To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Despite growing international attention, the anthropological and socio-behavioral elements of epidemics continue to be understudied and under resourced and lag behind the traditional outbreak response infrastructure. As seen in the current 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, the importance of socio-behavioral elements in understanding transmission and facilitating control of many outbreak-prone pathogens, this is problematic. Beyond the recent strengthening of global outbreak response capacities and global health security measures, a greater focus on the socio-behavioral components of outbreak response is required. We add to the current discussion by briefly highlighting the importance of socio-behavior in the Ebola virus disease (EVD) response, and describe vital areas of future development, including methods for community engagement and validated frameworks for behavioral modeling and change in outbreak settings.
While China's Constitution says everyone is treated equally before the law, employment discrimination continues to exist. This paper breaks new ground by analysing a quantitative survey of more than 10,000 lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people, the largest dataset of its kind to date in China. Only 5.1 per cent of respondents were completely open about their gender and sexuality at work. More than one-fifth reported experiencing negative treatment in the workplace. Transgender and intersex people reported higher rates of negative treatment, as did respondents with lower educational levels and lower incomes and those residing in towns. Employer policies against discrimination were rare, but when in place, they were significantly associated with less negative treatment. These findings highlight an almost completely neglected segment of the workforce and document discriminatory experiences that could be addressed by changes in discrimination law and by employer policies and practices related to diversity and inclusion.
To inform the efficient allocation of testing resources, we evaluated the characteristics of those tested for COVID-19 to determine predictors of a positive test. Recent travel and exposure to a confirmed case were both highly predictive of positive testing. Symptom-based screening strategies alone may be inadequate to control the ongoing pandemic.
To assess the Framingham risk score as a prognostic tool for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients.
Medical records were reviewed for unilateral idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients between January 2010 and October 2017. The 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease was calculated. Patients were subdivided into groups: group 1 – Framingham risk score of less than 10 per cent (n = 28); group 2 – score of 10 to less than 20 per cent (n = 6); and group 3 – score of 20 per cent or higher (n = 5).
Initial pure tone average and Framingham risk score were not significantly associated (p = 0.32). Thirteen patients in group 1 recovered completely (46.4 per cent), but none in groups 2 and 3 showed complete recovery. Initial pure tone average and Framingham risk score were significantly associated in multivariable linear regression analysis (R2 = 0.36). The regression coefficient was 0.33 (p = 0.003) for initial pure tone average and −0.67 (p = 0.005) for Framingham risk score.
Framingham risk score may be useful in predicting outcomes for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients, as those with a higher score showed poorer hearing recovery.
Introduction: Mobility is an evidence-based non-pharmacologic strategy shown to reduce delirium and functional decline among older patients in the acute care setting. Activity trackers have been used in previous studies to objectively measure mobility in older hospitalized patients. This study aims to compare the feasibility and validate the accuracy of three accelerometer-based activity trackers (Fitbit Zip, Fitbit Charge HR and StepWatch). This is the first step in a program of research to objectively measure as a potential marker of delirium risk. Methods: This is a prospective study of patients 65 years of age and older during their ED visit. We excluded those with critical illness, unable to communicate or provide consent; and any ambulatory impediments. Consenting participants wore the trackers for up to 8 hour, and completed a 6-meter walk test while a research assistant manually counted their steps. Our primary feasibility measure was the proportion of eligible patient for which we were able to recover the tracker and recorded their steps. The primary validation endpoint was the concordance between steps recorded by the tracker compared to a gold standard manual step count over a fixed distance. Sample size was based on the desired precision of the final estimate of feasibility. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to assess agreements between devices and manual count. We will report proportions with exact binomial 95% confidence intervals (CI) for feasibility and validity endpoints. Results: 41 participants were enrolled in this study. Mean age was 74.6 years (+/- 5.76) and 59% were females. The total subjects that wore the Fitbit Zip, Fitbit Charge HR and StepWatch during study participation was, 40/41 (97.5%, CI 0.87–0.99), 33/34 (97%, CI 0.84–0.99) and 31/32 (96.8%, CI 0.83–0.99), respectively. Total subjects with completed data extracted from the Fitbit Zip, Fitbit Charge HR and StepWatch was, 38/41 subjects (92.6%, CI 0.80–0.98), 34 (100%, CI 0.89–1.00), and 32 (100%, CI 0.89–1.00), respectively. All devices were recovered after use (100%, 95%CI 0.91–100). Conclusion: Our results suggest: 1) the use of gait-tracking devices in the ED is feasible, 2) consumer and research-grade devices showed good validity against the gold standard, and 3) the use of small, inexpensive, consumer-grade trackers to objectively measure mobility of older adults in the ED.
