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In April 2017, a WTO panel ruled that China's anti-dumping investigation into imports of dissolving cellulose pulp from Canada violated the WTO's Anti-dumping Agreement. The panel found that China's description of the parallel price trends of dumped imports and domestic products failed to explain their finding that the dumped imports caused the decline in domestic prices. The ruling perhaps should not have surprised anyone as the WTO had made similar findings in disputes involving two previous Chinese anti-dumping investigations. This paper explores to what degree ‘parallel price trends’ can be used as a valid methodology to determine price depression, and whether it is the methodology itself that is problematic or China's implementation of that methodology that has caused it to lose three disputes over the past five years.
Although the role of neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in nasal polyps development has been studied, the contribution of neurotrophin-3 has not been evaluated yet. This study aimed to investigate the possible role of neurotrophin-3 in nasal polyps pathogenesis.
The study group comprised 70 non-allergic nasal polyps patients and the control group consisted of 53 patients with middle turbinate concha bullosa. Specimens were taken, during surgery, from the ethmoid sinus nasal polyps in the nasal polyps group and from the lateral part of the middle turbinate concha bullosa in the control group. Tissue and serum levels of neurotrophin-3 were assessed by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively.
Nasal polyps patients had higher tissue neurotrophin-3 scores (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding serum neurotrophin-3 levels (p = 0.417). Tissue neurotrophin-3 staining scores in the nasal polyps group had no statistically significant correlation with Lund–Mackay scores (p = 0.792).
Neurotrophin-3 may have a local effect in nasal polyps pathogenesis, without joining systemic circulation.
Diphenyl ether herbicides are commonly applied POST in soybean to control weeds late in the growing season that have not been controlled by other previous weed management tactics. These “rescue” applications can occur during reproductive soybean growth. The effect of these herbicides on the developing flowers and pods is not known. Field research studies were conducted over 3 yr to determine how soybean flowers and developing pods respond to fomesafen, acifluorfen, and lactofen when applied at R1, R3, and R5 growth stages. Flower and pod counts in the nontreated check showed an increase (17.1, 5.8, and 2.21 at R1, R3, and R5 stage, respectively) and were statistically the same as the herbicide treatments 1 wk after treatment. Fomesafen, acifluorfen, and lactofen applied at 395, 420, and 219 g ai ha–1 at R1, R3, and R5 stage had no negative impact on soybean flowers and developing pods when compared to the nontreated check. No significant differences were observed in soybean yield between any treatments in all site-years of the study.
This study aimed to compare the hearing results of two different stapedotomy techniques used in the clinic at different time points.
An endoscopic surgery group (group 1; n = 37) were compared retrospectively with a microscopic surgery group (group 2; n = 57). A small fenestra and Teflon piston technique were used in all patients. Bone cement was used for fixation between the prosthesis and incus in the endoscopic group only. Bone conduction threshold and air–bone gap were used as the comparison parameters.
The pre-operative air–bone gap was 31.26 dB in group 1 and 32.51 dB in group 2. The post-operative air–bone gap was 8.93 dB in group 1 and 14.28 dB in group 2. There was a significant difference between the groups in post-operative air–bone gaps. There was no significant difference between the groups in post-operative bone conduction thresholds.
The endoscopic technique using bone cement fixation was better for closing the air–bone gap.
Although minerals are linked to several reproductive outcomes, it is unknown whether dietary minerals are associated with ovulatory function. We hypothesised that low intakes of minerals would be associated with an increased risk of anovulation. We investigated associations between dietary mineral intake and both reproductive hormones and anovulation in healthy women in the BioCycle Study, which prospectively followed up 259 regularly menstruating women aged 18–44 years who were not taking mineral supplements for two menstrual cycles. Intakes of ten selected minerals were assessed through 24-h dietary recalls at up to four times per cycle in each participant. Oestradiol, progesterone, luteinising hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex-hormone-binding globulin and testosterone were measured in serum up to eight times per cycle. We used weighted linear mixed models to evaluate associations between minerals and hormones and generalised linear models for risk of anovulation. Compared with Na intake ≥1500 mg, Na intake <1500 mg was associated with higher levels of FSH (21·3 %; 95 % CI 7·5, 36·9) and LH (36·8 %; 95 % CI 16·5, 60·5) and lower levels of progesterone (−36·9 %; 95 % CI −56·5, −8·5). Na intake <1500 mg (risk ratio (RR) 2·70; 95 % CI 1·00, 7·31) and Mn intake <1·8 mg (RR 2·00; 95 % CI 1·02, 3·94) were associated with an increased risk of anovulation, compared with higher intakes, respectively. Other measured dietary minerals were not associated with ovulatory function. As essential minerals are mostly obtained via diet, our results comparing insufficient levels with sufficient levels highlight the need for future research on dietary nutrients and their associations with ovulatory cycles.
