The effect of reduced balanced protein (RP) diet in the F0 and F1 generation of broiler breeders on the learning ability and memory retention of the F2 generation was investigated by means of a reward v. no reward discrimination T-maze test. There were two treatments for the F0 generation: control (C) group, reared on standard commercial diets, and reduced balanced protein (RP) group, fed with RP diets (25% reduction in CP and amino acids). The female F0-progeny of each treatment was again separated into the two dietary treatments, resulting in four treatments for the F1 generation: C/C, C/RP, RP/C and RP/RP (breeder feed in F0/F1 generation). The RP diets fed breeders received on average 10% more feed than C diets fed breeders to achieve a similar target BW. The F2 generation was composed of four treatments coming from the female F1-progeny of the four treatments and were all fed with C diet (namely C/C/C, C/RP/C, RP/C/C and RP/RP/C). All four F2 generation groups were able to complete the T-maze learning test with a slight difference in success rate but a significant difference within groups was observed regarding the time needed to complete the test. In general, the RP/RP/C group needed more time for completing the test compared with the other three groups and the shortest time was recorded for the RP/C/C group. At similar ages, breeders with early learning experience spent significantly less time in completing the test compared with unexperienced breeders. Long-term memory retention was observed in all four groups whereas the learning ability in solving the test decreased with age. It took longer for the breeders to complete the test at older ages. In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, the RP dietary treatment in previous generations had no influence on the T-maze learning ability and memory retention of broiler breeders of the third generation, although it might have effects on the working performance in the T-maze learning test of F2 generation breeders.