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A total of 38 long-term care facilities within a region participated in a 3-month quality improvement initiative focused on environmental cleaning and disinfection. Significant improvements in daily and discharge cleaning were observed during the project period. Further study of the sustainability and clinical impact of this type of initiative is warranted.
Ventenata [Ventenata dubia (Leers) Cross] is a winter annual grass relatively new to the inland Pacific Northwest that is capable of displacing desired vegetation. Indaziflam was evaluated for the management of V. dubia on two Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) sites near Moscow, ID, and Pullman, WA. While perennial grasses were dormant, applications of indaziflam in mixture with various herbicides were made in spring 2016. Treatment effects were evaluated for 2 yr by visual assessments of community composition and canopy cover of V. dubia and other non-weedy species (assessments occurred 3 to 6 mo after treatment, depending on location) and by representative cover class assessments. Biomass samples of all plant species were collected in the summer of 2017. Reduced V. dubia cover was observed in 2016, except when glyphosate was used alone. In 2017 indaziflam applied alone or in mixture with rimsulfuron effectively controlled V. dubia with minimal impact on desirable vegetation. Plant biomass from nontreated plots averaged 40 g m−2 for V. dubia and 100 to 179 g m−2 for perennial grasses. Plant biomass averaged <11 g m−2 for V. dubia and 371 to 490 g m−2 for perennial grasses when indaziflam at 102 g ai ha−1 plus glyphosate at 474 g ai ha−1 was applied. Smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) biomass was positively associated with the reduction of V. dubia, and there was a decrease in diversity associated with the removal of V. dubia through effective treatments. Indaziflam is an effective tool for the management of V. dubia in perennial grass stands, and spring applications of indaziflam should be in mixture with herbicides with POST activity.
We investigated how individual differences in language proficiency and executive control impact cross-language meaning activation through phonology. Ninety-six university students read English sentences that contained French target words. Target words were high- and low-frequency French interlingual homophones (i.e., words that share pronunciation, but not meaning across langauges; mot means ‘word’ in French and sounds like ‘mow’ in English) and matched French control words (e.g., mois – ‘month’ in French). Readers could use the homophones’ shared phonology to activate their English meanings and, ultimately, make sense of the sentence (e.g., Tony was too lazy to mot/mois the grass on Sunday). Shorter reading times were observed on interlingual homophones than control words, suggesting that phonological representations in one language activate cross-language semantic representations. Importantly, the magnitude of the effect was modulated by word frequency, and several participant-level characteristics, including French proficiency, English word knowledge, and executive control ability.
Objectives: Total intracranial volume (TICV) is an important control variable in brain–behavior research, yet its calculation has challenges. Manual TICV (Manual) is labor intensive, and automatic methods vary in reliability. To identify an accurate automatic approach we assessed the reliability of two FreeSurfer TICV metrics (eTIV and Brainmask) relative to manual TICV. We then assessed how these metrics alter associations between left entorhinal cortex (ERC) volume and story retention. Methods: Forty individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and 40 non-PD peers completed a brain MRI and memory testing. Manual metrics were compared to FreeSurfer’s Brainmask (a skull strip mask with total volume of gray, white, and most cerebrospinal fluid) and eTIV (calculated using the transformation matrix into Talairach space). Volumes were compared with two-way interclass correlations and dice similarity indices. Associations between ERC volume and Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition Logical Memory retention were examined with and without correction using each TICV method. Results: Brainmask volumes were larger and eTIV volumes smaller than Manual. Both automated metrics correlated highly with Manual. All TICV metrics explained additional variance in the ERC-Memory relationship, although none were significant. Brainmask explained slightly more variance than other methods. Conclusions: Our findings suggest Brainmask is more reliable than eTIV for TICV correction in brain-behavioral research. (JINS, 2018, 24, 206–211)
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Recent evidence from resting-state fMRI studies have shown that brain network connectivity is altered in patients with neurodegenerative disorders. However, few studies have examined the complete connectivity patterns of these well-reported RSNs using a whole brain approach and how they compare between dementias. Here, we used advanced connectomic approaches to examine the connectivity of RSNs in Alzheimer disease (AD), Frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and age-matched control participants. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In total, 44 participants [27 controls (66.4±7.6 years), 13 AD (68.5.63±13.9 years), 4 FTD (59.575±12.2 years)] from an ongoing study at Indiana University School of Medicine were used. Resting-state fMRI data was processed using an in-house pipeline modeled after Power et al. (2014). Images were parcellated into 278 regions of interest (ROI) based on Shen et al. (2013). Connectivity between each ROI pair was described by Pearson correlation coefficient. Brain regions were grouped into 7 canonical RSNs as described by Yeo et al. (2015). Pearson correlation values were then averaged across pairs of ROIs in each network and averaged across individuals in each group. These values were used to determine relative expression of FC in each RSN (intranetwork) and create RSN profiles for each group. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our findings support previous literature which shows that limbic networks are disrupted in FTLD participants compared with AD and age-matched controls. In addition, interactions between different RSNs was also examined and a significant difference between controls and AD subjects was found between FP and DMN RSNs. Similarly, previous literature has reported a disruption between executive (frontoparietal) network and default mode network in AD compared with controls. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our approach allows us to create profiles that could help compare intranetwork FC in different neurodegenerative diseases. Future work with expanded samples will help us to draw more substantial conclusions regarding differences, if any, in the connectivity patterns between RSNs in various neurodegenerative diseases.