Chapter 20 discusses the importance of good speaking skills and strategies, and its authors present the findings about what a good language teacher does to draw on pedagogical content knowledge for speaking instruction.
Our understanding of ice algal responses to the recent changes in Arctic sea ice is impeded by limited field observations. In the present study, environmental characteristics of the landfast sea-ice zone as well as primary production and macromolecular composition of ice algae and phytoplankton were studied in the Kitikmeot Sea near Cambridge Bay in spring 2017. Averaged total chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration was within the lower range reported previously for the same region, while daily carbon uptake rates of bottom-ice algae were significantly lower in this study than previously reported for the Arctic. Based on various indicators, the region's low nutrient concentrations appear to limit carbon uptake rates and associated accumulation of bottom-ice algal biomass. Furthermore, the lipids-dominant biochemical composition of bottom-ice algae suggests strong nutrient limitation relative to the distinctly different carbohydrates-dominant composition of phytoplankton. Together, the results confirm strong nitrate limitation of the local marine system.
The endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) is a brush-like layer that lines the internal surfaces of blood vessels. It is thought to serve a number of physiological functions, including as a mechanotransducer of fluid loadings to the vessel wall. However, the fragility of the EGL makes it difficult to examine experimentally, and so there is much value in theoretical models that can help to explain the dynamical behaviour of the EGL. Most previous models have employed mixture theory to mechanically describe the layer, which treats the EGL as a isotropic linearly poroelastic layer. However, there is increasing experimental evidence to suggest that the EGL has a well-defined organisational structure that might not necessarily be well captured by such mixture theory descriptions. We therefore employ homogenisation theory to incorporate into the models some of the possible EGL microstructure suggested by the current biological literature. We explore how mechanotransduction varies under the different possible EGL microstructures, which potentially has important consequences to our understanding of how structural changes to the EGL might affect a vessel’s ability to respond to hemodynamical cues. We also find that, whereas mechanotransduction through the solid components of the EGL is dominated by the fluid tractions applied at the lumen–EGL interface, the component carried through its fluid phase is most sensitive to pressure gradients within the bulk EGL. This is relevant, since it is known that the underlying endothelial cells respond differently to these two different forms of mechanical loading.
This study aimed to assess whether increasing operative experience results in better surgical outcomes in endoscopic middle-ear surgery.
A retrospective single-institution cohort study was performed. Patients underwent endoscopic tympanoplasty between May 2013 and April 2019 performed by the senior surgeon or a trainee surgeon under direct supervision from the senior surgeon. Following data collection, statistical analysis compared success rates between early (learning curve) surgical procedures and later (experienced) tympanoplasties.
In total, 157 patients (86 male, 71 female), with a mean age of 41.6 years, were included. The patients were followed up for an average of 43.2 weeks. The overall primary closure rate was 90.0 per cent.
This study demonstrates an early learning curve for endoscopic ear surgery that improves with surgical experience. Adoption of the endoscopic technique did not impair the success rates of tympanoplasty.
Prior tests of Hicks’ Induced Innovation Hypothesis (IIH) have been greatly hampered because the lack of supply-side data implicitly requires the untenable assumption that the marginal research cost is the same for different inputs. We document that, with appropriate model specification and panel data, a two-way fixed-effects estimator can account for much of the non-neutrality of the innovation function. Using a test procedure that is robust to a time-variant and non-neutral innovation function, we test the IIH in U.S. agriculture for the period 1960–2004. We use only readily available data for innovation demand and total public research expenditures.
Suicide is a serious phenomenon associated with psychiatric disorders.
