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The Critically Endangered blue-eyed black lemur Eulemur flavifrons of north-western Madagascar is one of the most threatened primates. The majority of research and conservation efforts for the species have been restricted to the Sahamalaza Peninsula but there are unstudied and unprotected populations farther inland. The dearth of information regarding the transition between E. flavifrons and its parapatric sister species, the Vulnerable black lemur Eulemur macaco, and the possibility of a hybrid population complicates conservation planning for both species. We surveyed 29 forest fragments across both species’ ranges to investigate the boundary between the taxa, whether hybrids persist, and the threats to lemurs in the region. We found E. flavifrons in six fragments and E. macaco in 17. We never observed E. flavifrons and E. macaco in the same location and we found no conclusive evidence of hybrids. Three fragments in which E. flavifrons was present were north of the Andranomalaza River, which had previously been considered the barrier between the two species. Based on these observations and a literature review, we provide updated ranges, increasing the extent of occurrence (EOO) of E. flavifrons by 28.7% and reducing the EOO of E. macaco by 44.5%. We also evaluate the capacity of protected areas to conserve these lemurs. We recommend additional surveys and the implementation of an education programme in this region to help conserve both species.
Field studies were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in Clinton, NC, to determine the interspecific and intraspecific interference of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) or large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.] in ‘Covington’ sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.]. Amaranthus palmeri and D. sanguinalis were established 1 d after sweetpotato transplanting and maintained season-long at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 0, 1, 2, 4, 16 plants m−1 of row in the presence and absence of sweetpotato, respectively. Predicted yield loss for sweetpotato was 35% to 76% for D. sanguinalis at 1 to 16 plants m−1 of row and 50% to 79% for A. palmeri at 1 to 8 plants m−1 of row. Weed dry biomass per meter of row increased linearly with increasing weed density. Individual dry biomass of A. palmeri and D. sanguinalis was not affected by weed density when grown in the presence of sweetpotato. When grown without sweetpotato, individual weed dry biomass decreased 71% and 62% from 1 to 4 plants m−1 row for A. palmeri and D. sanguinalis, respectively. Individual weed dry biomass was not affected above 4 plants m−1 row to the highest densities of 8 and 16 plants m−1 row for A. palmeri and D. sanguinalis, respectively.
After five positive randomized controlled trials showed benefit of mechanical thrombectomy in the management of acute ischemic stroke with emergent large-vessel occlusion, a multi-society meeting was organized during the 17th Congress of the World Federation of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology in October 2017 in Budapest, Hungary. This multi-society meeting was dedicated to establish standards of practice in acute ischemic stroke intervention aiming for a consensus on the minimum requirements for centers providing such treatment. In an ideal situation, all patients would be treated at a center offering a full spectrum of neuroendovascular care (a level 1 center). However, for geographical reasons, some patients are unable to reach such a center in a reasonable period of time. With this in mind, the group paid special attention to define recommendations on the prerequisites of organizing stroke centers providing medical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke, but not for other neurovascular diseases (level 2 centers). Finally, some centers will have a stroke unit and offer intravenous thrombolysis, but not any endovascular stroke therapy (level 3 centers). Together, these level 1, 2, and 3 centers form a complete stroke system of care. The multi-society group provides recommendations and a framework for the development of medical thrombectomy services worldwide.
