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Accumulating evidence from preclinical and clinical studies indicates that prenatal exposure to stress impairs the development of the offspring brain and facilitates the emergence of mental illness. This study aims to describe the impact of prenatal restraint stress on cognition and exploration to an unfamiliar environment at adulthood in an outbred strain of mice.
Late pregnant mice were exposed to restraint stress and adult offspring (60 days of age) behaviours were assessed in the object recognition task and open field test.
Prenatal stress (PNS) impaired new object recognition in male and female mice. Importantly, the learning deficits in female PNS mice were linked to their estrous cycle. Actually, PNS females in metestrus/diestrus but not in proestrus/estrus phases displayed recognition deficits compared to controls. Concerning locomotion in an unfamiliar environment, male but not female PNS mice displayed significant increase, but showed no differences in the distance travelled within the centre zone of the arena.
Present findings support the view that maternal restraint-stress during late pregnancy impairs recognition memory in both male and female offspring, and in females, this cognitive deficit is dependent on the estrous cycle phase. Ultimately, these data reinforce that PNS is an aetiological component of psychiatric disorders associated with memory deficits.
Tuberous sclerosis complex is a rare genetic disorder leading to the growth of hamartomas in multiple organs, including cardiac rhabdomyomas. Children with symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma require frequent admissions to intensive care units, have major complications, namely, arrhythmias, cardiac outflow tract obstruction and heart failure, affecting the quality of life and taking on high healthcare cost. Currently, there is no standard pharmacological treatment for this condition, and the management includes a conservative approach and supportive care. Everolimus has shown positive effects on subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, renal angiomyolipoma and refractory seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. However, evidence supporting efficacy in symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma is limited to case reports. The ORACLE trial is the first randomised clinical trial assessing the efficacy of everolimus as a specific therapy for symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma.
ORACLE is a phase II, prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre protocol trial. A total of 40 children with symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma secondary to tuberous sclerosis complex will be randomised to receive oral everolimus or placebo for 3 months. The primary outcome is 50% or more reduction in the tumour size related to baseline. As secondary outcomes we include the presence of arrhythmias, pericardial effusion, intracardiac obstruction, adverse events, progression of tumour reduction and effect on heart failure.
ORACLE protocol addresses a relevant unmet need in children with tuberous sclerosis complex and cardiac rhabdomyoma. The results of the trial will potentially support the first evidence-based therapy for this condition.
Decisions on the use of nature reflect the values and rights of individuals, communities and society at large. The values of nature are expressed through cultural norms, rules and legislation, and they can be elicited using a wide range of tools, including those of economics. None of the approaches to elicit peoples’ values are neutral. Unequal power relations influence valuation and decision-making and are at the core of most environmental conflicts. As actors in sustainability thinking, environmental scientists and practitioners are becoming more aware of their own posture, normative stance, responsibility and relative power in society. Based on a transdisciplinary workshop, our perspective paper provides a normative basis for this new community of scientists and practitioners engaged in the plural valuation of nature.
Wake modes of a three-dimensional blunt-based body near a wall are investigated at a Reynolds number
. The targeted modes are the static symmetry-breaking mode and two antisymmetric periodic modes. The static mode orientation is aligned with the horizontal major
-axis of the base and randomly switches between a positive
and a negative
state leading to long-time bistable dynamics of the turbulent wake. The modifications of these modes are studied when continuous blowing is applied at different locations through four slits along the base edges (denoted L for left, R for right, T for top and B for bottom) in either four single asymmetric configurations or two double symmetric configurations (denoted LR and TB). Two regimes, referred to as mass and momentum, are clearly identifiable for all configurations. The mass regime, which is fairly insensitive to blowing momentum and location, is characterized by the growth of the recirculating bubble as the total injected flow rate is increased, and is associated with a base drag reduction and interpreted as resulting from the equilibrium between mass fluxes feeding and emptying the recirculating region. A simple budget model is shown to be in agreement with entrainment velocities measured for isolated turbulent mixing layers. The strength of the static mode is reduced up to 20 % when the bubble length is maximum, whereas no change in the periodic mode frequencies is found. On the other hand, the momentum regime is characterized by the deflating of the recirculating bubble, leading to base drag increase, and it is interpreted by the free shear layer forcing, which increases the entrainment velocity, thus emptying the recirculating bubble. In this regime the static mode orientation is imposed by the blowing symmetry. Lateral L and R (respectively top/bottom T and B) blowing configurations select
states in the horizontal (respectively vertical) direction, while bistable dynamics persists for the symmetric LR and TB configurations. The shape of periodic modes follows the changes in wake static orientation. The transition between the two regimes is governed by both the total injected flow rate and the location of the injection.
Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.
The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.
At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (−10.215 to −0.337) and (−4.731 to −0.605) respectively).
Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
One of the key factors to improve swine production sustainability is the use of agro-industrial by-products in feeds, such as olive by-products. However, it is necessary to assess its effects on the overall production process, including the animal and the environment. With this aim, an experiment was conducted to determine the effects of including a partially defatted olive cake (PDOC) in pig diets on growth performance, faecal microbiota, carcass quality and gas emission from the slurry. Two finishing diets were formulated, a control (C) diet and a diet with PDOC included at 120 g/kg. Eighty finishing male pigs Duroc-Danbred × (Landrace × Large White) of 60.4 ± 7.00 kg BW were divided between these two treatments. During the finishing period (60 to 110 kg BW, 55 days) average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio were recorded. Faecal samples from the rectum of 16 animals per treatment were incubated for bacteria enumeration. At the end of finishing period, backfat thickness and loin depth (LD) were measured. Animals were slaughtered to obtain carcass weight and carcass composition parameters, and subcutaneous fat was sampled to analyse the fatty acid (FA) profile. In addition greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions were measured during pig slurry storage using the methodology of dynamic flux chambers. An initial slurry characterisation and biochemical methane potential (B0) were also determined. No significant differences between treatments were found in performance, carcass quality and microbial counts with the exception of LD, which was lower in PDOC compared with C animals (45.5 v. 47.5 mm, SEM: 0.62; P = 0.020). The FA profile of the subcutaneous fat did not differ between treatments, but the monounsaturated FA (MUFA) concentration was higher and the polyunsaturated FA was lower in the animals fed PDOC (50.9 v. 48.3, SEM: 0.48, P < 0.001; 17.6 v. 19.3, SEM: 0.30, P < 0.001 in mg/100 g of Total FA, for PDOC and C animals, respectively). The initial pig slurry characterisation only showed differences in ADF concentration that was higher (P < 0.05) in the slurry from PDOC treatment. Regarding gas emission, slurries from both treatments emitted similar amounts of ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as B0 values. The results obtained suggest that PDOC may be included in balanced pig diets at rates of up to 120 g/kg without negative effects on performance, carcass quality, gut microflora and slurry gas emission, while improving the MUFA concentration of subcutaneous fat.
Meteorological and even human-made disasters are increasing every year in frequency and magnitude. The passage of a disaster affects a society without distinction, but groups with social vulnerability (low socioeconomic status, chronic medical, or psychological conditions, limited access to resources) face the most significant impact. As a result, psychological and behavioral symptoms (eg, depression and anxiety) can ensue, making the immediate response of mental health services crucial. Secondary data from a database of a temporary healthcare unit were analyzed. A total of 54 records were reviewed to collect information; univariate and bivariate analyses were done. The purpose of this article is to present our experience regarding the incorporation of a mental health services model, with its respective benefits and challenges, into a temporary healthcare unit, after Hurricane Maria in 2017.
Aeronautic Pitot probes (PPs) are extremely important for airspeed and altitude measurements in aviation. Failure of the instrument due to clogging caused by ice formation can lead to dangerous situations. In this work, a commercial aeronautic PP was characterised experimentally regarding its inner composition, material properties and its thermal performance in a climatic wind tunnel. Performance runs were taken out in order to analyse the thermal response of the PP under various operating conditions with a particular emphasis on the cooling process in the case of a heating element failure. Data for the thermal conductivity, diffusivity and specific heat for each material forming the PP were obtained. A numerical model to simulate the thermal behaviour of the PP was created using Comsol Multiphysics (CM). Experimental data were compared with their numerical counterparts for model validation purposes. After the model was validated, the operation of the PP in flight conditions was simulated. The failure of the conventional heating system was analysed to obtain the time until the PP reaches a tip temperature where ice formation can be expected. The tip temperature undercut the zero degrees Celsius mark 165 seconds after the heating element was switched off. The data collected in this work can be used to implement and validate mathematical models in order to predict the thermal performance of Pitot probes in flight conditions.
