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The self or identity is often seriously challenged by the emergence of psychotic symptoms. A first reason for that is most likely due to the traumatic experience caused by the sudden emergence of hallucinations or persecutory ideas that challenge both the representation of oneself and that of the world and others. A second reason is linked to the social consequences of having a mental illness and of being assigned with the label of “mentally ill or disabled person”. A third relates to the patients’ cognitive impairment that alters their ability to take distance from these self-challenging events, to give a meaning to these experiences and to build coherent narratives of their life that integrate a great variety of personal experiences such as turning points or unpleasant events. For these reasons, recovering from a severe mental illness is a process through which the self evolves by integrating the lessons of past personal events, building new representations of oneself and looking to new directions for future projects. Excerpts of patients’ narratives collected in experimental setting will be presented in order to illustrate how indexes of recovery can be measured in self-narratives and how they help identifying the steps of self-recovery that have been identified in qualitative research on patients with schizophrenia .
In recent years, the discovery of massive quasars at
has provided a striking challenge to our understanding of the origin and growth of supermassive black holes in the early Universe. Mounting observational and theoretical evidence indicates the viability of massive seeds, formed by the collapse of supermassive stars, as a progenitor model for such early, massive accreting black holes. Although considerable progress has been made in our theoretical understanding, many questions remain regarding how (and how often) such objects may form, how they live and die, and how next generation observatories may yield new insight into the origin of these primordial titans. This review focusses on our present understanding of this remarkable formation scenario, based on the discussions held at the Monash Prato Centre from November 20 to 24, 2017, during the workshop ‘Titans of the Early Universe: The Origin of the First Supermassive Black Holes’.
The search for life in the Universe is a fundamental problem of astrobiology and modern science. The current progress in the detection of terrestrial-type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify the conditions favourable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it in other worlds, we need to understand the nature of global (astrospheric), and local (atmospheric and surface) environments of exoplanets in the habitable zones (HZs) around G-K-M dwarf stars including our young Sun. Global environment is formed by propagated disturbances from the planet-hosting stars in the form of stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, energetic particles and winds collectively known as astrospheric space weather. Its characterization will help in understanding how an exoplanetary ecosystem interacts with its host star, as well as in the specification of the physical, chemical and biochemical conditions that can create favourable and/or detrimental conditions for planetary climate and habitability along with evolution of planetary internal dynamics over geological timescales. A key linkage of (astro)physical, chemical and geological processes can only be understood in the framework of interdisciplinary studies with the incorporation of progress in heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary and Earth sciences. The assessment of the impacts of host stars on the climate and habitability of terrestrial (exo)planets will significantly expand the current definition of the HZ to the biogenic zone and provide new observational strategies for searching for signatures of life. The major goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the current status and recent progress in this interdisciplinary field in light of presentations and discussions during the NASA Nexus for Exoplanetary System Science funded workshop ‘Exoplanetary Space Weather, Climate and Habitability’ and to provide a new roadmap for the future development of the emerging field of exoplanetary science and astrobiology.
Outskirts of spiral galaxies, including our own, and dwarf irregular galaxies are known to have a different environment from the solar neighborhood, e.g., low metallicities ( ~ − 1 dex). Among them, the outer Galaxy is the closest and hence is so far the only site suitable for population studies of resolved stars on the same basis as solar neighborhood. We have obtained NIR images of young clusters in the outer Galaxy, using the Subaru 8.2-m telescope, and clearly resolved cluster members with mass detection limits of ~ 0.1 M⊙. Based on the fitting of K-band luminosity functions (KLFs) for four clusters, we found that the initial mass function (IMF) in the outer Galaxy is consistent with that in the solar neighborhood in terms of the high-mass slope and IMF peak. Upcoming observations with a higher spatial resolution and sensitivity, using JWST, TMT, etc., will allow us to extend spatially-resolved studies of the IMF to Local Group galaxies.
We report the results of new survey of star-forming regions in the outer Galaxy at Galactocentric radius of more than 13.5 kpc, where the environment is significantly different from that in the solar neighborhood.
