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Optimizing the dietary calcium (Ca) level is essential to maximize the eggshell quality, egg production and bone formation in poultry. This study aimed to establish the Ca requirements of egg-type duck breeders from 23 to 57 weeks of age on egg production, eggshell, incubation, tibial, plasma and ovary-related indices, as well as the expression of matrix protein-related genes. Totally, 450 Longyan duck breeders aged 21 weeks of age were allotted randomly into five treatments, each with six replicates of 15 individually caged birds. The data collection started from 23 weeks of age and continued over the following 35 weeks. The five groups corresponded to five dietary treatments containing either 2.8%, 3.2%, 3.6%, 4.0% or 4.4% Ca. The tested dietary Ca levels increased (linear, P <0.01) egg production and egg mass, and linearly improved (P <0.01) the feed conversion ratio (FCR). Increasing the dietary Ca levels from 2.8% to 4.4% increased (P <0.01) the eggshell thickness and eggshell content. The tested Ca levels showed a quadratic effect on eggshell thickness and ovarian weight (P <0.01); the highest values were obtained with the Ca levels 4.0% and 3.6%, respectively. Dietary Ca levels affected the small yellow follicles (SYF) number and SYF weight/ovarian weight, and the linear response (P <0.01) was significant vis-à-vis SYF number. In addition, dietary Ca levels increased (P <0.05) the tibial dry weight, breaking strength, mineral density and ash content. Plasma and tibial phosphorus concentration exhibited a quadratic (P <0.01) response to dietary Ca levels. Plasma calcitonin concentration linearly (P <0.01) increased as dietary Ca levels increased. The relative expression of carbonic anhydrase 2 in the uterus rose (P <0.01) with the increment of dietary Ca levels, and the highest value was obtained with 3.2% Ca. In conclusion, Longyan duck breeders fed a diet with 4.0% Ca had superior eggshell and tibial quality, while those fed a diet with 3.6% Ca had the heaviest ovarian weights. The regression model indicated that the dietary Ca levels 3.86%, 3.48% and 4.00% are optimal levels to obtain maximum eggshell thickness, ovarian weight and tibial mineral density, respectively.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
Curcumin has been attributed with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activities, and has shown highly protective effects against enteropathogenic bacteria and mycotoxins. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the major intestinal pathogenic mycotoxins. The possible effect of curcumin on the alleviation of enterotoxicity induced by OTA is unknown. The effects of dietary curcumin supplementation on OTA-induced oxidative stress, intestinal barrier and mitochondrial dysfunctions were examined in young ducks. A total of 540 mixed-sex 1-day-old White Pekin ducklings with initial BW (43.4±0.1 g) were randomly assigned into controls (fed only the basal diet), a group fed an OTA-contaminated diet (2 mg/kg feed), and a group fed the same OTA-contaminated feed plus 400 mg/kg of curcumin. Each treatment consisted of six replicates, each containing 30 ducklings and treatment lasted for 21 days. There was a significant decrease in average daily gain (ADG) and increased feed : gain caused by OTA (P<0.05); curcumin co-treatment prevented the decrease in BW and ADG compared with the OTA group (P<0.05). Histopathological and ultrastructural examination showed clear signs of enterotoxicity caused by OTA, but these changes were largely prevented by curcumin supplementation. Curcumin decreased the concentrations of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and malondialdehyde, and increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase induced by OTA in the jejunal mucosa of ducks (P<0.05). Additionally, curcumin increased jejunal mucosa occludin and tight junction protein 1 mRNA and protein levels, and decreased those of ρ-associated protein kinase 1 (P<0.05). Notably, curcumin inhibited the increased expression of apoptosis-related genes, and downregulated mitochondrial transcription factors A, B1 and B2 caused by OTA without any effects on RNA polymerase mitochondrial (P<0.05). These results indicated that curcumin could protect ducks from OTA-induced impairment of intestinal barrier function and mitochondrial integrity.
