To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata is an important crop pest in eastern Asia. Nocturnal insects, including nocturnal moths, have phototactic behavior to an artificial light source. Phototactic behavior in insects is species-specific in response to different wavelengths of light sources. Our previous study showed that green (520 nm) light emitting diode (LED) light resulted in a significantly higher phototactic behavior in M. separata moths compared to the other wavelength LED lights. The goal of the present study is to investigate the influence of green light illumination on biological characteristics of different developmental stages in M. separata. Our results revealed that when different developmental stages of M. separata were exposed to the green light illumination in a dark period, several biological characteristics in all developmental stages except for egg stage were positively changed, but those of F1 generation M. separata which are next generation of the adults exposed to the green light did not significantly change compared with the control level. These findings suggest that green light illumination at night (or dark period) has a positive effect on the development and longevity of M. separata.
Objectives: To adequately monitor the course of cognitive functioning in persons with moderate to severe dementia, relevant cognitive tests for the advanced dementia stages are needed. We examined the ability of a test developed for the advanced dementia stages, the Severe Impairment Battery Short version (SIB-S), to measure cognitive change over time. Second, we examined type of memory impairment measured with the SIB-S in different dementia stages. Methods: Participants were institutionalized persons with moderate to severe dementia (N = 217). The SIB-S was administered at 6-month intervals during a 2-year period. Dementia severity at baseline was classified according to Global Deterioration Scale criteria. We used mixed models to evaluate the course of SIB-S total and domain scores, and whether dementia stage at baseline affected these courses. Results: SIB-S total scores declined significantly over time, and the course of decline differed significantly between dementia stages at baseline. Persons with moderately severe dementia declined faster in mean SIB-S total scores than persons with moderate or severe dementia. Between persons with moderate and moderately severe dementia, there was only a difference in the rate of decline of semantic items, but not episodic and non-semantic items. Conclusions: Although modest floor and slight ceiling effects were noted in severe and milder cases, respectively, the SIB-S proved to be one of few available adequate measures of cognitive change in institutionalized persons with moderate to severe dementia. (JINS, 2019, 25, 204–214)
Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is frequently used in patients with cardiac disease. We evaluated short-term outcomes and identified factors associated with hospital mortality in cardiac patients supported with veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
A retrospective review of patients supported with veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation at a university-affiliated children’s hospital was performed.
A total of 253 patients with cardiac disease managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were identified; survival to discharge was 48%, which significantly improved from 39% in an earlier era (1995–2001) (p=0.01). Patients were categorised into surgical versus non-surgical groups on the basis of whether they had undergone cardiac surgery before or not, respectively. The most common indication for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation: 96 (51%) in the surgical group and 45 (68%) in the non-surgical group. In a multiple covariate analysis, single-ventricle physiology (p=0.01), duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (p<0.01), and length of hospital stay (p=0.03) were associated with hospital mortality. Weekend or night shift cannulation was associated with mortality in non-surgical patients (p=0.05).
We report improvement in survival compared with an earlier era in cardiac patients supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Single-ventricle physiology continues to negatively impact survival, along with evidence of organ dysfunction during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and length of stay.
Errorless learning is a promising rehabilitation principle for learning tasks in patients with amnesia, including patients with Korsakoff's syndrome. Errorless learning might possibly also contribute to decreases in behavioral and psychiatric problems, as patients in long-term care facilities become more independent after training. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of errorless learning on potential changes in psychotic and affective symptoms, aggression and apathy, in contrast with a control group who received care as usual.
The current study is a quasi-experimental study on errorless learning and psychotic and affective symptoms, aggression, and apathy in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome, living in long-term care facilities for patients with Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) in the Netherlands. The GIP-28, HoNOS−ABI, and NVCL−20 were administered to a group of patients with KS who received errorless learning training (n = 51) and a patient control group who received care as usual (n = 31). Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Tests were performed to examine psychotic and affective symptoms, aggression, and apathy at baseline and at follow-up in the errorless learning group and the control group.
Errorless learning training effectively reduced psychotic symptoms (including provoked confabulations), affective symptoms, and agitation/aggression. There were no significant changes (increases nor decreases) in the control group. Levels of apathy were stable over time in both groups.
