits in patients with type I and type II diabetes mellitus and to evaluate the influence of the level of education, sex and type of diabetes.
A cross-sectional study was conducted of the descriptive-correlational type. The sample consisted of 100 diabetic type I and type II individuals and was obtained by convenience at the health center of S. Martinho do Bispo, in Coimbra - Portugal, during the period from May till June 2009.
Results and conclusions
The results indicate a high adherence to therapy, reflected trhough the diet and also the pharmacological treatment. However, the higher adherence found was related to prescription of medication. The demographic variables such as sex and level of education of patients, seem to positively influence the adherence to treatment.
Despite society argues that all citizens have equal rights and equal opportunities, mentally ill individuals face discrimination, especially in the employment context. Research reported benefits of working and have a job, witch help play social roles and feel useful, key components in social inclusion and recovery of mentally ill individuals.
Employers have an important role in the access of mentally ill individuals into work. They take decisions that affect life opportunities, but, due to their powerful position, their attitudes can influence all enterprise and maintain stereotypes and stigma.
Know perceptions and stereotypes about mental illness in Portuguese employers.
Data were collected using a translation of Attitude Scale for Mental Illness (Hahn, 2002), evaluating dimensions such as separatism, stereotyping, restrictiveness, benevolence, pessimistic prediction and stigmatization. The scale was fulfil using online anonym way, by 50 employers from small (under 250 employees) metallurgic or textile enterprises (60% male, 40% female; mean age 45.9 years).
None of the enterprises have employees with mental illness, neither integration policies. Employers prefer to give a job to people with physical disabilities than to people with mental illness, choosing people with schizophrenia as the last possibility. They have little contact with mentally ill individuals, 96% don’t know governmental policies for job inclusion and only 54% accepts to participate in meetings to understand those policies. Stereotyping, benevolence and pessimistic prediction present highest values.
Employers must be informed about governmental policies using work as a form of social inclusion from mentally ill people.
The Borderline Personality (BP) disorder is defined as a limit state between neurosis and psychosis. The symptomatology observed in such disorder seems to be correlated with the dysfunction of specific areas of the human brain, such as cortical and sub-cortical ones.
This report aims to review the state of the art in order to better understand the correlation between the functional anatomy of the brain and the BP disorder, and its relevance to the symptomatic manifestation of this psychopathology.
The stress response of patients with BP disorder seems to be associated with a low-responsive pituitary gland. The frontolimbic abnormalities observed in recent studies seems associated with the difficulty in the emotional management and impulsivity. The findings suggest a reduction of parietal cortex metabolism which appears to be associated to lack of insight and easy hypnotic induction. The disfunction of the amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was found to be lateralized on the left hemisphere, whether the structures with increased activation on the right hemisphere were the temporal lobe, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal lobe. Finally, the aggressive and impulsive behavior of such patients seems to be related with low levels of cortical serotonin.
To our knowledge, some of the neurofunctional findings didn’t match the symptomatic pattern of the BP disorder. From all the relations found, the fronto-limbic deficit is the one with a more relevant influence for the consequent emotional disturbance, a major symptom of this disorder.
Rehabilitation or terciary prevention refers to the set of appropriate measures to minimize the consequences of disease and reintegration the patients in their home environment, social and professional. Patients with severe mental illness need of psychosocial rehabilitation programs through the training of activities of daily life, especially in areas that present the greatest difficulties.
The advantage in the group approach is that the patient is confronted with its limits and possibilities. This observation allows us to recognize another important similarities and contrasts, expanding your vision of treatment and enhancing its effect. Group assistance seems to be more motivating and can further reduce costs in attendance with good results.
The creation of this psychoeducational group appears to foster the promotion / preservation of independence and functional capacity of patients in its maximum exponent, mean they can live without assistance for activities of daily living. The rehabilitative scheme is performed without isolating the patient from his family and his social environment. Looking for a comprehensive care that meets individual needs and possibilities, centered on the patient, with a view to their rehabilitation and social reintegration. Involves both professionals and patients, actively, in the development of skills that may lead to a better quality of life.
There is growing literature regarding the controversial subject of the placement of early intervention in psychosis programs (EIP) in the psychiatric services network.