Field and greenhouse studies were conducted in 2016 and 2017 to determine sweetpotato tolerance to herbicides applied to plant propagation beds. Herbicide treatments included PRE application of flumioxazin (107 g ai ha−1), S-metolachlor (800 g ai ha−1), fomesafen (280 g ai ha−1), flumioxazin plus S-metolachlor (107 g ai ha−1 + 800 g ai ha−1), fomesafen plus S-metolachlor (280 g ai ha−1 + 800 g ai ha−1), fluridone (1,120 or 2,240 g ai ha−1), fluridone plus S-metolachlor (1,120 g ai ha−1 + 800 g ai ha−1), napropamide (1,120 g ai ha−1), clomazone (420 g ai ha−1), linuron (560 g ai ha−1), linuron plus S-metolachlor (560 g ai ha−1 + 800 g ai ha−1), bicyclopyrone (38 or 49.7 g ai ha−1), pyroxasulfone (149 g ai ha−1), pre-mix of flumioxazin plus pyroxasulfone (81.8 g ai ha−1 + 104.2 g ai ha−1), or metribuzin (294 g ai ha−1). Paraquat plus non-ionic surfactant (280 g ai ha−1 + 0.25% v/v) POST was also included. After plants in the propagation bed were cut and sweetpotato slip number, length, and weight had been determined, the slips were then transplanted to containers and placed either in the greenhouse or on an outdoor pad to determine any effects from the herbicide treatments on initial sweetpotato growth. Sweetpotato slip number, length, and/or weight were affected by flumioxazin with or without S-metolachlor, S-metolachlor with or without fomesafen, clomazone, and all fluridone treatments. In the greenhouse studies, initial root growth of plants after transplanting was inhibited by fluridone (1,120 g ai ha−1) and fluridone plus S-metolachlor. However, by 5 wk after transplanting few differences were observed between treatments. Fomesafen, linuron with or without S-metolachlor, bicyclopyrone (38 or 49.7 g ai ha−1), pyroxasulfone with or without flumioxazin, metribuzin, and paraquat did not cause injury to sweetpotato slips in any of the studies conducted.
Research suggests an association between metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and schizophrenia. However, the risk of metabolic disorders in the unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia remains unclear.
Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 3135 unaffected siblings of schizophrenia probands and 12,540 age-/sex-matched control subjects were included and followed up to the end of 2011. Individuals who developed metabolic disorders during the follow-up period were identified.
The unaffected siblings of schizophrenia probands had a higher prevalence of T2DM (3.4% vs. 2.6%, p = 0.010) than the controls. Logistic regression analyses with the adjustment of demographic data revealed that the unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia were more likely to develop T2DM (odds ratio [OR]: 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–1.75) later in life compared with the control group. Moreover, only female siblings of schizophrenia probands had an increased risk of hypertension (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.07–2.01) during the follow-up compared with the controls.
The unaffected siblings, especially sisters, of schizophrenia probands had a higher prevalence of T2DM and hypertension compared with the controls. Our study revealed a familial link between schizophrenia and T2DM in a large sample. Additional studies are required to investigate the shared pathophysiology of schizophrenia and T2DM.
Studies were conducted to determine the tolerance of sweetpotato and Palmer amaranth control to a premix of flumioxazin and pyroxasulfone pretransplant (PREtr) followed by (fb) irrigation. Greenhouse studies were conducted in a factorial arrangement of four herbicide rates (flumioxazin/pyroxasulfone PREtr at 105/133 and 57/72 g ai ha–1, S-metolachlor PREtr 803 g ai ha–1, nontreated) by three irrigation timings [2, 5, and 14 d after transplanting (DAP)]. Field studies were conducted in a factorial arrangement of seven herbicide treatments (flumioxazin/pyroxasulfone PREtr at 40/51, 57/72, 63/80, and 105/133 g ha–1, 107 g ha–1 flumioxazin PREtr fb 803 g ha–1S-metolachlor 7 to 10 DAP, and season-long weedy and weed-free checks) by three 1.9-cm irrigation timings (0 to 2, 3 to 5, or 14 DAP). In greenhouse studies, flumioxazin/pyroxasulfone reduced sweetpotato vine length and shoot and storage root fresh biomass compared to the nontreated check and S-metolachlor. Irrigation timing had no influence on vine length and root fresh biomass. In field studies, Palmer amaranth control was≥91% season-long regardless of flumioxazin/pyroxasulfone rate or irrigation timing. At 38 DAP, sweetpotato injury was≤37 and≤9% at locations 1 and 2, respectively. Visual estimates of sweetpotato injury from flumioxazin/pyroxasulfone were greater when irrigation timing was delayed 3 to 5 or 14 DAP (22 and 20%, respectively) compared to 0 to 2 DAP (7%) at location 1 but similar at location 2. Irrigation timing did not influence no.1, jumbo, or marketable yields or root length-to-width ratio. With the exception of 105/133 g ha–1, all rates of flumioxazin/pyroxasulfone resulted in marketable sweetpotato yield and root length-to-width ratio similar to flumioxazin fb S-metolachlor or the weed-free checks. In conclusion, flumioxazin/pyroxasulfone PREtr at 40/51, 57/72, and 63/80 g ha–1 has potential for use in sweetpotato for Palmer amaranth control without causing significant crop injury and yield reduction.
