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This paper presents the work carried out to evaluate the benefits and performance impacts of introducing a hydrogen fuel cell powered electric taxiing system to a conventional short-haul aircraft. Tasks carried out in this research and reported in this paper include the initial system design, hydrogen tank initial sizing, calculation of the impact on fuel burn and emissions and the evaluation of the effects on Direct Operating Cost (DOC). The Airbus A320 has been selected as the datum aircraft for sizing the system, and the benefits analysis is particularly focused on the fleet composition and financial data of a Europe-based, low-cost, large-scale A320 family operator in 2016. The maximum power capacity of 400 kW has been sized based on the rolling friction coefficient of 0.02. Based on the operator’s 2016 financial, up to 1% fuel reduction can be achieved using the proposed system and the reduction in total maintenance cost is expected to be up to 7.3%. Additionally, up to 5.97% net profit improvement is estimated in comparison with the annual after-tax profit of the datum operator in 2016.
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) due to Staphylococcus aureus have become increasingly common in the outpatient setting; however, risk factors for differentiating methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) SSTIs are needed to better inform antibiotic treatment decisions. We performed a case-case-control study within 14 primary-care clinics in South Texas from 2007 to 2015. Overall, 325 patients [S. aureus SSTI cases (case group 1, n = 175); MRSA SSTI cases (case group 2, n = 115); MSSA SSTI cases (case group 3, n = 60); uninfected control group (control, n = 150)] were evaluated. Each case group was compared to the control group, and then qualitatively contrasted to identify unique risk factors associated with S. aureus, MRSA, and MSSA SSTIs. Overall, prior SSTIs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7·60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·31–17·45], male gender (aOR 1·74, 95% CI 1·06–2·85), and absence of healthcare occupation status (aOR 0·14, 95% CI 0·03–0·68) were independently associated with S. aureus SSTIs. The only unique risk factor for community-associated (CA)-MRSA SSTIs was a high body weight (⩾110 kg) (aOR 2·03, 95% CI 1·01–4·09).
Formation flight could greatly assist the air transport industry in tackling the challenges of environmental impact, excessive reliance on fuel and overcapacity. Previous studies have shown drag reductions leading to significant fuel savings for aircraft in formation relative to their solo flight. Safety is guaranteed with the use of extended formation distances, and practical implementation issues could be solved in the near future. Since studies so far have focused on existing aircraft configurations and technology, a case study using a strut-braced wing airliner was carried out to ascertain its applicability to less conventional craft. The present results did not indicate such clear-cut benefits. If formation flight is to be successful and beneficial for the next generations of aircraft, it will be vital to consider its interaction with new technologies developed for highly efficient operation, in particular those aimed at reduction of aircraft drag such as laminar flow, and to do so early in the design of aerospace vehicles and wider systems.
Obesity and type 2 diabetes lead to dramatically increased risks of atherosclerosis and CHD. Multiple mechanisms converge to promote atherosclerosis by increasing endothelial oxidative stress and up-regulating expression of pro-inflammatory molecules. Microvesicles (MV) are small ( < 1 μm) circulating particles that transport proteins and genetic material, through which they are able to mediate cell–cell communication and influence gene expression. Since MV are increased in plasma of obese, insulin-resistant and diabetic individuals, who often exhibit chronic vascular inflammation, and long-term feeding of a high-fat diet (HFD) to rats is a well-described model of obesity and insulin resistance, we hypothesised that this may be a useful model to study the impact of MV on endothelial inflammation. The number and cellular origin of MV from HFD-fed obese rats were characterised by flow cytometry. Total MV were significantly increased after feeding HFD compared to feeding chow (P< 0·001), with significantly elevated numbers of MV derived from leucocyte, endothelial and platelet compartments (P< 0·01 for each cell type). MV were isolated from plasma and their ability to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 expression was measured in primary rat cardiac endothelial cells in vitro. MV from HFD-fed rats induced significant ROS (P< 0·001) and VCAM-1 expression (P= 0·0275), indicative of a pro-inflammatory MV phenotype in this model of obesity. These findings confirm that this is a useful model to further study the mechanisms by which diet can influence MV release and subsequent effects on cardio-metabolic health.