Accurate weed emergence models are valuable tools for scheduling planting, cultivation, and herbicide applications. Multiple models predicting giant ragweed emergence have been developed, but none have been validated in diverse crop rotation and tillage systems, which have the potential to influence weed emergence patterns. This study evaluated the performance of published giant ragweed emergence models across various crop rotations and spring tillage dates in southern Minnesota. Across experiments, the most robust model was a mixed-effects Weibull (flexible sigmoidal function) model predicting emergence in relation to hydrothermal time accumulation with a base temperature of 4.4 C, a base soil matric potential of −2.5 MPa, and two random effects determined by overwinter growing degree days (GDD) (10 C) and precipitation accumulated during seedling recruitment. The deviations in emergence between individual plots and the fixed-effects model were distinguished by the positive association between the lower horizontal asymptote (Drop) and maximum daily soil temperature during seedling recruitment. This finding indicates that crops and management practices that increase soil temperature will have a shorter lag phase at the start of giant ragweed emergence compared with practices promoting cool soil temperatures. Thus, crops with early-season crop canopies such as perennial crops and crops planted in early spring and in narrow rows will likely have a slower progression of giant ragweed emergence. This research provides a valuable assessment of published giant ragweed emergence models and illustrates that accurate emergence models can be used to time field operations and improve giant ragweed control across diverse cropping systems.
Following Epicurus, Lucretius discovered how to determine the speculative and practical object of philosophy as “naturalism.” Lucretius’ importance in philosophy is linked to this double determination.
The products of nature are not separable from a diversity which is essential to them. But thinking the diverse as diverse is a difficult task upon which, according to Lucretius, all preceding philosophers have shipwrecked. In our world, natural diversity appears in three intersecting aspects: the diversity of species, the diversity of individuals that are members of the same species, and the diversity of parts which compose an individual. Specificity, individuality, and heterogeneity. There is no world which does not manifest itself in the variety of its parts, of its locations, of its coastlines, and of its species that populate it. There is no individual which is absolutely identical to another individual; there is no calf which might be recognized as its mother; no two seashells or grains of wheat which are indiscernible. There is no body composed of homogenous parts; there is no grass or waterway that does not implicate a material diversity or a heterogeneity of elements out of which each species draws the nourishment that is suitable to it. We infer the diversity of worlds themselves from these three points of view: worlds are innumerable, often of different of species, sometimes similar, and always composed of heterogeneous elements.
By what right does one make this inference? Nature must be thought as the principle of the diverse and its production. But the principle of the diverse has sense only if it does not join its own elements together into a whole. This exigence should not imply a circle, as if Epicurus and Lucretius simply meant that the principle of the diverse must itself be diverse. The Epicurean thesis is totally other: Nature as the production of the diverse can only be an infi nite sum, that is a sum that does not totalize its own elements. There is no combination capable of embracing all the elements of Nature at once, no single world or total universe. Phusis is not a determination of the One, of Being, or of the Whole. Nature is not collective, but distributive; the laws of nature (foedera naturae, as opposed to the supposed foedera fati) distribute non-totalizable parts.