The study investigated whether different dietary energy and protein sources affect laying performance, antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and quality of salted yolks in laying ducks. In all, 360 19-week-old Longyan ducks were randomly assigned to four diets in a factorial arrangement (2×2). The four diets consisted of two energy sources, corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and two protein sources, soybean meal (SM) and rapeseed meal with corn distillers dried grains with solubles (RMD), and each treatment contained six replicates of 15 birds each. The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 10.84 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 17%). The results showed that egg production, average egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio were not affected by diets (P>0.05). Plasma contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH/oxidized glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were lower (P<0.05) in ducks fed the RMD diets compared with those fed SM diets with a substantial increase (P=0.006) in plasma content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Egg yolks from ducks fed SO diets had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids compared with CO diets (P<0.001). Similarly, ducks fed RMD diets had a higher content of PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio in fresh yolks (P<0.001), and increased salted yolk MDA, carbonylated proteins content and incidence of hard salted yolks (P<0.05) compared with SM diets. Scanning electron microscopy showed that salted yolks contained rougher polyhedral granules and fewer fat droplets, and were surrounded with a layer of bunchy fibers in ducks fed SO+RMD than those fed CO+SM diet. In conclusion, the current study showed that feeding laying ducks with diets containing SO or RMD reduced antioxidant capacity and increased egg yolk concentrations of PUFA. It appeared that egg yolks from ducks fed these diets were more sensitive to lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation during salting, and reduced the quality of salted yolks.
The problem of volume test, V/Vm, in zero pressure and matter dominated Friedmann universe model is explored under various values of deceleration parameter qo. The following conclusions are drawn. (i) For different values of qo, the change of V/Vm is sensitive at small values of z. Since values of V/Vm are very small at small values of z, this change exerts little effect on the average values of V/Vm. (ii) when values of z and zm are fixed for each member of a sample, large values of qo yield larger values of V/Vm, especially in the case of large z. (iii) For qo<1, the method of volume test is reliable. When qo>2, especially qo>3, this method has to be used with caution at large z.
Puffing of a decane/ethanol emulsion droplet and a droplet group under convective heating and its effects on fuel/air mixing are investigated by direct numerical simulation that resolves all of the liquid/gas and liquid/liquid interfaces. With distinct differences in the boiling point between decane and ethanol, the embedded ethanol sub-droplets can be superheated and boil explosively. Puffing, i.e. ejection of ethanol vapour, occurs from inside the parent decane droplet, causing secondary breakup of the droplet. The ejected ethanol vapour mixes with the outer gas mixture composed of air and vapour of the primary fuel decane, and its effects on fuel/air mixing can be characterised by the scalar dissipation rates (SDRs). For the primary-fuel SDR, the cross-scalar diffusion due to ethanol vapour puffing plays a dominant role in enhancing the micromixing. When the vapour ejection direction is inclined towards the wake direction, the wake is elongated, but the shape of the stoichiometric mixture fraction isosurface is not changed much, indicating a limited effect on droplet grouping in a spray. On the other hand, when the ejection direction is inclined towards the transverse direction, the stoichiometric surface is pushed further away in the transverse direction, and its topology is changed by the puffing. The trajectories of ejected ethanol vapour pockets can be predicted by the correlation obtained for a jet in cross-flow, and the vapour pockets may reach a few diameters away from the droplet. Therefore, in a multiple-droplet configuration, the transverse ethanol vapour ejection due to puffing may transiently change the droplet grouping characteristics. In simulation cases with multiple droplets, the interaction changing the droplet grouping due to puffing has been confirmed, especially for droplets in the most upstream position in a spray. This implies that puffing should be accurately included in the mixing and combustion modelling of such a biofuel-blended diesel spray process.
The objective of this research was to describe proportional differences across time and region in management practices among southern cotton farmers who experienced glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds on their farms earlier than those who experienced them later and among farmers who were closest to one of four historical outbreak epicenters: Lauderdale County, TN; Macon County, GA; Edgecombe County, NC; and Terry County, TX. A mail survey was conducted with cotton farmers in 2012 from 13 southern, cotton-producing states. Survey responses on practices used by farmers were classified into three broad categories of labor, mechanical/tillage/chemical (MTC), and cultural. Proportions of respondents using practices from each category were identified by time and region; across which, proportional-difference tests were conducted. Results indicated respondents encountering GR weeds earlier were more likely than farmers who experienced them later to use the three broad-category practices (labor, 98 vs. 92%; MTC, 95 vs. 89%; and cultural, 86 vs. 76%) and specific practices, including hooded sprayers (76 vs. 58%), in-season herbicide change (83 vs. 60%), and field-border management (60 vs. 35%). Also, respondents closest to Lauderdale County were more likely than farmers closest to Edgecombe County to use broad-labor practices (99 vs. 91%) and specific practices, including hand hoeing (96 vs. 84%), hand spraying (49 vs. 31%), spot spraying (76 vs. 59%), wick applicator (13 vs. 11%), and field-border management (58 vs. 39%). Education programs on weed management can be developed and tailored according to the time and regional differences to provide effective information and communication channels to farmers.