Astronomical telescopes continue to demand high-endurance high-reflectivity silver mirrors that can withstand years of exposure in earth-based observatory environments. The University of California Observatories Astronomical Coatings Lab has undertaken development of protected silver coatings suitable for telescope mirrors that maintain high reflectivity at wavelengths from 340 nm through the mid-infrared spectrum. We present promising results of enhanced corrosion barriers using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of aluminum oxide (AlOx) as a top barrier layer. Novel coating recipes developed with ion-assisted electron beam deposition (IAEBD) of materials including yttrium fluoride and oxides of yttrium, tantalum, and silicon are used to compare the endurance of physical vapor deposition-grown barriers with PEALD-grown barriers of similar thickness. Samples of these mirror coatings were covered with conformal layers of AlOx deposited by PEALD using trimethylaluminum as a metal precursor and plasma-activated oxygen as an oxidant gas. Samples of coating recipes with and without PEALD oxide undergo aggressive high temperature/high humidity (HTHH) environmental testing in which samples are exposed to an environment of 80% humidity at 80°C for ten days in a simple test set-up. HTHH testing show visible results suggesting that the PEALD oxide offers enhanced robust protection against chemical corrosion and moisture from an accelerated aging environment. Mirror samples are further characterized by reflectivity/absorption before and after deposition of oxide coatings. AlOx is suitable for many applications and has been the initial material choice for this study.
A range of optical and optoelectronic applications would benefit from high refractive index (n), dense and transparent films that guide, concentrate and couple light. However, materials with high n usually have a high optical extinction coefficient (κ) which keeps these materials from being suitable for optical components that require long optical paths. We studied titanium hafnium oxide alloy films to obtain high refractive index (n>2) with minimum optical extinction coefficients (κ < 10−5) over the visible and near IR spectrum (380-930 nm). Titanium hafnium oxide alloys were deposited using pulsed DC reactive magnetron sputtering with and without RF substrate bias on silicon dioxide. For a given deposition condition intended for a specific titanium/hafnium molar fraction ratio, the ion energy of deposition species was explicitly controlled by varying the RF substrate bias. Spectroscopic ellipsometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the films. It appears that applying RF substrate bias reduces the nanocrystalline size, changes the surface morphology and increases the refractive index while maintaining comparable titanium/hafnium cation molar fraction. Precise control of the nanostructure of ternary metal oxides can alter their macroscopic properties, resulting in improved optical films.
Resistive switching, a reversible change in electrical resistance of a dielectric layer through the application of a voltage bias, has propelled a field of research to form improved non-volatile memory device. Tantalum oxide has been investigated as the dielectric component of resistive switching devices as a leading candidate for a few years. Presented here is a structural and chemical investigation of TaOx devices with 55nm in diameter in the virgin, forming on, and switched off (reset) states for comparison using cross sectional TEM techniques including HRTEM, and EELS to gain further understanding of this material system. The nanodevices imaged in this study were switched below 100µA. Unique features found in this study are in agreement with previous hypotheses made by various researchers based on X-ray fluorescence microscopy of micron-scale devices, indicating a variation in oxygen concentration around the switching area.
Preparation of a sigma-CrFe single-phase specimen was achieved by arc melting of pure Fe and Cr, cold rolling, and subsequent annealing at 973 K or 1073 K in vacuum. Cold rolling before annealing is effective for the annealing-induced formation of sigma-CrFe from the bcc solid-solution phase. The phase stability and the structural change from sigma-CrFe to a bcc solid-solution phase under fast electron irradiation were investigated by in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation in the temperature range between 22 K and 473 K by using an ultra-high voltage electron microscope (UHVEM). The phase transition of sigma-CrFe by fast electron irradiation was found to occur at a particular temperature.
Investigation into the phenomenon of resistive switching, a reversible change in electrical resistance by the application of a voltage bias, has given rise to the device fabrication, DC electrical testing, and cross sectional TEM/EELS characterization of nanoscale resistive switching devices. Typically, resistive switching devices are composed of a thin oxide layer between two conductive electrodes where applied bias can alter the resistance states. In a cross-bar array, nonlinearity of device I-V relation is a highly desirable characteristic that helps to mitigate the sneak path current leakage issue. Negative differential resistance (NDR) switching behavior offers such nonlinearity and has been observed in TaOx nanoscale devices utilizing certain electrode materials. To investigate this phenomenon, nanodevices were fabricated by sputtering TaOx onto TiN nanovias capped Nb electrodes. Cross sectional TEM/EELS were performed to reveal the physical and chemical changes in these devices to explore possible origins of nonlinear behavior when these top electrode materials are utilized with TaOx films.
Thready stripe-patterned thermo-responsive surfaces were prepared and their surface properties were characterized. Prepared 3 μm wide stripe-patterned surfaces were evaluated by observing the adhesions and detachments of three types of cells: HeLa cells (HeLas), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and NIH-3T3 cells (3T3s). Although cell adhesion and detachment in response to temperature were observed on all cells on a conventional thermo-responsive surface without patterns, the thermo-responsive surface with a 3 μm striped-pattern exhibited various cell adhesion properties. HeLas hardly adhered to the patterned surface even at 37 °C. On the other hand, although HUVECs adhered on the patterned surface at 12 h after incubation at 37 °C, the adhered HUVECs detached themselves after another 12 h incubation at 37 °C. 3T3s adhered to the patterned surface at 37 °C and detached themselves after reducing temperature to 20 °C. A mixture of HeLa, HUVEC and 3T3 was separated using their different specific cell-adhesion properties, and the composition of cells was analyzed by a flow-cytometry. As a result, the conventional thermo-responsive surface with a stripe-pattern was found to function as a cell-separating interface by using specific cell adhesion properties.
