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Self-interaction is the process by which a microinstability eigenmode that is extended along the direction parallel to the magnetic field interacts non-linearly with itself. This effect is particularly significant in gyrokinetic simulations accounting for kinetic passing electron dynamics and is known to generate stationary $E\times B$ zonal flow shear layers at radial locations near low-order mode rational surfaces (Weikl et al. Phys. Plasmas, vol. 25, 2018, 072305). We find that self-interaction, in fact, plays a very significant role in also generating fluctuating zonal flows, which is critical to regulating turbulent transport throughout the radial extent. Unlike the usual picture of zonal flow drive in which microinstability eigenmodes coherently amplify the flow via modulational instabilities, the self-interaction drive of zonal flows from these eigenmodes are uncorrelated with each other. It is shown that the associated shearing rate of the fluctuating zonal flows therefore reduces as more toroidal modes are resolved in the simulation. In simulations accounting for the full toroidal domain, such an increase in the density of toroidal modes corresponds to an increase in the toroidal system size, leading to a finite system size effect that is distinct from the well-known profile shearing effect.
The Human Brain Project (HBP), an EU Flagship Initiative, is currently building an infrastructure that will allow integration of large amounts of heterogeneous neuroscience data. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and its diseases, and beyond this to emulate the computational capabilities of the brain. Reference atlases of the brain are one of the key components in this infrastructure. Based on a new generation of three-dimensional (3D) reference atlases, new solutions for analyzing and integrating brain data are being developed. HBP will build services for spatial query and analysis of brain data comparable to current online services for geospatial data. The services will provide interactive access to a wide range of data types that have information about anatomical location tied to them. The 3D volumetric nature of the brain, however, introduces a new level of complexity that requires a range of tools for making use of and interacting with the atlases. With such new tools, neuroscience research groups will be able to connect their data to atlas space, share their data through online data systems, and search and find other relevant data through the same systems. This new approach partly replaces earlier attempts to organize research data based only on a set of semantic terminologies describing the brain and its subdivisions.
The Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) is host to a broadband, multimode seismic wavefield that is excited in response to atmospheric, oceanic and solid Earth source processes. A 34-station broadband seismographic network installed on the RIS from late 2014 through early 2017 produced continuous vibrational observations of Earth's largest ice shelf at both floating and grounded locations. We characterize temporal and spatial variations in broadband ambient wavefield power, with a focus on period bands associated with primary (10–20 s) and secondary (5–10 s) microseism signals, and an oceanic source process near the ice front (0.4–4.0 s). Horizontal component signals on floating stations overwhelmingly reflect oceanic excitations year-round due to near-complete isolation from solid Earth shear waves. The spectrum at all periods is shown to be strongly modulated by the concentration of sea ice near the ice shelf front. Contiguous and extensive sea ice damps ocean wave coupling sufficiently so that wintertime background levels can approach or surpass those of land-sited stations in Antarctica.
Pneumonia is a leading cause of death in New York City (NYC). We identified spatial clusters of pneumonia-associated hospitalisation for persons residing in NYC, aged ⩾18 years during 2010–2014. We detected pneumonia-associated hospitalisations using an all-payer inpatient dataset. Using geostatistical semivariogram modelling, local Moran's I cluster analyses and χ2 tests, we characterised differences between ‘hot spots’ and ‘cold spots’ for pneumonia-associated hospitalisations. During 2010–2014, there were 141 730 pneumonia-associated hospitalisations across 188 NYC neighbourhoods, of which 43.5% (N = 61 712) were sub-classified as severe. Hot spots of pneumonia-associated hospitalisation spanned 26 neighbourhoods in the Bronx, Manhattan and Staten Island, whereas cold spots were found in lower Manhattan and northeastern Queens. We identified hot spots of severe pneumonia-associated hospitalisation in the northern Bronx and the northern tip of Staten Island. For severe pneumonia-associated hospitalisations, hot-spot patients were of lower mean age and a greater proportion identified as non-Hispanic Black compared with cold spot patients; additionally, hot-spot patients had a longer hospital stay and a greater proportion experienced in-hospital death compared with cold-spot patients. Pneumonia prevention efforts within NYC should consider examining the reasons for higher rates in hot-spot neighbourhoods, and focus interventions towards the Bronx, northern Manhattan and Staten Island.