Cotton plant architecture is an important agronomic trait affecting yield and quality. In the present study, two F2:3 upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) populations were developed from Baimian2/TM-1 and Baimian2/CIR12 to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for cotton plant architecture traits using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 73 QTL (37 significant and 36 suggestive) affecting plant architecture traits were detected in both populations. Four common QTL, qTFN-17 for total fruit nodes, qFBN-17 for fruit branch nodes, qFBL-17 for fruit branch length and qTFB-17a/qTFB-17b (qTFB-17) for total fruit branches, were found across the two populations. These common QTL should have high reliability and could be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) to facilitate cotton plant architecture. The two common QTL, qTFN-17 and qFBL-17, were especially significant in both populations, and moreover, they explained >0·100 of the phenotypic variation in at least one population. These two QTL should be considered preferentially for MAS. The synergistic alleles and the negative alleles could be utilized in cotton plant architecture breeding programmes according to specific breeding objectives.
The heating of the solar corona and the origin and acceleration of the solar wind are among the important unsolved problems of space plasma and solar physics. During the SOHO era, coronal holes as source regions of the fast solar wind have been investigated by using UV/EUV spectroscopic data observed with high-resolution spectrometers. At the base of the coronal hole, a detailed picture concerning the origin of the fast solar wind was first obtained by SUMER observations. For example, the Dopplergram deduced from the line profile of Ne VIII and other transition-region lines showed strong evidence that the wind originates in the chromospheric network and starts flowing out of the corona in magnetic funnels. Solar wind mass is suggested to be supplied through supergranule-scale magnetoconvection in the chromosphere and transition region. However, the spectral lines used in these studies are mainly obtained in the transition region and the behaviours of the nascent solar wind at higher temperatures have not yet been understood. Recent spectroscopic and imaging observations with instruments on Hinode and SDO provide further information about the coronal holes seen in EUV lines formed in the solar corona. Some interesting results, e.g., ubiquitous episodic outflow (jets) and enhanced emission in the blue wing of coronal line profiles, are found from the new observations. The purpose of this presentation is to review recent research progress on solar-wind source regions revealed by UV/EUV spectroscopic and imaging observations. Such observational studies and further interpretations of the data may provide crucial constraints and implications for future studies on both observations and theoretical models concerning coronal heating and acceleration of the nascent solar wind.
The proton bunch-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) has been proposed as an approach to accelerate an electron beam to the TeV energy regime in a single plasma section. An experimental program has been recently proposed to demonstrate the capability of proton-driven PWFA by using existing proton beams from the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) accelerator complex. At present, a spare Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) tunnel, having a length of 600 m, could be used for this purpose. The layout of the experiment is introduced. Particle-in-cell simulation results based on realistic SPS beam parameters are presented. Simulations show that working in a self-modulation regime, the wakefield driven by an SPS beam can accelerate an externally injected ~10 MeV electrons to ~2 GeV in a 10-m plasma, with a plasma density of 7 × 1014 cm−3.
In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China?
Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained cases with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. MD was assessed at personal interview.
Factor analysis of the PBI revealed three factors for both mothers and fathers: warmth, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. Lower warmth and protectiveness and higher authoritarianism from both mother and father were significantly associated with risk for recurrent MD. Parental warmth was positively correlated with parental protectiveness and negatively correlated with parental authoritarianism. When examined together, paternal warmth was more strongly associated with lowered risk for MD than maternal warmth. Furthermore, paternal protectiveness was negatively and maternal protectiveness positively associated with risk for MD.
Although the structure of received parenting is very similar in China and Western countries, the association with MD is not. High parental protectiveness is generally pathogenic in Western countries but protective in China, especially when received from the father. Our results suggest that cultural factors impact on patterns of parenting and their association with MD.