To review the literature concerning the different organizational models in early intervention in psychosis and their positioning with local psychiatric services.
To describe our community based early intervention program, integrated in a general adult psychiatry service. We intend to reflect about our experience, on the weaknesses and strengths of our service's model.
A non-systematic literature review about different models of service organization in early intervention in psychosis was performed, using Medline database and Google Scholar search-engine as well as reference textbooks.
The current debate is centered on whether EIP should be organized as autonomous services or integrated in broader psychiatric services.
The PSIC Programme is an assertive community-based programme for patients with a first psychotic episode. It was developed by the Psychiatric Department of Prof. Doutor Fernando Fonseca Hospital in 2001 through the cooperative use of the existing human and financial resources.
The integration of early intervention programs in general psychiatric services, allows for the delivery of specialized rehabilitative treatments while maintaining the continuity of care even after the critical period.
Early intervention programs encapsulate a new optimism within community mental health teams. Inevitably the high standards imported from early intervention, begin to be benchmarks for all services for psychotic individuals.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death. It is often committed out of despair, the cause of which is attributed to a mental disorder, alcoholism, drug abuse or stress factors such as financial difficulties or troubles with interpersonal relationships. In the 20th century it is possible that more people have died from suicide than in the two great wars ocurred in the same century. The World Health Organization estimates that it is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide.
This study aimed to describe the situation of different regions of central Portugal with regard to suicidal behavior in the general population, comparing different data from coastal and inland regions. The intention was also to compare these realities with nacional and european standards.
The authors present a retrospective study of over 8000 forensic autopsies performed between 2006 and 2010 in the portuguese regions of Aveiro, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Covilhã, Figueira da Foz, Leiria, Viseu and Tomar, of which around 15% were related to suicide. Several variables were characterized in order to establish the profile and circumstances of suicide in these regions.
As the portuguese legislation predicts a forensic exam in cases of violent death, the continuous raise of the number of autopsies from suicides means that this trend shows an alarming increase. Data collected from forensic post mortem exams may prove essential to understand this phenomenon, which is a source of economical and social impoverishment.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing the one's own death and it can be explored by different studies using different methodologies, one of which is the statistical analysis of suicide, recognized by World Health Organization as very useful in research to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon.
Research data from statistical analysis collected from various countries shows that there are gender-by-culture differences in rates of suicide completion and it has been reported that biological, social and psychological factors affect suicidal behavior differently in men and women.
Several variables were characterized by the authors not only to establish the gender differences in suicide completion in the central Portugal but also to compare this reality with nacional and european patterns.
The authors present a retrospective study of forensic autopsies performed between 2006 and 2010 in the central portuguese regions of Aveiro, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Covilhã, Figueira da Foz, Guarda, Leiria, Viseu and Tomar. Among 8148 forensic autopsies 15% (N=1248) were due to suicide and data collected from these forensic post mortem exams helped to establish the profile and circumstances of suicide in men and women.
Health care professionals must consider gender differences in treating patients who are at risk for suicide, although this field clearly deserves more research attention to generate information that can guide clinical practice and prevention strategies.
Although being highly consensual that antipsychotic adherence is an important outcome predictor in psychosis, existing reviews have found mean rates of adherence around 40–60%. Several aspects, such as patient-related, medication-related, environmental-related variables have been described as important predictors.
This study aim is to develop, administer and present preliminary psychometric properties of a new scale for antipsychotic medication adherence that includes different types of predictors (clinical, psychosocial, and practical among others).
The “AMAS” was developed by a multidisciplinary team and was based on recent research on factors influencing antipsychotic adherence. The scale evolved from multiple drafts and experts were contacted in order to improve the final version. Over 50 patients with a diagnosis of a psychotic-spectrum disorder taking antipsychotic medication will be assessed with the “AMAS” and the Medication Adherence Rating Scale. Additionally, each patient's psychiatrist will fill in a form with demographic and clinical variables (such as type of symptoms, previous adherence problems, current adherence, insight and other relevant variables).
This is an ongoing study and the sample is still being collected (scheduled finish date: February/2016). Our statistical analysis’ plan includes: reliability analysis (Chronbach's alpha, alpha if item deleted, inter item correlations and covariances and item-total correlations); validity (convergent validity); factorial analysis.
