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To validate digitally displayed photographic portion-size estimation aids (PSEA) against a weighed meal record and compare findings with an atlas of printed photographic PSEA and actual prepared-food PSEA in a low-income country.
Participants served themselves water and five prepared foods, which were weighed separately before the meal and again after the meal to measure any leftovers. Participants returned the following day and completed a meal recall. They estimated the quantities of foods consumed three times using the different PSEA in a randomized order.
Two urban and two rural communities in southern Malawi.
Women (n 300) aged 18–45 years, equally divided by urban/rural residence and years of education (≤4 years and ≥5 years).
Responses for digital and printed PSEA were highly correlated (>91 % agreement for all foods, Cohen’s κw = 0·78–0·93). Overall, at the individual level, digital and actual-food PSEA had a similar level of agreement with the weighed meal record. At the group level, the proportion of participants who estimated within 20 % of the weighed grams of food consumed ranged by type of food from 30 to 45 % for digital PSEA and 40–56 % for actual-food PSEA. Digital PSEA consistently underestimated grams and nutrients across foods, whereas actual-food PSEA provided a mix of under- and overestimates that balanced each other to produce accurate mean energy and nutrient intake estimates. Results did not differ by urban and rural location or participant education level.
Digital PSEA require further testing in low-income settings to improve accuracy of estimations.
A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
Whole-rock, minor element, rare earth, and electron microprobe data are presented for basaltic lavas from the western Kangerdlugssuaq area of East Greenland. Samples were obtained from Professor W. A. Deer's 1936 collection at Triangular Nunataks and Gardiner Plateau, and additional material obtained by sampling moraines on the surface of Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier. Both undersaturated and tholeiitic lavas are present at the Triangular Nunatak locality but the glacier suite is dominantly tholeiitic. The tholeiitic suite is less evolved than tholeiites from the Scoresby Sund area. Undersaturated lavas show enrichment in light rare earth elements and tholeiitic lavas show fiat chondrite-normalized patterns. Tholeiites from the Gardiner Plateau show no Eu anomaly but others show a slight negative Eu anomaly. Chemical data and considerations of regional geology are consistent with Cox's (1980) model of flood basalt vulcanism.
Black, opaque grains of a spinel whose composition is (Mg2TiO4) 85.8, (MgFe2O4) 0.4 (FeFe2O4) 13.8 (mole %) coexist with a MgAl2O4 spinel and geikielite in a periclase-forsterite marble that has been thermally metamorphosed against an alkalic ultramafic intrusion of Caledonian age in the Kangerdlugssuaq region of East Greenland. The spinel appears to be the closest recorded approach to the end-member Mg2TiO4 among natural rocks, and to be part of a solid-solution series extending across the join Mg2TiO4-MgFe2O4-FeFe2O4, the existence of which has not previously been reported. The composition of the series appears to be controlled by the fO2 that prevails during metamorphism.
Pyroxenes and amphiboles from the under-saturated to over-saturated syenites of the Kangerdlugssuaq intrusion have been examined to see what light they throw on the two contrasting petrogenetic models for the intrusion. Pyroxene crystals are strongly zoned outwards from augitic to more acmitic compositions, with the most calcic cores present in the foyaite, contrary to the expected pattern if the foyaite is the most evolved rock type as previously postulated. Amphiboles, which are absent in the foyaites, show an exceptionally wide compositional field varying from actinolite through richterite and katophorite to arfvedsonite. Many are manganoan and potassian varieties. However, there is no consistent variation throughout the intrusion as previous work has suggested. These results are not favourable to the idea of a crystal fractionation model for the intrusion and we suggest that the foyaite is closest to the original magma which has hybridized with the enclosing gneisses and basalts to produce the over-saturated rocks. Such a model is consistent with the existing isotopic data.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
Wet feeding beneficially affects feed intake and growth rates of poultry in hot climates (Forbes 2003). Fermenting liquid feeds for pigs has been shown to reduce microbial contamination of the feed (Beal et al., 2002) and this could be an added advantage in hot climates. The most desired property of fermented feed is a high lactic acid concentration produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as the fermenting organisms. This high lactic acid concentration resulting in a low pH is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of fermented feeds. This activity is important for food and environmental safety. Grain sorghum is widely used as a food and animal feed cereal in many parts of Africa, Asia and the semi-arid tropics world-wide. It is recognised that differences in the colour of sorghum varieties are due mainly to their concentration of polyphenol compounds mainly tannins. These compounds have some antimicrobial properties and may affect the activity of lactic acid bacteria used to ferment liquid feeds. Little is known about the lactic acid fermentation of sorghum grain for fermented feeds in monogastric nutrition. The present study was designed to compare the fermentation of red and white sorghum with LAB for inclusion as a component of poultry diets.
As part of further investigations into three linked haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) cases in Wales and England, 21 rats from a breeding colony in Cherwell, and three rats from a household in Cheltenham were screened for hantavirus. Hantavirus RNA was detected in either the lungs and/or kidney of 17/21 (81%) of the Cherwell rats tested, higher than previously detected by blood testing alone (7/21, 33%), and in the kidneys of all three Cheltenham rats. The partial L gene sequences obtained from 10 of the Cherwell rats and the three Cheltenham rats were identical to each other and the previously reported UK Cherwell strain. Seoul hantavirus (SEOV) RNA was detected in the heart, kidney, lung, salivary gland and spleen (but not in the liver) of an individual rat from the Cherwell colony suspected of being the source of SEOV. Serum from 20/20 of the Cherwell rats and two associated HFRS cases had high levels of SEOV-specific antibodies (by virus neutralisation). The high prevalence of SEOV in both sites and the moderately severe disease in the pet rat owners suggest that SEOV in pet rats poses a greater public health risk than previously considered.