The hippocampus plays an important role in psychopathology and treatment outcome. While posterior hippocampus (PH) may be crucial for the learning process that exposure-based treatments require, affect-focused treatments might preferentially engage anterior hippocampus (AH). Previous studies have distinguished the different functions of these hippocampal sub-regions in memory, learning, and emotional processes, but not in treatment outcome. Examining two independent clinical trials, we hypothesized that anterior hippocampal volume would predict outcome of affect-focused treatment outcome [Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT); Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (PFPP)], whereas posterior hippocampal volume would predict exposure-based treatment outcome [Prolonged Exposure (PE); Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT); Applied Relaxation Training (ART)].
Thirty-five patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 24 with panic disorder (PD) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before randomization to affect-focused (IPT for PTSD; PFPP for PD) or exposure-based treatments (PE for PTSD; CBT or ART for PD). AH and PH volume were regressed with clinical outcome changes.
Baseline whole hippocampal volume did not predict post-treatment clinical severity scores in any treatment. For affect-focused treatments, but not exposure-based treatments, anterior hippocampal volume predicted clinical improvement. Smaller AH correlated with greater affect-focused treatment improvement. Posterior hippocampal volume did not predict treatment outcome.
This is the first study to explore associations between hippocampal volume sub-regions and treatment outcome in PTSD and PD. Convergent results suggest that affect-focused treatment may influence the clinical outcome through the ‘limbic’ AH, whereas exposure-based treatments do not. These preliminary, theory-congruent, therapeutic findings require replication in a larger clinical trial.
Despite recent advancements on cloud-enabled and human-in-the-loop cyber-physical systems, there is still a lack of understanding of how infrastructure-related quality of service (QoS) issues affect user-perceived quality of experience (QoE). This work presents a pilot experiment over a cloud-enabled mobility assistive device providing a guidance service and investigates the relationship between QoS and QoE in such a system. In our pilot experiment, we employed the CloudWalker, a system linking smart walkers and cloud platforms, to physically interact with users. Different QoS conditions were emulated to represent an architecture in which control algorithms are performed remotely. Results point out that users report satisfactory interaction with the system even under unfavorable QoS conditions. We also found statistically significant data linking QoE degradation to poor QoS conditions. We finalize discussing the interplay between QoS requirements, the human-in-the-loop effect, and the perceived QoE in healthcare applications.
Unusual mafic rock fragments deposited in Plio-Pleistocene-aged marine sediments were recorded at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1359, in Wilkes Land, East Antarctica. These fragments were identified from sediment layers deposited between c. 3 and 1.2 Ma, indicating a sustained supply during this time interval. Clinopyroxenes in these basalts are Al–Ti diopside–hedenbergite, uncommon in terrestrial magmatic rocks. A single strong peak in the Raman spectra of a phosphate-bearing mineral at 963 cm-1 supports the presence of merrillite. Although not conclusive, petrological traits and oxygen isotopic compositions also suggest that the fragments may be extra-terrestrial fragments affected by shock metamorphism. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the basaltic fragments incorporated in marine sediments at Site U1359 represent ice-rafted material supplied to the continental rise of East Antarctica, probably from the bedrocks near the proximal Ninnis Glacier. Further studies on Plio-Pleistocene sediments near Site U1359 are required to characterize the unusual mafic rocks described.
Phenological and aerobiological research into major crops is of great value in adapting traditional processes to the new conditions prompted by global climate change. Data on flowering phenology and airborne pollen have also proved useful for harvest forecasting purposes. The current paper reports on an agrometeorological study carried out in the Montilla-Moriles Protected Designation of Origin area (Córdoba, southern Spain) in 2015 and 2016. The study focused on four grape cultivars produced at seven local vineyards (Pedro Ximénez, the most widely grown in the area; Verdejo; Muscat blanc à petits grains; and Chardonnay, which has been recently introduced). Phenological observations were performed on a weekly basis using the Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und Chemische Industrie scale adapted for grapevine. Airborne pollen concentrations were monitored using one Hirst-type volumetric sampler and seven passive samplers. Airborne pollen was mainly detected in vineyards during inflorescence emergence and flowering. Year-on-year differences in climatic conditions led to differences in airborne pollen levels. The main variables affecting pollen concentrations were dew point and temperature. The life-cycles recorded here were shorter than in temperate climates but longer than in tropical climates. In terms of flowering period, the cultivars studied here were classed as ‘early cultivars’. Data obtained using local passive samplers located directly in the vineyard confirmed that the airborne pollen concentrations recorded by the volumetric sampler were representative of the study area.
