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The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
This article presents the first radiocarbon (14C) results from the Late Bronze Age levels of Tel Azekah (Israel). The results testify to the long and prosperous occupation of the site during this period, commencing at least in LB IIA and ending with a severe destruction at the close of LB III. In the extra-mural quarter (Area S2), a pre-monumental building phase (S2-6) dates to the 14th or early 13th century BCE. Two sub-phases of a public building constructed above this yielded dates in the second half of the 13th century and first two-thirds of the 12th century BCE, suggesting that occupation persisted through the “Crisis Years” of the eastern Mediterranean region. On the top of the mound, in Area T2, the destruction of the final LB III level (T2-3) most likely occurred near the end of the 12th century BCE. The preliminary Azekah results are in good agreement with existing data from Lachish and Megiddo, but seem at odds with results from nearby Tel es-Safi/Gath.
Limitations in sample size, overly inclusive antibiotic classes, lack of adjustment of key risk variables, and inadequate assessment of cases contribute to widely ranging estimates of risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).
To incorporate all key CDI risk factors in addition to 27 antibiotic classes into a single comprehensive model.
Retrospective cohort study.
Kaiser Permanente Southern California.
Members of Kaiser Permanente Southern California at least 18 years old admitted to any of its 14 hospitals from January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2012.
Hospital-acquired CDI cases were identified by polymerase chain reaction assay. Exposure to major outpatient antibiotics (10 classes) and those administered during inpatient stays (27 classes) was assessed. Age, sex, self-identified race/ethnicity, Charlson Comorbidity Score, previous hospitalization, transfer from a skilled nursing facility, number of different antibiotic classes, statin use, and proton pump inhibitor use were also assessed. Poisson regression estimated adjusted risk of CDI.
A total of 401,234 patients with 2,638 cases of incident CDI (0.7%) were detected. The final model demonstrated highest CDI risk associated with increasing age, exposure to multiple antibiotic classes, and skilled nursing facility transfer. Factors conferring the most reduced CDI risk were inpatient exposure to tetracyclines and first-generation cephalosporins, and outpatient macrolides.
Although type and aggregate antibiotic exposure are important, the factors that increase the likelihood of environmental spore acquisition should not be underestimated. Operationally, our findings have implications for antibiotic stewardship efforts and can inform empirical and culture-driven treatment approaches.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(12):1409–1416
Yield responses of a grain amaranth accession to different irrigation strategies were evaluated in Naples, Italy. Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative response of amaranth under combined abiotic stresses (salinity and drought) in a Mediterranean environment of South Italy affected by problems due to groundwater salinization from seawater intrusion.
A comparison was made in 2009 and 2010 between a fully irrigated treatment (1·00), with the restitution of all of the water necessary to replenish to field capacity the soil layer explored by roots (0·00–0·36 m), and two treatments with restitution of 0·50 and 0·25 of the water volume used for the fully irrigated treatment. The three levels of irrigation volume were combined with two levels of salinity, either fresh or salt water, with electrical conductivity (EC) of the irrigation water of 0·64 and 22 dS/m respectively, in a factorial experiment thus harbouring six treatments in a randomized complete block design. The results showed good adaptation of amaranth to drought. It was possible to obtain high yields even if groundwater with infiltrated seawater was used for irrigation (50% yield reduction when the EC of soil saturated paste extract (ECe) was 13·97 dS/m). A reduction of 50% in the volume of irrigation did not cause a significant reduction in yield, whether using fresh or saline water, compared to the treatment fully irrigated with fresh water. The chemical composition of amaranth seeds, however, was significantly affected by the treatments. Starch and ash content decreased with increasing drought while protein content was increased by both salt and drought.
In view of the increased presence of salinity and drought stress in the Mediterranean area and the scarce information on amaranth response to salt and water stress, the aim of the present work is evaluation of the quantitative and qualitative response of amaranth grown in a Mediterranean environment of South Italy under combined drought and salinity stress.
We used the winter of 2009–2010, which had minimal influenza circulation due to the earlier 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, to test the accuracy of ecological trend methods used to estimate influenza-related deaths and hospitalizations. We aggregated weekly counts of person-time, all-cause deaths, and hospitalizations for pneumonia/influenza and respiratory/circulatory conditions from seven healthcare systems. We predicted the incidence of the outcomes during the winter of 2009–2010 using three different methods: a cyclic (Serfling) regression model, a cyclic regression model with viral circulation data (virological regression), and an autoregressive, integrated moving average model with viral circulation data (ARIMAX). We compared predicted non-influenza incidence with actual winter incidence. All three models generally displayed high accuracy, with prediction errors for death ranging from −5% to −2%. For hospitalizations, errors ranged from −10% to −2% for pneumonia/influenza and from −3% to 0% for respiratory/circulatory. The Serfling and virological models consistently outperformed the ARIMAX model. The three methods tested could predict incidence of non-influenza deaths and hospitalizations during a winter with negligible influenza circulation. However, meaningful mis-estimation of the burden of influenza can still result with outcomes for which the contribution of influenza is low, such as all-cause mortality.
