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For many benthic marine invertebrates, inversion (being turned upside-down) is a common event that can increase vulnerability to predation, desiccation and unwanted spatial transport, and requires behavioural ‘self-righting’ to correct. While self-righting behaviour has been studied for more than a century, the repeatability (R) – the portion of behavioural variance due to inter-individual differences – of this trait is not well understood. Heritability and the evolution of animal behaviour rely on behavioural repeatability. Here, we examined the self-righting technique of a cold-water holothurid, Parastichopus tremulus, and assessed the repeatability of this behaviour. Under laboratory conditions, P. tremulus consistently used muscle contractions to curl its body and roll itself back to an upright position, which provided for rapid (x̅ ± SD = 96.7 ± 49.8 s) and highly repeatable (R = 0.75) self-righting in the short term that varied between individuals (range of individual average righting times = 34.8–217.0 s). Righting time tended to increase with animal size; however, substantial variation was evident at comparable sizes, as average righting time ranged from 34.8–155.5 s for animals ~20 cm in body length. Contrary to previous studies on other echinoderms, we found no evidence of improved righting times for P. tremulus over time. This study ultimately provides the first detailed documentation of self-righting behaviour for P. tremulus and suggests that this species displays a high degree of repeatability for this trait in the short term.
This study investigates the pressure–strain tensor (
) in Langmuir turbulence. The pressure–strain tensor is determined from large-eddy simulations (LES), and is partitioned into components associated with the mean current shear (rapid), the Stokes shear and the turbulent–turbulent (slow) interactions. The rapid component can be parameterized using existing closure models, although the coefficients in the closure models are particular to Langmuir turbulence. A closure model for the Stokes component is proposed, and it is shown to agree with results from the LES. The slow component of
does not agree with existing ‘return-to-isotropy’ closure models for five of the six components of the Reynolds stress tensor, and a new closure model is proposed that accounts for these deviations which vary systematically with Langmuir number,
, and depth. The implications of these results for second- and first-order closures of Langmuir turbulence are discussed.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this research was to assess the clinical impact of simulation-based team leadership training on team leadership effectiveness and patient care during actual trauma resuscitations. This translational work addresses an important gap in simulation research and medical education research. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Eligible trauma team leaders were randomized to the intervention (4-hour simulation-based leadership training) or control (standard training) condition. Subject-led actual trauma patient resuscitations were video recorded and coded for leadership behaviors (primary outcome) and patient care (secondary outcome) using novel leadership and trauma patient care metrics. Patient outcomes for trauma resuscitations were obtained through the Harborview Medical Center Trauma Registry and analyzed descriptively. A one-way ANCOVA analysis was conducted to test the effectiveness of our training intervention versus a control group for each outcome (leadership effectiveness and patient care) while accounting for pre-training performance, injury severity score, postgraduate training year, and days since training occurred. Association between leadership effectiveness and patient care was evaluated using random coefficient modeling. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Sixty team leaders, 30 in each condition, completed the study. There was a significant difference in post-training leadership effectiveness [F(1,54)=30.19, p<.001, η2=.36] between the experimental and control conditions. There was no direct impact of training on patient care [F(1,54)=1.0, p=0.33, η2=.02]; however, leadership effectiveness mediated an indirect effect of training on patient care. Across all trauma resuscitations team leader effectiveness correlated with patient care (p<0.05) as predicted by team leadership conceptual models. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This work represents a critical step in advancing translational simulation-based research (TSR). While there are several examples of high quality translational research programs, they primarily focus on procedural tasks and do not evaluate highly complex skills such as leadership. Complex skills present significant measurement challenges because individuals and processes are interrelated, with multiple components and emergent nature of tasks and related behaviors. We provide evidence that simulation-based training of a complex skill (team leadership behavior) transfers to a complex clinical setting (emergency department) with highly variable clinical tasks (trauma resuscitations). Our novel team leadership training significantly improved overall leadership performance and partially mediated the positive effect between leadership and patient care. This represents the first rigorous, randomized, controlled trial of a leadership or teamwork-focused training that systematically evaluates the impact on process (leadership) and performance (patient care).