The statistical properties are presented for the direct numerical simulation of a self-similar adverse pressure gradient (APG) turbulent boundary layer (TBL) at the verge of separation. The APG TBL has a momentum thickness-based Reynolds number range from
to 13 800, with a self-similar region from
to 12 300. Within this domain the average non-dimensional pressure gradient parameter
, where for a unit density
the displacement thickness,
the mean shear stress at the wall and
the far-field pressure gradient. This flow is compared with previous zero pressure gradient and mild APG TBL (
) results of similar Reynolds number. All flows are generated via the direct numerical simulation of a TBL on a flat surface with far-field boundary conditions tailored to apply the desired pressure gradient. The conditions for self-similarity, and the appropriate length and velocity scales, are derived. The mean and Reynolds stress profiles are shown to collapse when non-dimensionalised on the basis of these length and velocity scales. As the pressure gradient increases, the extent of the wake region in the mean streamwise velocity profiles increases, whilst the extent of the log-layer and viscous sublayer decreases. The Reynolds stress, production and dissipation profiles of the APG TBL cases exhibit a second outer peak, which becomes more pronounced and more spatially localised with increasing pressure gradient. This outer peak is located at the point of inflection of the mean velocity profiles, and is suggestive of the presence of a shear flow instability. The maximum streamwise velocity variance is located at a wall normal position of
of spanwise wavelength of
. In summary as the pressure gradient increases the flow has properties less like a zero pressure gradient TBL and more akin to a free shear layer.
Research suggests that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adolescents have a higher risk of suicidal behaviours than their heterosexual peers, but little is known about specific risk factors.
To assess sexual orientation as a risk factor for suicidal behaviours, and to identify other risk factors among LGB adolescents and young adults.
A systematic search was made of six databases up to June 2015, including a grey literature search. Population-based longitudinal studies considering non-clinical populations aged 12–26 years and assessing being LGB as a risk factor for suicidal behaviour compared with being heterosexual, or evaluating risk factors for suicidal behaviour within LGB populations, were included. Random effect models were used in meta-analysis.
Sexual orientation was significantly associated with suicide attempts in adolescents and youths (OR=2.26, 95% CI 1.60–3.20). Gay or bisexual men were more likely to report suicide attempts compared with heterosexual men (OR=2.21, 95% CI 1.21–4.04). Based on two studies, a non-significant positive association was found between depression and suicide attempts in LGB groups.
Sexual orientation is associated with a higher risk of suicide attempt in young people. Further research is needed to assess completed suicide, and specific risk factors affecting the LGB population.
Biomass production is a diagnosis tool for the evaluation of the effect of climate, crop genomic and management. The differences in biomass accumulation are necessary for the assessment of the fertilization necessities in the strategies for variable nitrogen doses. Remote sensing-based data provide a direct observation of the differences in canopy development across time and space and can be integrated into the physiological basis of crop growth models to provide estimates of biomass production at fine scales. The proposed approach was applied in a wheat field in Albacete, Spain and the results were compared with measurements of aboveground biomass and yield maps obtained by a combined-mounted grain yield monitor.
Aluminum alloys have increased their use due to the properties such as low density, resistance to corrosion under environmental conditions and mechanical properties. In this work, the alloying elements are immiscible promoting dendrites formation with different phases attributed to zinc and tin. The applied mechanical stresses promoted the modification of the dendrite sizes (interdendritic space) as well as pore sizes and shapes. The microhardness decreased in the ternary Al-Zn-Sn alloy with a subsequent increase caused by microstructural changes after cold work. By XPS, the metallic elements were detected with an aluminum oxide layer.
The study of the chemical stability of solar selective coatings (SSC) for concentrated solar power (CSP) becomes essential for their use at high temperatures. In this paper, the short range order around Mo in Mo-Si3N4 cermets is studied for the first time by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The information obtained by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopies gives new insights of the origin of the optical behavior of the cermets cermets after vacuum and air annealing treatments. The established optical and structural correlation becomes of great importance for the design and optimization of SSC for practical applications.