Field studies were conducted in 2015 and 2016 in North Carolina to determine the response of ‘Covington’ and ‘Murasaki-29’ sweetpotato cultivars to four rates of linuron (420, 560, 840, and 1,120 g ai ha–1) alone or with S-metolachlor (803 g ai ha–1) applied 7 or 14 d after transplanting (DAP). Injury (chlorosis/necrosis and stunting) to both cultivars was greater when linuron was applied with S-metolachlor as compared to linuron applied alone. Herbicide application at 14 DAP caused greater injury (chlorosis/necrosis and stunting) to both cultivars than when applied at 7 DAP. At 4 wk after treatment (WAT), stunting of Covington and Murasaki-29 (hereafter Murasaki) from linuron at 420 to 1,120 g ha–1 increased from 27% to 50% and 25% to 53%, respectively. At 7 or 8 WAT, crop stunting of 8% or less and 0% was observed in Covington and Murasaki, respectively, regardless of application rate and timing. Murasaki root yields were similar in the linuron alone or with S-metolachlor treatments, and were lower than the nontreated check. In 2016, no. 1 and marketable sweetpotato yields of Covington were similar for the nontreated check, linuron alone, or linuron plus S-metolachlor treatments, but not in 2015. Decreases in no. 1 and marketable root yields were observed when herbicides were applied 14 DAP compared to 7 DAP for Covington in 2015 and for Murasaki in both years. No. 1 and marketable yields of Covington were similar for 420 to 1,120 g ha–1 linuron and nontreated check except marketable root yields in 2015. No. 1 and marketable sweetpotato yields of Murasaki decreased as application rates increased.
In this systematic evaluation of fluorescent gel markers (FGM) applied to high-touch surfaces with a metered applicator (MA) made for the purpose versus a generic cotton swab (CS), removal rates were 60.5% (476 of 787) for the MA and 64.3% (506 of 787) for the CS. MA-FGM removal interpretation was more consistent, 83% versus 50% not removed, possibly due to less varied application and more adhesive gel.
Recovery Colleges are opening internationally. The evaluation focus has been on outcomes for Recovery College students who use mental health services. However, benefits may also arise for: staff who attend or co-deliver courses; the mental health and social care service hosting the Recovery College; and wider society. A theory-based change model characterising how Recovery Colleges impact at these higher levels is needed for formal evaluation of their impact, and to inform future Recovery College development. The aim of this study was to develop a stratified theory identifying candidate mechanisms of action and outcomes (impact) for Recovery Colleges at staff, services and societal levels.
Inductive thematic analysis of 44 publications identified in a systematised review was supplemented by collaborative analysis involving a lived experience advisory panel to develop a preliminary theoretical framework. This was refined through semi-structured interviews with 33 Recovery College stakeholders (service user students, peer/non-peer trainers, managers, community partners, clinicians) in three sites in England.
Candidate mechanisms of action and outcomes were identified at staff, services and societal levels. At the staff level, experiencing new relationships may change attitudes and associated professional practice. Identified outcomes for staff included: experiencing and valuing co-production; changed perceptions of service users; and increased passion and job motivation. At the services level, Recovery Colleges often develop somewhat separately from their host system, reducing the reach of the college into the host organisation but allowing development of an alternative culture giving experiential learning opportunities to staff around co-production and the role of a peer workforce. At the societal level, partnering with community-based agencies gave other members of the public opportunities for learning alongside people with mental health problems and enabled community agencies to work with people they might not have otherwise. Recovery Colleges also gave opportunities to beneficially impact on community attitudes.