It is hypothesized that the “AMAS” will be a practical, reliable and valid unidimentional instrument with clinical utility assessing adherence to antipsychotics. The “AMAS” can be also useful in assessing intervention targets (e.g. psychoterapeutical, psychoeducational) to enhance adherence.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The association between the neurocognitive impact of cannabis use and deficits in working and declarative memory is well documented. Studies with cannabis users suggest that recognition memory is particularly susceptible to cannabinoid acute intoxication. Studies carried out in the 1970s using free memory tests, showed that cannabis users not only named fewer words having also a tendency to evoke intrusive memories. Interestingly, a recent study has exposed an association between cannabis consumption and increased likelihood of creating fake memories.
The main objective of this work is to do literature revision, framing old data with recent works, exposing the relationship between cannabis consumption and memory confabulation/intrusion.
Literature review, comparison and description of empirical data .
Recent studies show that both cannabis users and abstinents are more susceptible to create false memories, not being able to identify trap stimuli as events that never occurred.
Changes in perception and memory deficits are two common consequences of acute marijuana intoxication. The fact that these deficits remain during drug abstinence demonstrates the relevance of better understanding the mechanisms by which cannabinoids alter such cognitive functions. Reductions in the activation of brain areas comprised in the lateral and temporal lobe and in frontal cortex zones involved in the processes of attention and performance monitoring may be a possible explanation.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Since nutritional requirements are increased at the end of gestation to meet the demands of the pregnant uterus, pregnant beef cows are susceptible to mobilization of body reserves (mainly fat and amino acids (AAs)) and to alter the metabolism of nutrients in the liver and muscle to support such demands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CP supplementation on maternal nutrient metabolism in the late gestation of beef cows grazing a low-quality pasture. Forty-three pregnant Nellore cows gestating male fetuses (average age = 6 years; average weight = 544 kg) at 193 ± 30 (mean ± SD) days (d) of gestation were divided into eight groups (experimental units, with four to five cows each). Treatments were (1) control (CON, n = 4): pasture-based (PB) diet without CP supplementation and (2) supplemented (SUP, n = 4): PB diet daily supplemented with 2 g/kg of BW of a 43.5% CP supplement. Liver and skeletal muscle biopsies were performed at 265 days of gestation and samples were collected for mRNA expression. On day 280 of gestation, blood samples were collected to assess plasma levels of AA. The CON-fed cows tended to have greater (P = 0.057) total circulating AA than SUP-fed cows. The circulating glycogenic AA was greater (P = 0.035) in CON than in SUP cows. CON cows was greater for histidine (P = 0.015), methionine (P = 0.007) and alanine (P = 0.036) than SUP cows. The CON- and SUP-fed showed no differences for gluconeogenesis, fatty acid transport and signaling axis markers in the liver. The mRNA expression of markers for skeletal muscle synthesis, p7056k (P = 0.060) and GSK3B (P = 0.096), tended to be greater in cows from CON than SUP group. No differences were found for mRNA expression of markers for skeletal muscle degradation. We conclude that CP supplementation to CP-restricted late-pregnant beef cows reduces the maternal tissue mobilization and changes the profile of plasma circulating AA and the mRNA expression of markers for the synthesis of skeletal muscle tissue.
Modern lifestyle increases the prevalence of obesity and its co-morbidities in the young population. High-salt (HS) diets are associated with hypertension and cardiac remodelling. The present study evaluated the potential effects of cardiometabolic programming induced by HS intake during puberty in lean and obese rats. Additionally, we investigated whether HS could exacerbate the impairment of cardiovascular parameters in adult life due to postnatal early overnutrition (PO). At postnatal day 3 (PN3), twenty-four litters of Wistar rats were divided into two groups: normal litter (NL, nine pups/dam) and small litter (SL, three pups/dam) throughout the lactation period; weaning was at PN21. At PN30, the pups were subdivided into two more groups: NL plus HS (NLHS) and SL plus HS (SLHS). HS intake was from PN30 until PN60. Cardiovascular parameters were evaluated at PN120. SL rats became overweight at adulthood due to persistent hyperphagia; however, HS exposure during puberty reduced the weight gain and food intake of NLHS and SLHS. Both HS and obesity raised the blood pressure, impaired baro- and chemoreflex sensitivity and induced cardiac remodelling but no worsening was observed in the association of these factors, except a little reduction in the angiotensin type-2 receptor in the hearts from SLHS animals. Our results suggest that the response of newborn offspring to PO and juveniles to a HS diet leads to significant changes in cardiovascular parameters in adult rats. This damage may be accompanied by impairment of both angiotensin signalling and antioxidant defence in the heart.