Helicopters play a unique role in modern aviation providing a varied range of benefits to society and satisfying the need for fast mobility. However, environmental concerns associated with the operation of rotorcraft have increased due to envisaged growth of helicopter operations. New rotorcraft designs, innovative aero engines and all-electrical systems, which may take decades to be in service, are being developed in order to diminish rotorcraft footprint on environment. However, since there is a large number of polluting rotorcraft that are in use and will only gradually be replaced, in the near-term, improvements to minimise air quality degradation may also be possible from better use of existing rotorcraft by focusing on mission profile management. A multidisciplinary framework, intended to generate outputs for estimating rotorcraft block fuel burn and emissions, was developed. Outcomes generated with this tool were, subsequently, the basis to carry out a parametric study for assessment of light single-engine rotorcraft environmental impact, in terms of fuel burn and emissions. Single and multi-objective optimisation for minimum fuel consumption and air pollutant emissions was part of this research as well.
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the presence of leptospires in equine urine, as evidence for a potential role of horses in transmission of this organism. Thoroughbred horses (aged 2–5 years, n = 276) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were studied. After a severe storm, the premises of the animals remained flooded for 72 h. Blood samples for serology were collected on days 20 and 35 (day of storm = day 0). On day 20, 132 (47·8%) horses were seroreactive (titre ⩾200) and, of these, 23 (31·0%) had increased antibody titres on day 35. Furthermore, 34 urine samples (for PCR and culture) were collected from seroreactive horses on day 35. Copenhageni was the most frequent serovar (88·8% of reactive titres). Although none of the urine samples were culture positive, 12 (35·2%) were PCR positive. This is apparently the first report of evidence of leptospires in urban horses. Furthermore, we suggest that these animals can play a role in the transmission of leptospirosis in urban areas.
We sought to explain seasonality and other aspects of Campylobacter jejuni epidemiology by integrating population genetic and epidemiological analysis in a large 3-year longitudinal, two-centre, population-based study. Epidemiological information was collected for 1505 isolates, which were multilocus sequence-typed. Analyses compared pathogen population structure between areas, over time, and between clinical presentations. Pooled analysis was performed with published international datasets. Subtype association with virulence was not observed. UK sites had nearly identical C. jejuni populations. A clade formed by ST45 and ST283 clonal complexes showed a summer peak. This clade was common in a Finnish dataset but not in New Zealand and Australian collections, countries with less marked seasonality. The UK, New Zealand and Australian collections were otherwise similar. These findings map to known in-vitro differences of this clade. This identifies a target for studies to elucidate the drivers of the summer peak in human C. jejuni infection.
Two interstadial tree ring-width chronologies from Geikie Inlet, Glacier Bay Southeast, Alaska were built from 40 logs. One of these chronologies has been calendar dated to AD 224–999 (775 yr) crossdating with a living ring-width chronology from Prince William Sound, Alaska. Trees in this chronology were likely killed through inundation by sediments and meltwater from the advancing Geikie Glacier and its tributaries ca. AD 850. The earlier tree-ring chronology spans 545 yr and is a floating ring-width series tied to radiocarbon ages of about 3000 cal yr BP. This tree-ring work indicates two intervals of glacial expansion by the Geikie Glacier system toward the main trunk glacier in Glacier Bay between 3400 and 3000 cal yr BP and again about AD 850. The timing of both expansions is consistent with patterns of ice advance at tidewater glaciers in other parts of Alaska and British Columbia about the same time, and with a relative sea-level history from just outside Glacier Bay in Icy Strait. This emerging tree-ring dated history builds on previous radiocarbon-based glacial histories and is the first study to use tree-ring dating to assign calendar dates to glacial activity for Glacier Bay.
Pacific salmon (see Table 10–1 for more information about terms in bold) enjoy iconic status in northwestern North America. As key components of both freshwater (Schindler et al. 2003) and marine (Beamish 2005) ecosystems, salmon play an important biological role in community structure and function. But salmon are no less crucial to the fabric of human societies. They have provided important food resources to Native Americans for at least 10,000 years (Butler & O'Connor 2004) and figure prominently in cultural, social, and economic traditions. Over the last ~200 years following European settlement, Pacific salmon have supported substantial commercial and sport fisheries, as well as continuing tribal harvest. Renowned for their long migrations and strong homing instinct, salmon have long been symbolic of Northwestern beauty and culture for human inhabitants of the region.