Objectives: This study examined whether individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are at increased vulnerability for vascular-related cognitive impairment relative to controls. The underlying assumption behind this hypothesis relates to brain reserve and that both PD and vascular risk factors impair similar fronto-executive cognitive systems. Methods: The sample included 67 PD patients and 61 older controls (total N=128). Participants completed neuropsychological measures of executive functioning, processing speed, verbal delayed recall/memory, language, and auditory attention. Cardiovascular risk was assessed with the Framingham Cardiovascular Risk index. Participants underwent brain imaging (T1 and T2 FLAIR). Trained raters measured total and regional leukoaraiosis (periventricular, deep subcortical, and infracortical). Results: Hierarchical regressions revealed that more severe cardiovascular risk was related to worse executive functioning, processing speed, and delayed verbal recall in both Parkinson patients and controls. More severe cardiovascular risk was related to worse language functioning in the PD group, but not controls. In contrast, leukoaraiosis related to both cardiovascular risk and executive functioning for controls, but not the PD group. Conclusions: Overall, results revealed that PD and cardiovascular risk factors are independent risk factors for cognitive impairment. Generally, the influence of cardiovascular risk factors on cognition is similar in PD patients and controls. (JINS, 2017, 23, 322–331)
We analysed the psychometric properties of two published self-report suicide assessment competency rating scales – the Suicide Competency Inventory (SCI) and the Suicide Competency Assessment Form (SCAF) – in a sample of 93 public-sector vocational rehabilitation support staff from six states in the United States. Both measures demonstrated very good to excellent internal consistency in our sample. Exploratory factor analysis with principal axis factoring indicated the SCI loads on a two-factor model in this sample, as opposed to the three-factor model proposed by the measure's authors. The SCAF loaded on a single factor, consistent with the theoretical model proposed by the original authors. The SCI and SCAF were highly correlated with each other, providing initial evidence of convergent construct validity. These results provide initial support for the use of these measures as a reliable and valid means of assessing perceived suicide assessment competency in vocational rehabilitation support staff.
In the midwestern United States, biotypes of giant ragweed resistant to multiple herbicide biochemical sites of action have been identified. Weeds with resistance to multiple herbicides reduce the utility of existing herbicides and necessitate the development of alternative weed control strategies. In two experiments in southeastern Minnesota, we determined the effect of six 3 yr crop-rotation systems containing corn, soybean, wheat, and alfalfa on giant ragweed seedbank depletion and emergence patterns. The six crop-rotation systems included continuous corn, soybean–corn–corn, corn–soybean–corn, soybean–wheat–corn, soybean–alfalfa–corn, and alfalfa–alfalfa–corn. The crop-rotation system had no effect on the amount of seedbank depletion when a zero-weed threshold was maintained, with an average of 96% of the giant ragweed seedbank being depleted within 2 yr. Seedbank depletion occurred primarily through seedling emergence in all crop-rotation systems. However, seedling emergence tended to account for more of the seedbank depletion in rotations containing only corn or soybean compared with rotations with wheat or alfalfa. Giant ragweed emerged early across all treatments, with on average 90% emergence occurring by June 4. Duration of emergence was slightly longer in established alfalfa compared with other cropping systems. These results indicate that corn and soybean rotations are more conducive to giant ragweed emergence than rotations including wheat and alfalfa, and that adopting a zero-weed threshold is a viable approach to depleting the weed seedbank in all crop-rotation systems.
As herbicide-resistant weed populations become increasingly problematic in crop production, alternative strategies of weed control are necessary. Giant ragweed, one of the most competitive agricultural weeds in row crops, has evolved resistance to multiple herbicide biochemical sites of action within the plant, necessitating the development of new and integrated methods of weed control. This study assessed the quantity and duration of seed retention of giant ragweed grown in soybean fields and adjacent field margins. Seed retention of giant ragweed was monitored weekly during the 2012 to 2014 harvest seasons using seed collection traps. Giant ragweed plants produced an average of 1,818 seeds per plant, with 66% being potentially viable. Giant ragweed on average began shattering hard (potentially viable) and soft (nonviable) seeds September 12 and continued through October at an average rate of 0.75 and 0.44% of total seeds per day during September and October, respectively. Giant ragweed seeds remained on the plants well into the Minnesota soybean harvest season, with an average of 80% of the total seeds being retained on October 11, when Minnesota soybean harvest was approximately 75% completed in the years of the study. These results suggest that there is a sufficient amount of time to remove escaped giant ragweed from production fields and field margins before the seeds shatter by managing weed seed dispersal before or at crop harvest. Controlling weed seed dispersal has potential to manage herbicide-resistant giant ragweed by limiting replenishment of the weed seed bank.