Vaccination coverage and seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies were assessed in Argentinean children (aged 8–12 and 19–21 months) living in Cordoba City pre-/post-implementation of a DTwP-IPV-Hib vaccination programme, and compared to those of controls from neighbouring populations receiving a full oral poliovirus vaccine schedule. Vaccination coverage was higher in control areas pre-intervention; this increased post-intervention in Cordoba (>90%) but not in control areas. Poliovirus types 1 and 2 seroprotection rates were >97% in all groups pre-/post-intervention. Type 3 seroprotection rates were generally lower, but increased post-intervention in Cordoba becoming significantly higher than control rates. Anti-type 1 and 3 antibody titres increased twofold and sevenfold, respectively, post-intervention, whereas anti-type 2 antibody titres decreased ~40% in the 8–12 months group. All titres increased in the 19–21 months post-intervention group. The introduction of a three-dose primary DTwP-IPV-Hib schedule maintained protection against poliovirus types 1 and 2, and increased protection against type 3, while vaccine coverage in the study area increased.