The dietary inclusion of feed additives to improve the carcass characteristics of the final product is of great importance for the pork production chain. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the association of ractopamine (RAC) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance traits of finishing pigs during the last 26 days prior to slaughter. In total, 810 commercial hybrid barrows were used. Animals were distributed among treatments according to a randomised block design in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement, with three RAC levels (0, 5 or 10 ppm) and three CLA levels (0, 0.3 or 0.6%). Pigs fed the diet with 5 ppm RAC had higher average daily feed intake (ADFI) (2.83 kg; P < 0.05) when compared with those fed 10 ppm RAC and the control diet (2.75 and 2.74 kg, respectively). Lower ADFI values (P < 0.01) were observed with the diets containing CLA compared with the control diet with no CLA (2.73 and 2.75 v. 2.85 kg/day, respectively). The average daily weight gain of pigs fed 5 and 10 ppm RAC was +148 and +173 g/dayhigher (P < 0.001), respectively, than those fed the control diet. Dietary RAC levels influenced (P < 0.001) feed conversion ratio (FCR), which was reduced as RAC levels increased, with the pigs fed 10, 5 and 0 ppm RAC presenting FCR values of 2.57, 2.71 and 3.05, respectively. FCR also improved (P < 0.05) with the inclusion of 0.6% CLA relative to the control diet (2.70 v. 2.84, respectively). There was a significant interaction between CLA × RAC levels (P < 0.01) for final BW, loin eye area (LEA) (P < 0.05) and backfat thickness (BT) (P < 0.05). The treatments containing 10 ppm RAC + 0.6% or 0.3% CLA increased LEA and reduced BT. In conclusion, the level of 10 ppm inclusion of RAC increased the overall performance parameters of pigs and therefore improved production efficiency. The combined use of RAC and CLA promoted a lower feed conversion ratio as well as better quantitative carcass traits, as demonstrated by the higher LEA and lower BT. The dietary inclusion of CLA at 0.3% improved feed efficiency, however, without affecting LEA or BT yields.
Regeneration from seed affects species assembly in plant communities, and temperature is the most important environmental factor controlling the germination process. Thermal dependence of seed germination is thus associated with species occurrence in an ecosystem. Hence, we aimed to investigate the role of temperature on seed germination of ten tree species from the western Brazilian Amazon. Seeds were collected in the state of Rondônia, Brazil, and set to germinate under constant temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C in germination chambers. We calculated germination capacity (G%), germination rate (GR50, reciprocal of germination time), and thermal parameters, such as cardinal temperatures and thermal time requirements. Most species had a large range of temperatures showing G% ≥80%, with optimal temperature varying from 20 to 40°C. Base temperature ranged from 6 to 12°C and ceiling temperatures were mainly >40°C. Astronium lecointei and Parkia nitida showed high germination capacity under temperatures of 35–40°C, while germination of Theobroma cacao dropped from 100% to zero under temperatures between 37 and 40°C. The climax species Cedrela fissilis had the slowest germination time (10 days) and highest thermal time requirement, while seeds of Enterolobium schomburgkii (a late-successional species) germinated within the first day of the experiment. Rapid recruitment of Amazon species could be favoured with treefall disturbance, which increases temperatures in the understory, but sharp limits might be found in the supra-optimal range of temperatures. Such patterns might indicate different regeneration strategies in the tropical rainforest, providing important information regarding seed germination among Amazon species.