Aberrant serotonin (5-HT) signalling and exposure to early life stress have both been suggested to play a role in anxiety- and impulsivity-related behaviours. However, whether congenital 5-HT deficiency × early life stress interactions influence the development of anxiety- or impulsivity-like behaviour has not been established. Here, we examined the effects of early life maternal separation (MS) stress on anxiety-like behaviour and behavioural disinhibition, a type of impulsivity-like behaviour, in wild-type (WT) and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) knock-in (Tph2KI) mice, which exhibit ∼60–80% reductions in the levels of brain 5-HT due to a R439H mutation in Tph2. We also investigated the effects of 5-HT deficiency and early life stress on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, plasma corticosterone levels and several signal transduction pathways in the amygdala. We demonstrate that MS slightly increases anxiety-like behaviour in WT mice and induces behavioural disinhibition in Tph2KI animals. We also demonstrate that MS leads to a slight decrease in cell proliferation within the hippocampus and potentiates corticosterone responses to acute stress, but these effects are not affected by brain 5-HT deficiency. However, we show that 5-HT deficiency leads to significant alterations in SGK-1 and GSK3β signalling and NMDA receptor expression in the amygdala in response to MS. Together, these findings support a potential role for 5-HT-dependent signalling in the amygdala in regulating the long-term effects of early life stress on anxiety-like behaviour and behavioural disinhibition.
Computational screening is becoming increasingly useful in the search for new materials. We are interested in the design of new semiconductors to be used for light harvesting in a photoelectrochemical cell. In the present paper, we study the double perovskite structures obtained by combining 46 stable cubic perovskites which was found to have a finite bandgap in a previous screening-study.1 The four-metal double perovskite space is too large to be investigated completely. For this reason we propose a method for combining different metals to obtain a desired bandgap. We derive some bandgap design rules on how to combine two cubic perovskites to generate a new combination with a larger or smaller bandgap compared with the constituent structures. Those rules are based on the type of orbitals involved in the conduction bands and on the size of the two cubic bandgaps. We also see that a change in the volume has an effect on the size of the bandgap. In addition, we suggest some new candidate materials that can be used as photocatalysts in one- and two-photon water splitting devices.
Producing organic fish diets requires that the use of both fishmeal and fish oil (FO) be minimized and replaced by sustainable, organic sources. The purpose of the present study was to replace FO with organic oils and evaluate the effects on feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), daily specific growth rate (SGR) and nutrient digestibility in diets in which fishmeal protein was partly substituted by organic plant protein concentrates. It is prohibited to add antioxidants to organic oils, and therefore the effects of force-oxidizing the oils (including FO) on feed intake and nutrient digestibility was furthermore examined. Four organic oils with either a relatively high or low content of polyunsaturated fatty acids were considered: linseed oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and grapeseed oil. Substituting FO with organic oils did not affect feed intake (P > 0.05), FCR or SGR (P > 0.05) despite very different dietary fatty acid profiles. All organic plant oils had a positive effect on apparent lipid digestibility compared with the FO diet (P < 0.05), whereas there were no effects on the apparent digestibility of other macronutrients when compared with the FO diet (P > 0.05). Organic vegetable oils did not undergo auto-oxidation as opposed to the FO, and the FO diet consequently had a significantly negative effect on the apparent lipid digestibility. Feed intake was not affected by oxidation of any oils. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that it is possible to fully substitute FO with plant-based organic oils without negatively affecting nutrient digestibility and growth performance. Furthermore, plant-based organic oils are less likely to oxidize than FOs, prolonging the shelf life of such organic diets.
Orang-utans (Pongo spp.) are primarily frugivorous (Morrogh-Bernard et al. 2009) and are often regarded as important seed dispersers (Corlett 1998). In Tanjung Puting, Borneo, Galdikas (1982) found intact seeds in 94% of faecal samples, with a median 111 seeds per defecation; and in Ketambe, Sumatra, Rijksen (1978) found seeds in 44% of faecal samples. Furthermore, orang-utans have large day ranges (e.g. mean = 968 m, range = 280–2834 m across adults in Sabangau; Harrison 2009) and slow passage rates of digesta through the gut (Caton et al. 1999), and, hence, may disperse seeds far from parent trees. Many seeds are also spat out or discarded at distances up to 75 m from parent trees (Galdikas 1982).