The correlation of stress in Silicon Carbide (SiC) crystal and frequency shift in micro- Raman spectroscopy was determined by an experimental method. We applied uniaxial stress to 4H- and 6H-SiC single crystal square bar specimen shaped with (0001) and (11-20) faces by four point bending test, under measuring the frequency shift in micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results revealed that the linearity coefficients between stress and Raman shift were -1.96 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/4)E2 on 4H-SiC (0001) face, -2.08 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/4)E2 on 4H-SiC (11-20) face and -2.70 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/6)E2 on 6H-SiC (0001) face. Determination of these coefficients has made it possible to evaluate the residual stress in SiC crystal quantitatively by micro-Raman spectroscopy. We evaluated the residual stress in SiC substrate that was grown in our laboratory by utilizing the results obtained in this study. The result of estimation indicated that the SiC substrate with a diameter of 6 inch remained residual stress as low as ±15 MPa.
In 2011, the US Institute of Medicine updated the definition of vitamin D inadequacy to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration of 30–<50 nmol/l and of deficiency to serum 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/l. We describe the prevalence of these conditions according to these definitions, seasonal variation in 25(OH)D and predictors of serum 25(OH)D concentrations among working, white women.
Participants recorded lifestyle factors and dietary intake and provided fasting blood samples for measurement of serum 25(OH)D in both summer and winter. Predictors of serum 25(OH)D variation were analysed using linear regression and generalized linear mixed models.
Kingston General Hospital in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, from April 2008 to July 2009.
Female premenopausal nurses (n 83) working full-time rotating shifts.
Deficient or inadequate vitamin D status was observed in 9 % of participants following summer/autumn and in 13 % following winter/spring. Predictors of serum 25(OH)D concentration were vitamin D supplement use, tanning bed use and season. Tanning bed use increased serum 25(OH)D by 23·24 nmol/l (95 % CI 8·78, 37·69 nmol/l, P = 0·002) on average.
According to the 2011 Institute of Medicine bone health guidelines, over 10 % of nurses had deficient or inadequate vitamin D status following winter. Higher serum concentrations were associated with use of tanning beds and vitamin D supplements. As health promotion campaigns and legal restrictions are successful in reducing tanning bed use among women, our data suggest that increased prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and deficiency may be a consequence, and that low vitamin D status will need to be countered with supplementation.
During the installation of the buffer in a deposition hole of an HLW repository, it is necessary to control water flow from the fractured rock into the deposition hole. Water flow with inflow rate greater than 0.001 l/min may cause piping and erosion of the buffer, and may trigger mass redistribution of the buffer, sedimentation and material separation of bentonite materials. This paper describes the condition of parameters which cause piping and erosion; revised conditions which keep advection, inflow rate, buffer component, gap between buffer materials, gap between outside wall and buffer block, and type of water. The results from the experiment show the condition of the self-sealing function of bentonite materials, formation of piping, allowable limit of inflow rate in the case of an Na type bentonite block of 70 wt.% Kunigel V1 and 30 wt.% silica sand, or a pellet of 100 wt.% Kunigel V1. Piping and erosion continue until the engineered barrier (EB) is filled with water, and then the hydraulic gradient becomes small. Piping may lead to erosion and redistribution of material which needs to be taken into account in the long-term performance assessment.