Timneh Parrots Psittacus timneh are a threatened species endemic to the moist forests of West Africa. In 2016, they were categorised as ‘Endangered’ on the IUCN Red List, due to suspected rapid population declines driven by habitat loss and heavy trapping for the pet trade. Systematic assessments of the status of populations are lacking for much of their range and addressing this knowledge shortfall has been identified as a priority action. We combined multiple research approaches to investigate the distribution, trends and threats to Timneh Parrots in Guinea Bissau, where the species is restricted to the islands of the Bijagós archipelago and Pecixe. Direct observational surveys were conducted along line transects on 19 islands. A total of 69 groups were observed on eight of these islands, with the majority (78%) seen on just two islands. Forty-two interviews were conducted with local community members on 24 islands. Interviewees reported the species to occur on 20 islands and that populations are generally perceived to have declined in recent decades. Based on these findings and existing data we conclude that Timneh Parrots occur on 22 of the 32 islands considered and estimate the national population in Guinea-Bissau to be in the order of several hundred individuals, with perhaps half of the parrots occurring on the islands of João Vieira and Meio. Investigations into the factors linked to inter-island variation in parrot densities indicate that densities are highest on the islands which are most remote from permanent human settlements. These findings suggest that human activities including habitat modification and trapping have been important in driving population declines in Guinea-Bissau. We consider the implications of these findings for the conservation of Timneh Parrots.
The use of fast and non-destructive techniques for identifying sugarcane varieties enables the development of automatic sorting systems, contributing towards improving pre-processing steps in the alcohol and sugar industries. In this context, principal component analysis (PCA), factorial discriminant analysis (FDA), stepwise forward discriminant analysis (SFDA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to classify four Brazilian sugarcane varieties based on visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectral reflectance measurements (450–1000 nm range) of stalks. All wavelengths contributed towards discriminating the sugarcane varieties, but the 600–750 nm range was most relevant. When evaluating PCA results considering the four sugarcane varieties, two of them overlapped and it was only possible to use classifiers of three varieties. Factorial discriminant analysis, PLS-DA and SFDA reached correct classifications of 0.81, 0.82 and 0.74, respectively, when considering the external validation data and the four sugarcane varieties evaluated. Results showed that Vis/NIR spectroscopy combined with discriminating methods is a promising tool for non-destructive and fast sugarcane variety classification, which can be used in the agro-food industry or directly in the field.
Exotic species can experience fast expansion in new environments, especially if they left their pathogens behind (Enemy Release hypothesis) or brought novel pathogens to the native competitors (Novel Weapon hypothesis). Common waxbills (Estrilda astrild) are native to sub-Saharan Africa and invaded west Iberia since the 1960s. Past haemosporidian parasite surveys at four locations in Portugal showed that waxbills can be infected with parasites, though with very low prevalence. However, it is not known if this pattern generalizes across their distribution range, or if there are geographic differences in parasite prevalence. It is also not discussed if this is a case of Enemy Release, as opposed to waxbills being also little parasitized in their native range. We screened 617 waxbills in 23 sites in Portugal and detected nine parasite lineages, most of them only known to the Palearctic. Only ten individuals were parasitized, and there was no significant geographical pattern on the prevalence. Overall, this population shows very low prevalence of haemosporidians (1.6% prevalence), which contrasts with significantly higher prevalence in native grounds, as compiled from the literature. These data support Enemy Release as the most likely hypothesis, which may have been important for their success as an exotic species.
Although a national programme for control of visceral leishmaniosis (VL) is being run in Brazil, the disease continues to spread. This programme is essentially based on culling infected dogs from endemic regions. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop other control measures against VL to deter its advance. Here, a subunit vaccine, a recombinant vaccine, an insecticide-impregnated collar and the associations between these measures were evaluated for reducing the incidence of Leishmania infection in dogs. This was through a cohort study conducted in an endemic region of Brazil, considering the incidence and time of total exposure over a period of 1 year. The incidence of VL was estimated by means of serological and molecular diagnostic tests, 180 and 360 days after the application of the control measures. The estimates of the effectiveness (EF) were not significant in any cohort. The EF of the subunit vaccine, the recombinant vaccine and the collar were 26.4%, 32.8% and 57.7% and the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for EF were 63.7%, 67.9% and 82.5%, respectively. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study, none of the immunogens for VL control was sufficiently effective to protect dogs against infection. On the other hand, use of collars impregnated with insecticide seems to constitute a method with better prognosis, corroborating other studies in this field.