In the present study, we investigated factors that can predict follow-up at the psychiatric clinic after medical care at the emergency room (ER).
Medical records of the 145 patients treated at the ER following suicide attempt from Jan 1, 2009 to July 31, 2009 were reviewed. Age, sex, past psychiatric history, impulsiveness and medical severity of suicide attempt, risk-rescue rating scores, reasons for suicide attempt and methods of suicide were examined. Psychiatric diagnoses were made by psychiatrists at the initial interview with patients at ER.
The mean age of the patients was 42.9 ± 15.7 years, and 68.3 % were women and 31.7% were men. Among the suicide methods, psychotropics were the most common (69%), and ingestion of pesticides was the second (19.3%). Interpersonal problems were the most common precipitating event (57.9%), and depression was the most common (89%). About a half had previous psychiatric disorders and about one third had previous suicide attempt. Fifteen patients (10.3%) attempted planned suicide and 124 patients (85.5%) attempted impulsively. Mean risk and rescue rating scores was 8.6 ±1.6 and 12.3 ± 2.2. About one third had a follow-up psychiatric visit. The most important predictor of psychiatric follow-up was risk rating scores.
This study suggests that women with interpersonal problems and depression should be carefully monitored to reduce suicide attempt. Patients commit less risky suicide attempts tend to more loss to psychiatric follow-up, thus, need more attention to prevent suicide re-attempts.
The Community Mental Health Team (CMHT) in Singapore provides home-based psychosocial rehabilitation services for people with severe mental illness (SMI). Besides the direct clinical intervention to the patients and their caregivers, the multidisciplinary team also collaborates with social and non-governmental organizations in the community. It provides training, consultation and support to these agencies so as to strenghten their capability in the understanding and management of people with SMI.
Objectives and aims
Since the inception of CMHT in April 2007, it has networked with family service centres, non-governmental mental health service providers, police, religious groups and other community partners. CMHT provides 2 types of mental health training programmes - basic and skill-based mental health training. The former programme introduces the participants to common mental disorders and the clinical services of CMHT. The latter programme is customized for the community partners and would entail the management of violent, aggressive and suicidal behaviours encountered in the settings of the community partners.
Effectiveness of the training is assessed by a pre- and post survey of the participants. Satisfaction score were also obtained from the participants.
Pre-knowledge of the participants were assessed to be of the range of 22.5% to 29.8%. This improves to 95.6 to 97.8 % after the training. At least 81 % of the participants were satisfied with the training.
It is important to train and engage social agencies and community partners so that people with SMI can experience a coordinated and seamless care in the community.
This is a case report of a Chinese middle-aged female who was first seen in 2006 for suspected depression. Over the course of the illness, her diagnosis was revised to that of Simple Schizophrenia and then Frontoparietal Dementia.
A 53 years old Chinese lady was first brought by a male friend (who has known her for past 21 years) in 2006 to continue management for her depression. For the preceding 3–4 years, her behaviour has been very child-like. She was described premorbidly to be stubborn and independent. Mental state examination then revealed that she was oriented to time, place and person. Her mood appeared depressed and reactive (secondary to some social stressors). Patient refused any basic blood investigations and her antidepressant was continued. Over the course of few months, she started to complain of forgetfulness and she was reported to go ‘missing’ for 1 to 2 hours. A differential diagnosis of chronic negative symptoms schizophrenia was entertained. In August 2007, she was arrested for shoplifting and was treated as an inpatient. Upon discharge, she was referred to a nursing home. By October 07, she was totally disoriented to time and place. Computed Axial Tomography (CAT) scan of brain was eventually performed which reported as ‘knife-shaped appearance’ of cortical gyri suggestive of frontoparietal dementia, possible Pick’s Disease. Patient is currently on antidementia therapy.
The case report illustrates the importance of entertaining diagnosis of dementia in a middle-aged person especially with symptoms of regression and wandering behaviour.