The high Antarctic plateau provides exceptional conditions for infrared observations on account of the cold, dry and stable atmosphere above the ice surface. This paper describes the scientific goals behind the first program to examine the time-varying universe in the infrared from Antarctica — the Kunlun Infrared Sky Survey (KISS). This will employ a 50cm telescope to monitor the southern skies in the 2.4μmKdark window from China's Kunlun station at Dome A, on the summit of the Antarctic plateau, through the uninterrupted 4-month period of winter darkness. An earlier paper discussed optimisation of the Kdark filter for sensitivity (Li et al. 2016). This paper examines the scientific program for KISS. We calculate the sensitivity of the camera for the extrema of observing conditions that will be encountered. We present the parameters for sample surveys that could then be carried out for a range of cadences and sensitivities. We then discuss several science programs that could be conducted with these capabilities, involving star formation, brown dwarfs and hot Jupiters, exoplanets around M dwarfs, the terminal phases of stellar evolution, fast transients, embedded supernova searches, reverberation mapping of AGN, gamma ray bursts and the detection of the cosmic infrared background.
Population decline resulting from agricultural intensification led to contraction of the range of the cirl bunting Emberiza cirlus in the UK to a small area of south Devon. As part of the UK Biodiversity Action Plan for the species, a project to re-establish a population in suitable habitat in Cornwall was undertaken during 2006–2011, in which chicks were removed from the nest in Devon, hand-reared and then delayed-released. The survival of the birds to four time points in the year after release was analysed in relation to the effect of rearing factors, using a multivariable logistic regression model. Individuals with higher body weight at capture were more likely to survive to 1 January and 1 May in the year following release, and individuals released in June and July were more likely to survive than those released in August. Individuals released in 2006 and 2011 had a higher survival rate than those released during 2007–2010. Timing of capture, time spent at each stage in captivity, medication and the detection of parasites in the brood had no significant effect. Immunosuppressive disease, weather factors and predator activity may have led to some of the observed differences in survival. This analysis provides evidence with which to plan future translocation projects for cirl buntings and other passerine birds.
Using the Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS) – a systematic 911 triage process – to identify a large subset of low-acuity patients for secondary nurse triage in the 911 center is a largely unstudied practice in North America. This study examines the ALPHA-level subset of low-acuity patients in the MPDS to determine the suitability of these patients for secondary triage by evaluating vital signs and necessity of lights-and-siren transport, as determined by attending Emergency Medical Services (EMS) ambulance crews.
The primary objective of this study was to determine the clinical status of MPDS ALPHA-level (low-acuity) patients, as determined by on-scene EMS crews’ patient care records, in two US agencies. A secondary objective was to determine which ALPHA-level codes are suitable candidates for secondary triage by a trained Emergency Communication Nurse (ECN).
In this retrospective study, one full year (2013) of both dispatch data and EMS patient records data, associated with all calls coded at the ALPHA-level (low-acuity) in the dispatch protocol, were collected. The primary outcome measure was the number and percentage of ALPHA-level codes categorized as low-acuity, moderate-acuity, high-acuity, and critical using four common vital signs to assign these categories: systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse rate (PR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS). Vital sign data were obtained from ambulance crew electronic patient care records (ePCRs). The secondary endpoint was the number and percentage of ALPHA-level codes that received a “hot” (lights-and-siren) transport.
Out of 19,300 cases, 16,763 (86.9%) were included in the final analysis, after excluding cases from health care providers and those with missing data. Of those, 89% of all cases did not have even one vital sign indicator of unstable patient status (high or critical vital sign). Of all cases, only 1.1% were transported lights-and-siren.
With the exception of the low-acuity, ALPHA-level seizure cases, the ALPHA-level patients are suitable to transfer for secondary triage in a best-practices, accredited, emergency medical dispatch center that utilizes the MPDS at very high compliance rates. The secondary nurse triage process should identify the few at-risk patients that exist in the low-acuity calls.
ScottG, ClawsonJ, FivazMC, McQueenJ, GardettMI, SchultzB, YoungquistS, OlolaCHO. Using On-scene EMS Responders’ Assessment and Electronic Patient Care Records to Evaluate the Suitability of EMD-triaged, Low-acuity Calls for Secondary Nurse Triage in 911 Centers. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(1):46–57.
Diurnal preference is an individual's preference for daily activities and sleep timing and is strongly correlated with the underlying circadian clock and the sleep-wake cycle validating its use as an indirect circadian measure in humans. Recent research has implicated DNA methylation as a mechanism involved in the regulation of the circadian clock system in humans and other mammals. In order to evaluate the extent of epigenetic differences associated with diurnal preference, we examined genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation in DNA from monozygotic (MZ) twin-pairs discordant for diurnal preference. MZ twins were selected from a longitudinal twin study designed to investigate the interplay of genetic and environmental factors in the development of emotional and behavioral difficulties. Fifteen pairs of MZ twins were identified in which one member scored considerably higher on the Horne–Ostberg Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) than the other. Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns were assessed in twins’ buccal cell DNA using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. Quality control and data pre-processing was undertaken using the wateRmelon package. Differentially methylated probes (DMPs) were identified using an analysis strategy taking into account both the significance and the magnitude of DNA methylation differences. Our data indicate that DNA methylation differences are detectable in MZ twins discordant for diurnal preference. Moreover, downstream gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis on the top-ranked diurnal preference associated DMPs revealed significant enrichment of pathways that have been previously associated with circadian rhythm regulation, including cell adhesion processes and calcium ion binding.