Despite efforts to combat invasive species, further measures are still required to prevent their arrival and translocation, especially into biodiverse island ecosystems. Although many governments worldwide have already established protocols to control alien species, the European outermost regions have yet to implement fully effective prevention or rapid response procedures. The numerous translocations of the invasive Barbary ground squirrel Atlantoxerus getulus within the Canary Islands illustrate this problem. From 1996 to 2016 at least 2.1 individuals per year have been moved from Fuerteventura to other islands. If movements of these medium-sized vertebrates are taking place regularly, the number of smaller species transported within the archipelago could potentially be greater. We argue that it is essential to implement stricter strategies for invasive species control in these remote biodiversity-rich islands, including early detection and rapid response, to minimize impacts on native biodiversity.
The Pioche Formation of SE Nevada preserves a diverse soft-bodied fauna from the early and middle Cambrian (Series 2–3: Stage 4–5). While the fauna is dominated by arthropods, animals belonging to other taxa can be found. Here we document the first occurrence of Herpetogaster collinsi outside the Burgess Shale. Further, the specimens are from the Nephrolenellus multinodus biozone and thus represent the oldest occurrence of the species, as well as possibly the earliest soft-bodied deuterostomes in Laurentia.
Fish-hooks discovered among grave goods associated with an adult female burial at the Tron Bon Lei rockshelter on the island of Alor in Indonesia are the first of their kind from a Pleistocene mortuary context in Southeast Asia. Many of the hooks are of a circular rotating design. Parallels found in various other prehistoric contexts around the globe indicate widespread cultural convergence. The association of the fish-hooks with a human burial, combined with the lack of alternative protein sources on the island, suggest that fishing was an important part of the cosmology of this community. The Tron Bon Lei burial represents the earliest-known example of a culture for whom fishing was clearly an important activity among both the living and the dead.
We describe a new species of enigmatic stalked filter feeder, Siphusauctum lloydguntheri, from the middle Cambrian (Series 3, Stage 5) Antimony Canyon locality of the Spence Shale of northern Utah. The described specimen is the only one known from the Spence Shale, represents the first occurrence of Siphusauctum outside the Burgess Shale, and is only the second described species from the genus. Siphusauctum lloydguntheri n. sp. differs from S. gregarium O’Brien and Caron, 2012 in the shape of its calyx and the position of the digestive tract. The new species provides some additional information about the possible affinities of enigmatic stalked Cambrian filter feeders, as well as the taphonomic pathways that lead to preservation of Siphusauctum.
Extinctions have altered island ecosystems throughout the late Quaternary. Here, we review the main historic drivers of extinctions on islands, patterns in extinction chronologies between islands, and the potential for restoring ecosystems through reintroducing extirpated species. While some extinctions have been caused by climatic and environmental change, most have been caused by anthropogenic impacts. We propose a general model to describe patterns in these anthropogenic island extinctions. Hunting, habitat loss and the introduction of invasive predators accompanied prehistoric settlement and caused declines of endemic island species. Later settlement by European colonists brought further land development, a different suite of predators and new drivers, leading to more extinctions. Extinctions alter ecological networks, causing ripple effects for islands through the loss of ecosystem processes, functions and interactions between species. Reintroduction of extirpated species can help restore ecosystem function and processes, and can be guided by palaeoecology. However, reintroduction projects must also consider the cultural, social and economic needs of humans now inhabiting the islands and ensure resilience against future environmental and climate change.