This study is the first to characterise the mechanisms of action and impact of Recovery Colleges on mental health staff, mental health and social care services, and wider society. The findings suggest that a certain distance is needed in the relationship between the Recovery College and its host organisation if a genuine cultural alternative is to be created. Different strategies are needed depending on what level of impact is intended, and this study can inform decision-making about mechanisms to prioritise. Future research into Recovery Colleges should include contextual evaluation of these higher level impacts, and investigate effectiveness and harms.
The ideal sampling method and benefit of qualitative versus quantitative culture for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) recovery in hospitalized patient rooms and bathrooms is unknown. Although the use of nylon-flocked swabs improved overall gram-negative organism recovery compared with cellulose sponges, they were similar for CRE recovery. Quantitative culture was inferior and unrevealing beyond the qualitative results.
One of the seminar topics scheduled for the summer of 1955 by the Society for American Archaeology was “The American Southwest: A Problem in Cultural Isolation.” The assignment was to “… examine the assumption that these Southwestern cultures resulted from local acceptance and development of generalized and/or specific traits which can be isolated in distant cultural contexts at earlier times than their climactic developments can be observed in the Southwest.”
As part of further investigations into three linked haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) cases in Wales and England, 21 rats from a breeding colony in Cherwell, and three rats from a household in Cheltenham were screened for hantavirus. Hantavirus RNA was detected in either the lungs and/or kidney of 17/21 (81%) of the Cherwell rats tested, higher than previously detected by blood testing alone (7/21, 33%), and in the kidneys of all three Cheltenham rats. The partial L gene sequences obtained from 10 of the Cherwell rats and the three Cheltenham rats were identical to each other and the previously reported UK Cherwell strain. Seoul hantavirus (SEOV) RNA was detected in the heart, kidney, lung, salivary gland and spleen (but not in the liver) of an individual rat from the Cherwell colony suspected of being the source of SEOV. Serum from 20/20 of the Cherwell rats and two associated HFRS cases had high levels of SEOV-specific antibodies (by virus neutralisation). The high prevalence of SEOV in both sites and the moderately severe disease in the pet rat owners suggest that SEOV in pet rats poses a greater public health risk than previously considered.
Grafted plants are a combination of two different interspecific or intraspecific scion and rootstock. Determination of herbicidal selectivity of the grafted plant is critical given their increased use in vegetable production. Differential absorption, translocation, and metabolism play an important role in herbicide selectivity of plant species because these processes affect the herbicide amount delivered to the site of action. Therefore, experiments were conducted to determine absorption, translocation, and metabolism of halosulfuron in grafted and non-grafted tomato and eggplant. Transplant type included non-grafted tomato cultivar Amelia, non-grafted eggplant cultivar Santana, Amelia scion grafted onto Maxifort tomato rootstock (A-Maxifort) and Santana scion grafted onto Maxifort rootstock (S-Maxifort). Plants were treated POST with commercially formulated halosulfuron at 39 g ai ha-1 followed by 14C-halosulfuron under controlled laboratory conditions. Amount of 14C-halosufuron was quantified in leaf wash, treated leaf, scion shoot, rootstock shoot, and root at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 h after treatment (HAT) using liquid scintillation spectrometry. No differences were observed between transplant types with regard to absorption and translocation of 14C-halosulfuron. Absorption of 14C-halosulfuron increased with time, reaching 10 and 74% of applied at 6 and 96 HAT, respectively. Translocation of 14C-halosulfuron was limited to the treated leaf, which reached maximum (66% of applied) at 96 HAT, whereas minimal (<4% of applied) translocation occurred in scion shoot, rootstock shoot, and root. Tomato plants metabolized halosulfuron faster compared to eggplant regardless of grafting. Of the total amount of 14C-halosulfuron absorbed into the plant, 9 to 14% remained in the form of the parent compound in tomato compared with 25 to 26% in eggplant at 48 HAT. These results indicate that grafting did not affect absorption, translocation, and metabolism of POST halosulfuron in tomato and eggplant.