Studies on the effects of consuming 100 % fruit juice on measures of glycaemic control are conflicting. The purpose of the present study was to systematically review and quantitatively summarise results from randomised controlled trials (RCT) examining effects of 100 % fruit juice on glucose–insulin homeostasis. Eligible studies were identified from a systematic review of PubMed and EMBASE and hand searches of reference lists from reviews and relevant papers. Using data from eighteen RCT, meta-analyses evaluated the mean difference in fasting blood glucose (sixteen studies), fasting blood insulin (eleven studies), the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; seven studies) and glycosylated Hb (HbA1c; three studies) between the 100 % fruit juice intervention and control groups using a random-effects model. Compared with the control group, 100 % fruit juice had no significant effect on fasting blood glucose (−0·13 (95 % CI −0·28, 0·01) mmol/l; P = 0·07), fasting blood insulin (−0·24 (95 % CI −3·54, 3·05) pmol/l; P = 0·89), HOMA-IR (−0·22 (95 % CI −0·50, 0·06); P = 0·13) or HbA1c (−0·001 (95 % CI −0·38, 0·38) %; P = 0·28). Results from stratified analyses and univariate meta-regressions also largely showed no significant associations between 100 % fruit juice and the measures of glucose control. Overall, findings from this meta-analysis of RCT suggest a neutral effect of 100 % fruit juice on glycaemic control. These findings are consistent with findings from some observational studies suggesting that consumption of 100 % fruit juice is not associated with increased risk of diabetes.
A simple characterization of the action of symmetries on conservation laws of partial differential equations is studied by using the general method of conservation law multipliers. This action is used to define symmetry-invariant and symmetry-homogeneous conservation laws. The main results are applied to several examples of physically interest, including the generalized Korteveg-de Vries equation, a non-Newtonian generalization of Burger's equation, the b-family of peakon equations, and the Navier–Stokes equations for compressible, viscous fluids in two dimensions.
Lithium was associated with significantly reduced non-suicide mortality in the intent-to-treat cohort over 0–90 days (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.67, 95% CI 0.51–0.87) but not longer. In secondary analyses, a sizeable reduction in mortality was observed during active treatment with lithium across all time periods studied (for example 365-day HR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.45–0.84), but significantly increased risks were observed among patients discontinuing lithium by 180 days (HR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.01–2.37).
Patients initiating lithium had lower non-suicide mortality over 0–90 days than patients initiating valproate and consistently lower non-suicide mortality among patients maintaining treatment, but elevated risk among patients discontinuing treatment by 180 days. Although residual confounding or selection effects cannot be excluded, this study suggests potential benefits to enhancing lithium treatment persistence and the monitoring of patients discontinuing lithium. There is a need for further research.
The current study aims to make an initial neuroimaging contribution to central implicit-explicit issues in second language (L2) acquisition by considering how implicit and explicit contexts mediate the neural representation of L2. Focusing on implicit contexts, the study employs a longitudinal design to examine the neural representation of L2 syntax and also considers how the neural circuits underlying L2 syntax vary among learners who exhibit different levels of performance on linguistic and cognitive tasks. Results suggest that when exposed to a L2 under an implicit context, some learners are able to quickly rely on neural circuits associated with first language grammar and procedural memory, whereas other learners increasingly use extralinguistic neural circuits related to control mechanisms to process syntax. Thus, there may be multiple ways in which L2 is represented neurally, at least when learned under implicit contexts.
It is generally accepted that with experience clinicians develop the ability to identify patients who present with malignancy prior to a formal diagnosis. This ability cannot be quantified, nor is it a plausible substitute for investigation. This study aimed to evaluate the association between instinct and head and neck cancer diagnosis.
A prospective study of patients requiring urgent diagnostic procedures for suspected cancer between August and December 2010 was performed. Risk factors, symptoms, signs and the clinician's impression were recorded. These were graded and subsequently correlated with histology findings.
Twenty-seven patients, with a mean age of 62.2 years, underwent a diagnostic procedure. Thirty per cent of patients were referred under the two-week pathway and 18.5 per cent had a previous history of head and neck cancer. A diagnosis of cancer was made in 37 per cent of patients. There was a positive correlation between clinical suspicion and cancer diagnosis (Kendall's tau-b = 0.648749).
