Peptides belonging to the FMRFamide family are widely distributed amongst invertebrates. We report here on the isolation of the FMRFamide neuropeptide AF2 (Lys-His-Glu-Tyr-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH2) from the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. Immunocytochemical techniques showed that FMRFamide-like material was distributed in several regions of these organisms including nerve cords and cell bodies of the central nervous system. AF2 was isolated using a method that employed 6 steps of reverse-phase HPLC. The concentration of AF2 in this organism was approximately 30 pmol/g of nematode.