Our nation discards more than 50% of the total input energy as waste heat in various industrial processes such as metal refining, heat engines, and cooling. If we could harness a small fraction of the waste heat through the use of thermoelectric (TE) devices while satisfying the economic demands of cost versus performance, then TE power generation could bring substantial positive impacts to our society in the forms of reduced carbon emissions and additional energy. To increase the unit-less figure of merit, ZT, single-crystal semiconductor nanowires have been extensively studied as a building block for advanced TE devices because of their predicted large reduction in thermal conductivity and large increase in power factor. In contrast, polycrystalline bulk semiconductors also indicate their potential in improving overall efficiency of thermal-to-electric conversion despite their large number of grain boundaries. To further our goal of developing practical and economical TE devices, we designed a material platform that combines nanowires and polycrystalline semiconductors which are integrated on a metallic surface. We will assess the potential of polycrystalline group III-V compound semiconductor nanowires grown on low-cost copper sheets that have ideal electrical/thermal properties for TE devices. We chose indium phosphide (InP) from group III-V compound semiconductors because of its inherent characteristics of having low surface states density in comparison to others, which is expected to be important for polycrystalline nanowires that contain numerous grain boundaries. Using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) polycrystalline InP nanowires were grown in three-dimensional networks in which electrical charges and heat travel under the influence of their characteristic scattering mechanisms over a distance much longer than the mean length of the constituent nanowires. We studied the growth mechanisms of polycrystalline InP nanowires on copper surfaces by analyzing their chemical, optical, and structural properties in comparison to those of single-crystal InP nanowires formed on single-crystal surfaces. We also assessed the potential of polycrystalline InP nanowires on copper surfaces as a TE material by modeling based on finite-element analysis to obtain physical insights of three-dimensional networks made of polycrystalline InP nanowires. Our discussion will focus on the synthesis of polycrystalline InP nanowires on copper surfaces and structural properties of the nanowires analyzed by transmission electron microscopy that provides insight into possible nucleation mechanisms, growth mechanisms, and the nature of grain boundaries of the nanowires.
We studied physical properties of titanium hafnium oxide (TixHf1-xO2) alloy thin films deposited by pulsed DC reactive magnetron sputtering with AC substrate bias. Thin films of two end oxides, hafnium oxides (HfO2) and titanium oxides (TiO2), and their alloys TixHf1-xO2 with a range of compositions deposited with and without the substrate bias were compared to study the dependence of physical properties of the thin films on the substrate bias. Structural, chemical and optical properties of the thin films were analyzed to assess inter-relationship among these properties. Thin films deposited with the AC substrate bias consistently show much higher refractive index and significantly lower optical extinction coefficient than those of thin films deposited without the substrate bias suggesting that characteristic microstructures developed in these thin films are responsible for the differences in the optical properties.
It is necessary to assess the impact of nitrate salts and their reduction products (e.g. NH3(aq)/NH4+) contained in low-level radioactive waste generated from nuclear reprocessing process for the safety assessment of geological disposal of the waste. In the present study, sorption behavior of Ni and Pd on pumice tuff was investigated in the presence of NH3(aq)/NH4+. Under various NH3(aq)/NH4+ concentration, pH and ionic strength conditions, distribution coefficient (Kd) of Ni and Pd on pumice tuff was determined by a batch experiment. For Ni system, the Kd values showed no significant dependence on initial NH4+ concentration ([NH4+]ini < 1 M) in neutral pH region, which agreed with the prediction from thermodynamic data. For Pd system, the Kd values decreased with an increase of [NH4+]ini, suggesting the formation of stable ammine complexes (Pd(NH3)m2+ (m: 1 – 4)). The obtained Kd values for Ni and Pd were analyzed using a surface complexation model. By taking complexes predicted by thermodynamic data into account, sorption behavior of Ni and Pd in the presence of NH3(aq)/NH4+ were well explained.
Crystal structure change with an applied electric field was investigated by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the 1 μm-thick (100)/(001) one-axis oriented tetragonal Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 films prepared on Pt-covered (100) Si substrates by chemical solution deposition technique. As-deposited films were under the strained condition in good agreement with the estimation from the thermal strain applied under the cooling process after the deposition from the Curie temperature to the room temperature. This strain was ascertained to be relaxed by an applied electric field in accompanying with the dramatic increase of the volume fraction of (001) orientation. These results demonstrate the importance of the crystal structure measurement not only as-deposited films, but also after applied electric field, such as after poling.
Here, we present microfluidic methods to fabricate complex hydrogel structures for 3D tissue or organ-like cell structures in vitro. First, a microfluidic system to continuously synthesize chemically and physically anisotropic Ca–alginate hydrogel microfibers is proposed to enable the guidance of cell proliferation and differentiation. Next, the microfluidic preparation methods for yarn-ball-shape hydrogel particles and extremely-small hydrogel microspheres. Finally, a newly developed micro-molding and bonding method for hydrogel micro-patterned plates is reported.
We simulated the data outputs of the first Japanese astrometry satellite Nano-JASMINE,
which is scheduled to be launched by the Cyclone-4 rocket in August 2011. The simulations
were carried out using existing stellar catalogues such as the Hipparcos catalogue, the
Tycho catalogue, and the Guide Star catalogue version 2.3. Several statics are shown such
as the number of stars those will be measured distances using annual aberration
observations. The method for determining the initial direction of the satellite’s spin
axis has also been discussed. In this case, the frequency of bright stars observed by the
satellite is an important factor.