Waverider serves as a good candidate for hypersonic vehicles. The typical waverider has sharp leading edge and no control face, which is inappropriate for practical use. This paper puts forward a method modifying the waverider, and the modification impact on the performance of waverider at hypersonic flow conditions is studied. The modification is based on blunted waverider, includes cutting the tip and introducing two control wings. The modification’s effect on aerodynamic performance is obtained and analysed through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. When blunted with 2cm radius, the waverider retains its good aerodynamic performance and the heat flux at the stagnation point can be managed. Three factors of the introduced wing are argued, the fixed angle, aspect ratio and wing area. Results show that influence on the aerodynamic coefficient is slight and the vehicle retains its high lift-to-drag ratio. The main influences of the modification are the control ability and trim efficiency, which is the motivation of this work and can be adapted when designing a practical waverider.
We have used a variety of self-assembled monolayers as resists for low energy electron beam patterning. These compounds can be used as high-resolution patternable linker molecules for selected area binding of proteins and other organic compounds, as well as nanoparticles with organic chemical coatings. Because these systems can be aligned in registry to existing patterns, the organic systems may be positioned with the accuracy of electron-beam lithography. We have also explored the use of self-assembled monolayers for the creation of sub-wavelength artificial dielectric systems. The ultra-thin patterned monolayer is combined with a contrast-enhancing etch process to create high aspect ratio structures. This technique can be used to fabricate diffractive optical devices in a single-step process.
We describe recent experiments in which we attempted the initial steps for fabricating twodimensional arrays of metal nanocrystals. We use a commercial pulsed-laser deposition system in concert with a focused ion beam to attempt control over both lateral and vertical dimensions at the nanometer length scale. In our experiments, regular arrays of holes typically 80 nm in diameter were drilled in Si substrates using the focused ion beam. Silver atoms were then deposited onto these substrates by pulsed laser evaporation from a metallic target in high vacuum. Under certain conditions of substrate temperature, laser pulse repetition rate, and fluence, small silver nanoclusters form preferentially around the structures previously etched in the silicon surfaces by the focused ion beam.
Electrons traverse two-dimensional nanocrystal arrays by sequential tunneling between neighboring nanocrystals. Analysis of array conductance at zero bias-voltage gives information about underlying nanocrystal uniformity, as well as the relevant single-electron charging energy. We discuss low-temperature measurements of two-dimensional self-assembled superlattices composed of 10 nanometer diameter cobalt nanocrystals, with ∼2 nm inter-nanocrystal spacing.
The electrostatic surface potential of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of aliphatic and aromatic thiols has been measured using electrostatic force microscopy. The variation of the surface potential of chemisorbed alkanethiols, with respect to bare Au(111), is observed to increase with increasing chain length. The trend is similar to that observed in the literature. A preliminary theoretical model, based on treating the monolayer as a sheet of dipoles, has been used to calculate the surface potential of alkanethiols. Similar measurements on several aromatic thiols, with a symmetric and non-symmetric molecular structure, reveal that non-symmetric systems have significantly higher potential (≥ 170mV) than the symmetric molecules.
This article is a review of the selected activities since 1979 in using non-oxide additives as sintering aids for silicon nitride. Emphasis was placed on the work done in the authors' laboratory, and it is shown that ZrN and AIN in combined use can result in producing silicon nitride with good properties.
Sodium alanate has been studied as a promising candidate material for reversible hydrogen storage due to its intermediate temperature range and relatively high storage capacity. Its rates of desorption and absorption of hydrogen have been shown to be enhanced by the addition of Ti in various compounds. To date, the sorption kinetics, especially absorption kinetics, is not well understood. In this study, a practical sorption kinetics model for TiCl3 catalyzed NaAlH4 has been developed to assist in the engineering design and evaluation of a prototype hydrogen storage system.
Yield stress and modulus of polymeric coatings on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film have been measured by nanomechanical methods. Yield stresses were found with a simplified version of Johnson's cavity model of elastic-plastic indentation and Tabor's approximation. Moduli were obtained by the tangent method. From creep and relaxation measurements, viscoelastic moduli were extracted with the aid of the standard three-parameter model.