Adherence problems are an inherent issue with any bio-psycho-social-spiritual prescription for any disease or behvaioural entity. It is all the more important in a patient with severe mental illness like Schizophrenia with limited insight. In several countries various interventions have been studied to address adherence problems in psychosis. Such as compliance therapy, family and psycho educational interventions, telephonic prompting and also legislative measures like Community Treatment Orders (CTO) have to date shown inconsistent and only modest benefits. Incentives based interventions have been tested for both preventive measures and also for adherence problems in chronic diseases. The Institute of Mental Health, Singapore has implemented a Pilot Supervision Programme (PSP) that incentivise patient engagement through quarterly vouchers as well as minimising barriers to accessing service by waiving off certain treatment fees whilst also offering them intensive intervention for one year. Our Pilot Programme, that focused on high risk patients with diagnosis of severe mental illness needing involuntary admission with history of either prolonged or repeated admissions, has begun recruiting patients since October 2012. The comparison was done between pre and post intervention phase. Total of 58 patients (95% suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder) accepted into the treatment programme and of that nearly half of them have completed 6 months interventions. The results are promising with more than 50% improvemnt in length of stay, number of admissions and psychiatric emergency room visits, making significant impact on our high risk patients with severe mental illness.
Serotonin transporter (SERT) and dopamine transporter (DAT) levels differ in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who are in a depressed state in comparison with healthy controls. In addition, a family history of depression is a potent risk factor for developing depression, and inherited vulnerability to serotonergic and dopaminergic dysfunction is suspected in this. The aim of this study was to examine the availabilities of midbrain SERT and striatal DAT in healthy subjects with and without a first-degree family history of MDD.
Eight healthy subjects with first-degree relatives with MDD and 16 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were recruited. The availabilities of SERT and DAT were approximated using SPECT, employing [123I] 2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine (ADAM) and [99mTc] TRODAT-1 as the ligands, respectively. There are missing data for one participant with a first-degree family history of MDD from the ADAM study, due to a lack of the radio-ligand at the time of experiment.
SERT availability in the midbrain was significantly lower in subjects with a first-degree family history of MDD than in healthy subjects. However, DAT availability was no different between two groups.
The results with regard to the midbrain SERT level suggest the heritability of MDD.
The presence of comorbid anxiety disorders (AD) and bipolar II disorders (BP-II) compounds disability complicates treatment, worsens prognosis, and has been understudied. The genes involved in metabolizing dopamine and encoding dopamine receptors, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) genes, may be important to the pathogenesis of BP-II comorbid with AD. We aimed to clarify ALDH2 and DRD2 genes for predisposition to BP-II comorbid with and without AD. The sample consisted of 335 subjects BP-II without AD, 127 subjects BP-II with AD and 348 healthy subjects as normal control. The genotypes of the ALDH2 and DRD2 Taq-IA polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between DRD2 Taq-I A1/A2 genotype and BP-II with AD (OR = 2.231, P = 0.021). Moreover, a significant interaction of the DRD2 Taq-I A1/A1 and the ALDH2*1*1 genotypes in BP-II without AD was revealed (OR = 5.623, P = 0.001) compared with normal control. Our findings support the hypothesis that a unique genetic distinction between BP-II with and without AD, and suggest a novel association between DRD2 Taq-I A1/A2 genotype and BP-II with AD. Our study also provides further evidence that the ALDH2 and DRD2 genes interact in BP-II, particularly BP-II without AD.
Life events and accompanying psychological and behavioral reactions frequently have an impact upon people's daily lives and are believed to predispose them to disease. Psychological stressors impact many physiological and pathological disease outcomes, including mental illness. Positive social interactions have in turn been shown to exert powerful beneficial effects on health outcomes and longevity.
The Objective of this study was to analyze the relationships of Psychological Distress, Social Support, and Mental Fitness among patients of mental health services.
This article aims to discuss the evidence supporting the mediating effect of social support between psychological stress and mental health.
This study was performed on patients who visited the mental health services in Daejeon from October to December 2011. In total, 395 patients were evaluated with Mental Fitness Scale, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale(KPDS), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support(MSPSS).
Correlations among variables of psychological distress and social support on subordinate variable of mental fitness of patients were significant. The result of the regression analysis, psychological distress and social support have a positively significant influence on mental fitness of patients. social support showed mediating effects between psychological distress and mental fitness.
These results suggest that health care providers ought to seek social support for patients, in order to provide positive mental fitness of patients.