TiO2 nanotubular structures were formed on titanium foils through anodic oxidation using an electrolyte of Ethyleneglycol-H2O (97:3 Vol %)+0.25 M NH4F at a constant voltage of 60V. The anodized samples were analyzed in a FE-SEM obtaining the geometric parameters of the nanotubular arrays. The diameter and the length of the nanotubes were 112 nm and 65µm |respectively, whereas the wall thickness was 44 nm. Crystalline phase of TiO2 nanotubular films (TNTF) were determined by XRD after annealing at 500°C for 2 h, resulting high intensity peaks of anatase and low intensity peaks of rutile. Then, the crystallized samples were characterized from an optical, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic point of view. The photoelectrochemical measurements were carried out in 0.5 M Na2SO4 solution using an 8 W UV lamp at a λ= 365 nm, which results were recorded at 0 bias during 10 min under darkness and illumination intervals of 1 min each. Photocatalytic performance of the TNTF was explored with a 10 mg/L methyl orange solution using an UV light at a wavelength of 365 nm. The changes in the concentration of the MO solution was determined from the calibration curve determined from the absorption spectra at different concentrations of MO (from 0.1 mg/L to 20 mg/L). It was observed an efficiency yield of 99.8% in the photocatalytic performance in presence of the TNTF.
The perspective of statistical state dynamics (SSD) has recently been applied to the study of mechanisms underlying turbulence in a variety of physical systems. An SSD is a dynamical system that evolves a representation of the statistical state of the system. An example of an SSD is the second-order cumulant closure referred to as stochastic structural stability theory (S3T), which has provided insight into the dynamics of wall turbulence, and specifically the emergence and maintenance of the roll/streak structure. S3T comprises a coupled set of equations for the streamwise mean and perturbation covariance, in which nonlinear interactions among the perturbations has been removed, restricting nonlinearity in the dynamics to that of the mean equation and the interaction between the mean and perturbation covariance. In this work, this quasi-linear restriction of the dynamics is used to study the structure and dynamics of turbulence in plane Poiseuille flow at moderately high Reynolds numbers in a closely related dynamical system, referred to as the restricted nonlinear (RNL) system. Simulations using this RNL system reveal that the essential features of wall-turbulence dynamics are retained. Consistent with previous analyses based on the S3T version of SSD, the RNL system spontaneously limits the support of its turbulence to a small set of streamwise Fourier components, giving rise to a naturally minimal representation of its turbulence dynamics. Although greatly simplified, this RNL turbulence exhibits natural-looking structures and statistics, albeit with quantitative differences from those in direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the full equations. Surprisingly, even when further truncation of the perturbation support to a single streamwise component is imposed, the RNL system continues to self-sustain turbulence with qualitatively realistic structure and dynamic properties. RNL turbulence at the Reynolds numbers studied is dominated by the roll/streak structure in the buffer layer and similar very large-scale structure (VLSM) in the outer layer. In this work, diagnostics of the structure, spectrum and energetics of RNL and DNS turbulence are used to demonstrate that the roll/streak dynamics supporting the turbulence in the buffer and logarithmic layer is essentially similar in RNL and DNS.
The Antarctic Roadmap Challenges (ARC) project identified critical requirements to deliver high priority Antarctic research in the 21st century. The ARC project addressed the challenges of enabling technologies, facilitating access, providing logistics and infrastructure, and capitalizing on international co-operation. Technological requirements include: i) innovative automated in situ observing systems, sensors and interoperable platforms (including power demands), ii) realistic and holistic numerical models, iii) enhanced remote sensing and sensors, iv) expanded sample collection and retrieval technologies, and v) greater cyber-infrastructure to process ‘big data’ collection, transmission and analyses while promoting data accessibility. These technologies must be widely available, performance and reliability must be improved and technologies used elsewhere must be applied to the Antarctic. Considerable Antarctic research is field-based, making access to vital geographical targets essential. Future research will require continent- and ocean-wide environmentally responsible access to coastal and interior Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Year-round access is indispensable. The cost of future Antarctic science is great but there are opportunities for all to participate commensurate with national resources, expertise and interests. The scope of future Antarctic research will necessitate enhanced and inventive interdisciplinary and international collaborations. The full promise of Antarctic science will only be realized if nations act together.