Field studies were conducted to determine the influence of herbicides on the development of internal necrosis (IN) in sweetpotato storage roots. In a slip propagation study, herbicide treatments included PRE application (immediately after covering seed roots with soil) of clomazone (0.42, 0.84 kg ai ha-1), flumioxazin (0.11, 0.21 kg ai ha-1), fomesafen (0.28, 0.56 kg ai ha-1), linuron (0.56, 1.12 kg ai ha-1), S-metolachlor (0.8, 1.6 kg ai ha-1), flumioxazin plus S-metolachlor (0.11 + 0.8 or 1.6 kg ha-1), and napropamide (1.12, 2.24 kg ai ha-1), and POST application (2 to 4 wk prior to cutting slips) of ethephon (0.84, 1.26 kg ai ha-1) and paraquat (0.14, 0.28 kg ai ha-1). In a field production study, flumioxazin, fomesafen, linuron, and paraquat were applied PREPLANT (one d prior to sweetpotato transplanting), clomazone, S-metolachlor, and napropamide were applied PRE [4 d after transplanting (DAP)], flumioxazin PREPLANT followed by (fb) S-metolachlor PRE, and ethephon applied POST (2 wk prior to harvest). Herbicide rates were similar to those used in the slip propagation study. Yield of sweetpotato in both studies was not affected by herbicide treatment. In both studies, IN incidence and severity increased with time and was greatest at 60 d after curing. No difference was observed between herbicide treatments for IN incidence and severity in the slip production study which indicates herbicide application at time of slip propagation does not impact the development of IN. In the field production study, the only treatment that increased IN incidence compared to the nontreated was ethephon with 53% and 2.3 incidence and severity, respectively. The presence of IN affected roots in nontreated plots indicates that some other pre- or post-curing factors other than herbicides are responsible for the development of IN. However, the ethephon application prior to sweetpotato root harvest escalates the development of IN.
In recent years germination experiments have become more and more complex. Typically, they are replicated in time as independent runs and at each time point they involve hierarchical, often factorial experimental designs, which are now commonly analysed by means of linear mixed models. However, in order to characterize germination in response to time elapsed, specific event-time models are needed and mixed model extensions of these models are not readily available, neither in theory nor in practice. As a practical workaround we propose a two-step approach that combines and weighs together results from event-time models fitted separately to data from each germination test by means of meta-analytic random effects models. We show that this approach provides a more appropriate appreciation of the sources of variation in hierarchically structured germination experiments as both between- and within-experiment variation may be recovered from the data.
Palmer amaranth is the most economically damaging glyphosate-resistant (GR) weed in the southern United States. An understanding of the basic biology, including relative growth and competitiveness of GR and glyphosate-susceptible (GS) Palmer amaranth phenotypes from a segregating population collected from the same geographical location, may yield information helpful in the management of resistant populations. A segregating population of Palmer amaranth collected in North Carolina during 2010 was used as a plant source for both GR and GS traits. Research was conducted in the greenhouse to compare the following: level of resistance and shikimate accumulation in GR and GS phenotypes following glyphosate application; interference from GR and GS phenotypes on early-season vegetative growth of corn, cotton, and peanut; effect of various durations of imposed drought stress on GR and GS phenotypes; and response of GR and GS phenotypes to POST-applied herbicides. The GR50 (glyphosate rate providing 50% reduction in shoot dry biomass) was 17 times greater with the GR phenotype compared with the GS phenotype. Shikimate accumulated in both GR and GS phenotypes following glyphosate application, but greater concentrations were found in GS plants. The GR and GS phenotypes responded similarly when subjected to drought stress; grown with corn, cotton, and peanut; or treated with 2,4-D, atrazine, dicamba, fomesafen, glufosinate, paraquat, tembotrione, and thifensulfuron. These results indicate that in the absence of glyphosate selection pressure, resistance to glyphosate does not influence the growth and competitiveness of GR and GS Palmer amaranth phenotypes collected from the same geographical location.