We present the analysis of 29 human-transported limestone pebbles found during recent excavations (2009–11) in the Final Epigravettian levels at the Caverna delle Arene Candide, Italy. All pebbles are oblong, most bear traces of red ochre and many appear intentionally broken. Macroscopic analyses demonstrate morphological similarity with pebbles used as grave goods in the Final Epigravettian necropolis excavated at the site in the 1940s. Mediterranean beaches are the most plausible source for the pebbles, which were carefully selected for their specific shape. Microscopic observation of the pebbles’ surfaces shows traces of ochre located on the edges and/or centres of most pebbles. A breakage experiment suggests that many pebbles were broken with intentional, direct blows to their centre. We propose that these pebbles were used to apply ochre ritually to the individuals buried at the site, and that some were subsequently ritually ‘killed’. This study emphasizes the importance of studying artefacts that are often ignored due to their similarities to simple broken rocks. It also provides a method to study pebbles as a distinct artefact category, and shows that even broken parts should be studied to understand the story told by such objects in the context of prehistoric human social systems.
High-protein diets are known to reduce adiposity in the context of high carbohydrate and Western diets. However, few studies have investigated the specific high-protein effect on lipogenesis induced by a high-sucrose (HS) diet or fat deposition induced by high-fat feeding. We aimed to determine the effects of high protein intake on the development of fat deposition and partitioning in response to high-fat and/or HS feeding. A total of thirty adult male Wistar rats were assigned to one of the six dietary regimens with low and high protein, sucrose and fat contents for 5 weeks. Body weight (BW) and food intake were measured weekly. Oral glucose tolerance tests and meal tolerance tests were performed after 4th and 5th weeks of the regimen, respectively. At the end of the study, the rats were killed 2 h after ingestion of a calibrated meal. Blood, tissues and organs were collected for analysis of circulating metabolites and hormones, body composition and mRNA expression in the liver and adipose tissues. No changes were observed in cumulative energy intake and BW gain after 5 weeks of dietary treatment. However, high-protein diets reduced by 20 % the adiposity gain induced by HS and high-sucrose high-fat (HS-HF) diets. Gene expression and transcriptomic analysis suggested that high protein intake reduced liver capacity for lipogenesis by reducing mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase (fasn), acetyl-CoA carboxylase a and b (Acaca and Acacb) and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1c (Srebf-1c). Moreover, ketogenesis, as indicated by plasma β-hydroxybutyrate levels, was higher in HS-HF-fed mice that were also fed high protein levels. Taken together, these results suggest that high-protein diets may reduce adiposity by inhibiting lipogenesis and stimulating ketogenesis in the liver.
The emission of steady compact jets observed in the hard spectral state of X-ray binaries is likely to be powered by internal shocks caused by fluctuations of the outflow velocity. The dynamics of the internal shocks and the resulting spectral energy distribution (SED) of the jet is very sensitive to the shape of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the fluctuations of the jet Lorentz factor. It turns out that Lorentz factor fluctuations injected at the base of the jet with a flicker noise power spectrum (i.e. P(f) ∝1/f) naturally produce the canonical flat SED observed from radio to IR band in X-ray binary systems in the hard state. This model also predicts a strong, wavelength dependent, variability that resembles the observed one. In particular, strong sub-second variability is predicted in the infrared and optical bands. The assumed fluctuations of the jet Lorentz factor are likely to be triggered by the variability of the accretion flow which is best traced by the X-ray emission. In the case of GX339-4 for which high quality and simultaneous multi-wavelength data are available, we performed simulations assuming that the fluctuation of the jet Lorentz factor have the same PSD as the observed X-ray PSD. The synthetic SED calculated under this assumption provides a remarkable match to the observed radio to IR SED. In this case the model also produces strong mid-infrared spectral variability that is comparable to that reported in this source.
Clinical studies have shown that hippocampal atrophy is present before dementia in people with memory deficits and can predict dementia development. The question remains whether this association holds in the general population. This is of interest for the possible use of hippocampal atrophy to screen population for preventive interventions. The aim of this study was to assess hippocampal volume and shape abnormalities in elderly adults with memory deficits in a cross-sectional population-based study.
We included individuals participating in the Italian Project on the Epidemiology of Alzheimer Disease (IPREA) study: 75 cognitively normal individuals (HC), 31 individuals with memory deficits (MEM), and 31 individuals with memory deficits not otherwise specified (MEMnos). Hippocampal volumes and shape were extracted through manual tracing and the growing and adaptive meshes (GAMEs) shape-modeling algorithm. We investigated between-group differences in hippocampal volume and shape, and correlations with memory deficits.