The disease- and mortality-related difference between biological age based on DNA methylation and chronological age (Δage) has been found to have approximately 40% heritability by assuming that the familial correlation is only explained by additive genetic factors. We calculated two different Δage measures for 132 middle-aged female twin pairs (66 monozygotic and 66 dizygotic twin pairs) and their 215 sisters using DNA methylation data measured by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays. For each Δage measure, and their combined measure, we estimated the familial correlation for MZ, DZ and sibling pairs using the multivariate normal model for pedigree analysis. We also pooled our estimates with those from a former study to estimate weighted average correlations. For both Δage measures, there was familial correlation that varied across different types of relatives. No evidence of a difference was found between the MZ and DZ pair correlations, or between the DZ and sibling pair correlations. The only difference was between the MZ and sibling pair correlations (p < .01), and there was marginal evidence that the MZ pair correlation was greater than twice the sibling pair correlation (p < .08). For weighted average correlation, there was evidence that the MZ pair correlation was greater than the DZ pair correlation (p < .03), and marginally greater than twice the sibling pair correlation (p < .08). The varied familial correlation of Δage is not explained by additive genetic factors alone, implying the existence of shared non-genetic factors explaining variation in Δage for middle-aged women.
A growing body of literature has explored the influence of physical activity on brain structure and function. While the mechanisms of this relationship remain largely speculative, recent research suggests that one of the effects of physical exercise is an increase in synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP). This has not yet been explored directly in humans due to the difficulty of measuring LTP non-invasively. However, we have previously established that LTP-like changes in visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) can be measured in humans. Here, we investigated whether physical fitness status affects the degree of visual sensory LTP. Using a self-report measure of physical activity, participants were split into two groups: a high-activity group, and a low-activity group. LTP was measured and compared between the two groups using the previously established electroencephalography-LTP paradigm, which assesses the degree to which the N1b component of the VEP elicited by a sine grating is potentiated (enhanced) following a rapid “tetanic” presentation of that grating. Both groups demonstrated increased negativity in the amplitude of the N1b component of the VEP immediately after presentation of the visual “tetanus,” indicating potentiation. However, after a 30-min rest period, the N1b for the high-activity group remained potentiated while the N1b for the low-activity group returned to baseline. This study presents the first evidence for the impact of self-reported levels of physical activity on LTP in humans, and sheds light on potential neurological mechanisms underlying the relationship between physical fitness and cognition. (JINS, 2015, 21, 831–840)
This volume not only defines medievalism's margins, as well as its role in marginalizing other fields, ideas, people, places, and events, but also provides tools and models for exploring those issues and indicates new subjects to which they might apply. The eight opening essays address the physical marginalizing of medievalism in annotated texts on medieval studies; the marginalism of oneself via medievalism; medievalism's dearth of ecotheory and religious studies; academia's paucity of pop medievalism; and the marginalization of races, ethnicities, genders, sexual orientations, and literary characters in contemporary medievalism. The seven subsequent articles build on this foundation while discussing: the distancing of oneself (and others) during imaginary visits to the Middle Ages; lessons from the margins of Brazilian medievalism; mutual marginalization among factions of Spanish medieval studies; and medievalism in the marginalization of lower socio-economic classes in late-eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Spain, of modern gamers, of contemporary laborers, and of Alfred Austin, a late-nineteenth- and early twentieth-century poet also known as Alfred the Little. In thus investigating the margins of and marginalization via medievalism, the volume affirms their centrality to the field. Karl Fugelso is Professor of Art History at Towson University in Baltimore, Maryland. Contributors: Nadia R. Altschul, Megan Arnott, Jaume Aurell, Juan Gomis Coloma, Elizabeth Emery, Vincent Ferré, Valerie B. Johnson, Alexander L. Kaufman, Erin Felicia Labbie, VickieLarsen, Kevin Moberly, Brent Moberly, Alicia C. Montoya, Serina Patterson, Jeff Rider, Lindsey Simon-Jones, Richard Utz, Helen Young.