The Holocene portion of the Siple Dome (Antarctica) ice core was dated by interpreting the electrical, visual and chemical properties of the core. The data were interpreted manually and with a computer algorithm. The algorithm interpretation was adjusted to be consistent with atmospheric methane stratigraphic ties to the GISP2 (Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2) ice core, 10Be stratigraphic ties to the dendrochronology 14 C record and the dated volcanic stratigraphy. The algorithm interpretation is more consistent and better quantified than the tedious and subjective manual interpretation.
Cardiometabolic diseases exhibit changes in lipid biology, which is important as lipids have critical roles in membrane architecture, signalling, hormone synthesis, homoeostasis and metabolism. However, Developmental Origins of Health and Disease studies of cardiometabolic disease rarely include analysis of lipids. This short review highlights some examples of lipid pathology and then explores the technology available for analysing lipids, focussing on the need to develop imaging modalities for intracellular lipids. Analytical methods for studying interactions between the complex endocrine and intracellular signalling pathways that regulate lipid metabolism have been critical in expanding our understanding of how cardiometabolic diseases develop in association with obesity and dietary factors. Biochemical methods can be used to generate detailed lipid profiles to establish links between lifestyle factors and metabolic signalling pathways and determine how changes in specific lipid subtypes in plasma and homogenized tissue are associated with disease progression. New imaging modalities enable the specific visualization of intracellular lipid traffic and distribution in situ. These techniques provide a dynamic picture of the interactions between lipid storage, mobilization and signalling, which operate during normal cell function and are altered in many important diseases. The development of methods for imaging intracellular lipids can provide a dynamic real-time picture of how lipids are involved in complex signalling and other cell biology pathways; and how they ultimately regulate metabolic function/homoeostasis during early development. Some imaging modalities have the potential to be adapted for in vivo applications, and may enable the direct visualization of progression of pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disease after poor growth in early life.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe cognitive, academic, and psychosocial outcomes after an incident demyelinating event (acquired demyelinating syndromes, ADS) in childhood and to investigate the contribution of brain lesions and confirmed MS diagnosis on outcome. Methods: Thirty-six patients with ADS (mean age=12.2 years, SD=2.7, range: 7–16 years) underwent brain MRI scans at presentation and at 6-months follow-up. T2-weighted lesions on MRI were assessed using a binary classification. At 6-months follow-up, patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation and were compared with 42 healthy controls. Results: Cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes did not differ between the patients with ADS and controls. Three of 36 patients (8.3%) were identified with cognitive impairment, as determined by performance falling ≤1.5 SD below normative values on more than four independent tests in the battery. Poor performance on a visuomotor integration task was most common, observed among 6/32 patients, but this did not differ significantly from controls. Twelve of 36 patients received a diagnosis of MS within 3 years post-ADS. Patients with MS did not differ from children with monophasic ADS in terms of cognitive performance at the 6-months follow-up. Fatigue symptoms were reported in 50% of patients, irrespective of MS diagnosis. Presence of brain lesions at onset and 6 months post-incident demyelinating event did not associate with cognitive outcome. Conclusions: Children with ADS experience a favorable short-term neurocognitive outcome, even those confirmed to have MS. Longitudinal evaluations of children with monophasic ADS and MS are required to determine the possibility of late-emerging sequelae and their time course. (JINS, 2016, 22, 1050–1060)
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
Making use of a fiducial set of simulated disc galaxies spanning a wide range of mass, we examine the influence of stellar mass in the radial metallicity gradients and compare to observational trends from Ho et al. (2015).
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
Polyaniline–Zinc oxide nano-composite material was prepared by chemical polymerization of aniline with ZnO nano-particles doping. Surface Pressure-Area (π-A) isotherms of Polyaniline (PANi) and Polyaniline–Zinc oxide nano-composite shows phase transformations of monolayer during compression process. Multiple isotherms indicate that the monolayer of the composite material can retain its configuration during compression-expansion cycles. The structural, topographical and electrical properties of these deposited Langmuir Blodgett films were studied and characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Conductive Atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) respectively. For detailed investigations of the LB film properties, Conductive AFM is used to measure the I-V relationship of a surface of Langmuir Blodgett (LB) films of Polyaniline and Polyaniline–Zinc oxide nano-composite. The contact size of the AFM cantilever tip can be as small as a few nanometers, so, the local variation of the electrical property, which is unseen in the macroscopic level, can be observed by the I-V curve. A current ranging up to 3 nA and 20 nA have been observed in the case of PANi and PANi-ZnO nano-composite LB film, respectively. Conductive data images of the ITO substrate, PANi and PANi-ZnO nano-composite LB film on the ITO substrate obtained with an applied bias voltage of 4V showed that the distribution of current on the whole surface is almost uniform and very less inhomogeneities have been observed in the surface conductance of the PANi and PANi-ZnO nano-composite LB film.
Light management in a photovoltaic device is much about efficient light harvesting by increasing internal reflection and absorption. Structured architectures aids in enhancing internal reflection hence higher light absorption. Various techniques have been employed to fabricate these structures. In this work, organic photoactive materials were electrosprayed, utilizing a high voltage electric field to charge a droplet suspended through a nozzle, at various solution concentrations. Various process parameters like applied voltage, flow rate, tip to collector distance were optimized to obtain hierarchical structures. Morphological and optical properties of these optimized structures were analyzed to get interesting pattern with enhancement in surface area and light absorption. These structures were further evaluated in photovoltaic device architecture.