This study highlights the importance of clinical suspicion in cancer diagnosis. Although clinical suspicion cannot be quantified, it should be regarded as an integral part of patient assessment.
A fast moving infrared excess source (G2) which is widely interpreted as a core-less gas and dust cloud approaches Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) on a presumably elliptical orbit. VLT Ks-band and Keck K′-band data result in clear continuum identifications and proper motions of this ∼19m Dusty S-cluster Object (DSO). In 2002-2007 it is confused with the star S63, but free of confusion again since 2007. Its near-infrared (NIR) colors and a comparison to other sources in the field speak in favor of the DSO being an IR excess star with photospheric continuum emission at 2 microns than a core-less gas and dust cloud. We also find very compact L′-band emission (<0.1″) contrasted by the reported extended (0.03″ up to ∼0.2″ for the tail) Brγ emission. The presence of a star will change the expected accretion phenomena, since a stellar Roche lobe may retain a fraction of the material during and after the peri-bothron passage.
This study examined how individual differences in cognitive abilities account for variance in the attainment level of adult second language (L2) syntactic development. Participants completed assessments of declarative and procedural learning abilities. They subsequently learned an artificial L2 under implicit training conditions and received extended comprehension and production practice using the L2. Syntactic development was assessed at both early and late stages of acquisition. Results indicated positive relationships between declarative learning ability and syntactic development at early stages of acquisition and between procedural learning ability and development at later stages of acquisition. Individual differences in these memory abilities accounted for a large amount of variance at both stages of development. The findings are consistent with theoretical perspectives of L2 that posit different roles for these memory systems at different stages of development, and suggest that declarative and procedural memory learning abilities may predict L2 grammatical development, at least for implicitly trained learners.
Fifty newborn Saanen kids were used to study the effects of inulin supplementation on faecal score, faecal pH, selected faecal bacterial population, BW, body temperature, haematological traits, selected health parameters and the incidence of diarrhoea. Kids were sorted by parity of their dams and multiple birth (twin or triplet) and assigned to one of the two groups (control: CG, and experimental: EG) at birth. Each group consisted of 25 kids. The groups were similar with regard to sex and birth weight. All kids were fed colostrum for the first 3 days after birth, and then the kids in EG were adapted to inulin supplementation by an increased dosage from day 4 to 7. Each kid in EG was supplemented with 0.2 g, 0.3 g, 0.4 g, 0.5 g and 0.6 g inulin on day 4, 5, 6, 7 and from day 8 to 28, respectively, whereas the kids in CG did not receive inulin. Faecal score and faecal bacterial population were not affected by inulin supplementation (P > 0.05). There were differences in faecal pH on day 14 (P = 0.01) and 28 (P<0.05), whereas no difference in faecal pH on day 21 (P > 0.05) was detected between groups. No differences (P > 0.05) in BW and haematological traits were found between groups. Body temperature did not differ on day 14 and 21 (P > 0.05), whereas there was a difference in body temperature on day 28 (P = 0.01) between groups. The numbers of kids with pneumonia and kids treated for pneumonia and diarrhoea were similar for CG and EG. Kid losses during the study were the same for CG and EG. The incidence of diarrhoea was not affected by inulin supplementation (P > 0.05). Inulin supplemented to kids did not adversely affect faecal score. The effect of inulin on faecal pH was not consistent. The results of our study suggested that daily dose (0.6 g) of inulin might not be enough to observe effects of it. Our data will be useful to determine the dose and timing of inulin supplementation in future studies investigating the effects of inulin on the parameters associated with performance and health status in kids and other young ruminants.
Superconducting films of“1223”Tlx Ca2Ba2Cu3Oy (0.65<×<l.00) have been prepared on polycrystalline yttria stabilized zirconia substrates via the reaction of thallium oxide vapor with spray-deposited Ca-Ba-Cu-oxide films containing silver. The silver addition permits the formation at 860C of oriented, interconnected polycrystalline superconducting films with Tc(0) values of 104–107K. Samples have been prepared routinely with 77K zero-field dc transport critical current densities >10,000A/cm2 with values as high as 105,000A/cm2 having been measured. The range in Jc values measured is believed to be related, at least in part, to inhomogeneities in the films. The excellent in-field characteristics of the“1223”thick films are reflected in the behavior of the“105,000A/cm” sample for which J >10,000A/cm was measured at 60K in a 2 Tesla field applied parallel to the crystallographic c-axis