However, Pacific salmon also face a wide range of challenges to their persistence, due largely to major anthropogenic changes to their ecosystems (National Research Council 1996; Lackey et al. 2006). Urbanization, dams, road construction, harvesting, logging, mining, ranching, hatcheries, agriculture, invasive species, and other forms of habitat modification have all taken their toll on salmon populations. As a consequence, approximately 30% of historic salmon populations in the contiguous United States have been extirpated (Gustafson et al. 2007), and half of those that remain are formally protected under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) (Table 10–2).
Quantifying the biogeochemical cycling of carbon in glacial ecosystems is of great significance for regional, and potentially global, carbon flow estimations. The concentration and quality of organic carbon (OC) is an important indicator of biogeochemical and physical processes that prevail in an ice-sheet ecosystem. Here we determine the content and quality of OC in debris from the surface of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) using microscopic, chromatographic, spectrophotometric and high-temperature combustion techniques. The total OC content in the debris increased with distance from the edge of the ice sheet, from virtually zero to >6% dry weight at 50 km inland, and there was a peak in the carbohydrate proportion and the microbial abundance at ∼6km inland. The highest (galactose + mannose)/(arabinose + xylose) ratios, indicating maximum autochthonous microbial production, were found at >10km inland. We propose that three key processes influence the carbon cycling on the GrIS: aeolian input of microbial inoculum and nutrients, in situ biological C transformation and the wash-away of supraglacial debris by meltwaters. We show that all these processes have significant spatial variability. While the total OC content of the debris on the ice sheet is probably controlled by the physical processes of wind transport and wash-away by meltwater, the microbial abundance and the quantity of the labile cell-contained OC within the debris is likely to be driven by the balance between the wash-away and the microbial productivity.
The notion of approximate amenability was introduced by Ghahramani and Loy, in the hope that it would yield Banach algebras without bounded approximate identity which nonetheless had a form of amenability. So far, however, all known approximately amenable Banach algebras have bounded approximate identities (b.a.i.). In this paper we define approximate amenability and contractibility of Fréchet algebras, and we prove the analogue of the result for Banach algebras that these properties are equivalent. We give examples of Fréchet algebras which are approximately contractible, but which do not have a bounded approximate identity. For a good many Fréchet algebras without b.a.i., we find either that the algebra is approximately amenable, or it is “obviously” not approximately amenable because it has continuous point derivations. So the situation for Fréchet algebras is quite close to what was hoped for Banach algebras.
Serratia marcescens causes healthcare-associated infections and significant morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). We report the investigation and control of an outbreak of multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. marcescens infection at an NICU.
An outbreak investigation and a case-control study were undertaken at a 36-bed NICU in a tertiary care hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, for the period from October 2004 through February 2005. The outbreak investigation included case identification, review of medical records, environmental cultures, patient surveillance cultures, personnel hand cultures, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The case-control study included case identification and review of medical records. Infection control measures were implemented. Eighteen NICU neonates had cultures that grew MDR S. marcescens during the study period. The case-control study included 16 patients with the outbreak strain or an unidentified strain of MDR S. marcescens and 32 control patients not infected and/or colonized with MDR S. marcescens, treated in the NICU for at least 48 hours during the study period.
PFGE analysis identified a single strain of MDR S. marcescens that infected or colonized 15 patients. Two patients had unique strains, and 1 patient's isolate could not be subtyped. An unrelated MDR S. marcescens isolate was recovered from a sink drain. Exposure to inhalational therapy was an independent risk factor for MDR S. marcescens acquisition after adjusting for birth weight. Extensive investigation failed to reveal a point source for the outbreak.
A single epidemic strain of MDR S. marcescens spread rapidly and threatened to become endemic in this NICU. Transient carriage on the hands of healthcare personnel or on respiratory care equipment was the likely mode of transmission. Cohorting patients and staff, at the cost of bed closures and additional personnel, interrupted transmission and halted the outbreak.