In MEM participants, hippocampal volumes were significantly smaller than in HC and were mildly associated with worse memory scores. Memory-associated shape changes mapped to the anterior hippocampus. Shape-based analysis detected no significant difference between MEM and HC, while MEMnos showed shape changes in the posterior hippocampus compared with HC and MEM groups.
These findings support the discriminant validity of hippocampal volumetry as a biomarker of memory impairment in the general population. The detection of shape changes in MEMnos but not in MEM participants suggests that shape-based biomarkers might lack sensitivity to detect Alzheimer's-like pathology in the general population.
HD 206860 is a young planet (HN Peg b) hosting star of spectral type G0V and it has a potential debris disk around it. In this work we measure the longitudinal magnetic field of HD 206860 using spectropolarimetric data and we measure the chromospheric activity using Ca II H&K, H-alpha and Ca II infrared triplet lines.
Mammalian carnivores are rarely incorporated in paleoenvironmental reconstructions, largely because of their rarity within the fossil record. However, multivariate statistical modeling can be successfully used to quantify specific anatomical features as environmental predictors. Here we explore morphological variability of the humerus in a closely related group of predators (Felidae) to investigate the relationship between morphometric descriptors and habitat categories. We analyze linear measurements of the humerus in three different morphometric combinations (log-transformed, size-free, and ratio), and explore four distinct ways of categorizing habitat adaptations. Open, Mixed, and Closed categories are defined according to criteria based on traditional descriptions of species, distributions, and biome occupancy. Extensive exploratory work is presented using linear discriminant analyses and several fossils are included to provide paleoecological reconstructions.
We found no significant differences in the predictive power of distinct morphometric descriptors or habitat criteria, although sample splitting into small and large cat guilds greatly improves the stability of the models. Significant insights emerge for three long-canine cats: Smilodon populator, Paramachairodus orientalis, and Dinofelis sp. from Olduvai Gorge (East Africa). S. populator and P. orientalis are both predicted to have been closed-habitat adapted taxa. The false “sabertooth” Dinofelis sp. from Olduvai Gorge is predicted to be adapted to mixed habitat. The application of felid humerus ecomorphology to the carnivoran record of Olduvai Gorge shows that the older stratigraphic levels (Bed I, 1.99–1.79 Ma) included a broader range of environments than Beds II or V, where there is an abundance of cats adapted to open environments.
We investigate experimentally and theoretically the streamwise transport and dispersion properties of steady quasi-two-dimensional plane turbulent jets discharged vertically from a slot of width into a fluid confined between two relatively close rigid boundaries with gap . We model the evolution in time and space of the concentration of passive tracers released in these jets using a one-dimensional time-dependent effective advection–diffusion equation. We make a mixing length hypothesis to model the streamwise turbulent eddy diffusivity such that it scales like , where is the streamwise coordinate, is the jet width, is the maximum time-averaged vertical velocity. Under these assumptions, the effective advection–diffusion equation for , the horizontal integral of the ensemble-averaged concentration, is of the form , where is time, (the advection parameter) and (the dispersion parameter) are empirical dimensionless parameters which quantify the importance of advection and dispersion, respectively, and is the source momentum flux. We find analytical solutions to this equation for in the cases of a constant-flux release and an instantaneous finite-volume release. We also give an integral formulation for the more general case of a time-dependent release, which we solve analytically when tracers are released at a constant flux over a finite period of time. From our experimental results, whose concentration distributions agree with the model, we find that and , for both finite-volume releases and constant-flux releases using either dye or virtual passive tracers. The experiments also show that streamwise dispersion increases in time as . As a result, in the case of finite-volume releases more than 50 % of the total volume of tracers is transported ahead of the purely advective front (i.e. the front location of the tracer distribution if all dispersion mechanisms are ignored and considering a ‘top-hat’ mean velocity profile in the jet); and in the case of constant-flux releases, at each instant in time, approximately 10 % of the total volume of tracers is transported ahead of the advective front.