In many areas of south and south-eastern Asia, concentrations of As in ground water have been found to exceed the WHO maximum concentration limit of 10 μg/l. This is adversely affecting the health of millions of people and has grave current and future health implications. It has recently been suggested that extensive abstraction of ground water in these areas may accelerate the release of As to ground water. This study uses geochemical and isotopic data to assess this hypothesis. The area investigated in this study is in the Chakdaha block of the Nadia District, West Bengal. The ground water is predominantly of the Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, although some samples were found to contain elevated concentrations of Na, Cl and SO4. This is thought to reflect a greater degree of water-rock interaction at the locations of these particular samples. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the national limit of 50 μg/l in 13 of the 22 samples collected. Four of the 13 samples with high As were recovered from tubewells with depths of 60 m or more. Shallow ground water samples were found to have a stable isotopic composition which falls subparallel to the Global Meteoric Water Line. This probably represents a contribution of evaporated surface water to the ground water, possibly from surface ponds or re-infiltrating irrigation water. Deep ground water, conversely, was shown to have a composition that closely reflects that of meteoric water. The data presented in this study suggest that, whilst the drawdown of surface waters may drive As release in shallow ground waters, it is not responsible for driving As release in deep ground water. However, local abstraction may have resulted in changes in the ground water flow regime of the area, with contaminated shallow ground waters being drawn into previously uncontaminated deep aquifers.
Observational studies of weed emergence provide essential data for the creation and testing of predictive emergence models, with data ideally being collected from a wide range of sites representing a range of environments under which the seedlings of a given species emerge. The spring emergence of genetically engineered glyphosate-resistant volunteer canola was monitored in 20 farmers' commercial wheat fields over 2 yr, 2003 and 2004, in the southwestern region of Manitoba, Canada. Three different tillage systems, low-disturbance direct-seeded, high-disturbance direct-seeded, and conventionally tilled fields, were represented in this sample. Tillage system did not significantly influence the emergence periodicity of volunteer canola, but did influence total densities observed. Total volunteer canola densities in the surveyed fields were variable and ranged from 6 to 2,015 seedlings m−2. Conventionally tilled fields had the lowest densities of volunteer canola seedlings, and high-disturbance direct-seeded fields (no autumn tillage) had the highest densities. Volunteer canola is a relatively early spring emerging plant species requiring minimal accumulated growing degree days for emergence (calculated using a base temperature of 5 C). Emergence curves were steep, with a short window of volunteer canola emergence either prior to or within a spring-seeded wheat crop. To determine what proportion of autumn-broadcast canola seed (simulated harvest losses) would recruit the following spring and the influence of fall or spring tillage on this recruitment, a small plot experiment also was conducted at three sites. The following spring the percentage of canola seedlings that emerged ranged from 1.3 to 9.4% of the seed broadcast, depending upon the tillage treatment. The effect of tillage treatment on canola densities in the small plot experiment was similar to the field survey results.
We discuss the impact of strong absorption for thermal neutrons on data analysis and compare absorption corrections in the GSAS and MAUD Rietveld codes for texture and structural parameter refinement. Diffraction data were collected on the neutron powder diffractometer HIPPO at LANSCE from dysprosium and erbium, which are moderate-to-strong absorbers for thermal neutrons with absorption cross sections of 159 barns for Er and 994 barns for Dy at λ=1.8 Å. Both elements have hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) crystal structures, and the samples were various thicknesses of rolled foils. The orientation distribution functions (ODF) were fit to the same neutron time-of-flight data sets using two very different full pattern Rietveld analysis procedures. Spherical harmonics functions were fit to the textured data using GSAS. These data were also analyzed by the modified direct method E-WIMV using MAUD. The resulting pole figures from the ODFs determined by both Rietveld analysis packages are qualitatively similar, and the textures were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Additionally, data from orthorhombic dysprosium and erbium fluoride powders show that atomic positions are not sensitive to absorption. We address inconsistencies and methodologies in data analysis when strong absorption is present.