Results with respect to psychotic and affective symptoms, aggression, and apathy are discussed in depth. Patients with KS can become more autonomous in a cared for setting using errorless learning principles. This might also result in decreases in behavioral and psychiatric problems in patients.
The present study aimed to compare the anti-biofilm activities of four commonly available antiseptic eardrops against biofilms from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and quinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro.
The anti-biofilm activities of 50 per cent Burow's solution, vinegar with water (1:1), 2 per cent acetic acid solution, and 4 per cent boric acid solution were evaluated using biofilm assays. Additionally, the anti-biofilm activities of the four antiseptic solutions against tympanostomy tube biofilms were compared using a scanning electron microscope.
The inhibition of biofilm formation from methicillin-resistant S aureus and quinolone-resistant P aeruginosa occurred after treatment with 4 per cent boric acid solution, 2 per cent acetic acid solution, and vinegar with water (1:1). However, 50 per cent Burow's solution did not exhibit effective anti-biofilm activity.
The results indicate that 4 per cent boric acid solution and vinegar with water (1:1) are potent inhibitors of biofilms from methicillin-resistant S aureus and quinolone-resistant P aeruginosa, and provide safe pH levels for avoiding ototoxicity.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Background: Delirium is a well described form of acute brain organ dysfunction characterized by decreased or increased movement, changes in attention and concentration as well as perceptual disturbances (i.e., hallucinations) and delusions. Catatonia, a neuropsychiatric syndrome traditionally described in patients with severe psychiatric illness, can present as phenotypically similar to delirium and is characterized by increased, decreased and/or abnormal movements, staring, rigidity, and mutism. Delirium and catatonia can co-occur in the setting of medical illness, but no studies have explored this relationship by age. Our objective was to assess whether advancing age and the presence of catatonia are associated with delirium. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Methods: We prospectively enrolled critically ill patients at a single institution who were on a ventilator or in shock and evaluated them daily for delirium using the Confusion Assessment for the ICU and for catatonia using the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale. Measures of association (OR) were assessed with a simple logistic regression model with catatonia as the independent variable and delirium as the dependent variable. Effect measure modification by age was assessed using a Likelihood ratio test. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Results: We enrolled 136 medical and surgical critically ill patients with 452 matched (concomitant) delirium and catatonia assessments. Median age was 59 years (IQR: 52–68). In our cohort of 136 patients, 58 patients (43%) had delirium only, 4 (3%) had catatonia only, 42 (31%) had both delirium and catatonia, and 32 (24%) had neither. Age was significantly associated with prevalent delirium (i.e., increasing age associated with decreased risk for delirium) (p=0.04) after adjusting for catatonia severity. Catatonia was significantly associated with prevalent delirium (p<0.0001) after adjusting for age. Peak delirium risk was for patients aged 55 years with 3 or more catatonic signs, who had 53.4 times the odds of delirium (95% CI: 16.06, 176.75) than those with no catatonic signs. Patients 70 years and older with 3 or more catatonia features had half this risk. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Conclusions: Catatonia is significantly associated with prevalent delirium even after controlling for age. These data support an inverted U-shape risk of delirium after adjusting for catatonia. This relationship and its clinical ramifications need to be examined in a larger sample, including patients with dementia. Additionally, we need to assess which acute brain syndrome (delirium or catatonia) develops first.
Walking ability recently emerged as a sub-clinical marker of cognitive decline. Hence, the relationship between baseline gait and future cognitive decline was examined in geriatric patients. Because a “loss of complexity” (LOC) is a key phenomenon of the aging process that exhibits in multiple systems, we propose the idea that age- and cognition-related LOC may also become manifested in gait function. The LOC theory suggests that even healthy aging is associated with a (neuro)physiological breakdown of system elements that causes a decline in variability and an overall LOC. We used coordination dynamics as a conceptual framework and hypothesized that a LOC is reflected in dynamic gait outcomes (e.g. gait regularity, complexity, stability) and that such outcomes could increase the specificity of the gait-cognition link.
19 geriatric patients (age 80.0±5.8) were followed for 14.4±6.6 months. An iPod collected three-dimensional (3D) trunk accelerations while patients walked for 3 minutes. Cognition was evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Seven-Minute screen (7MS) test. The Reliable Change Index (RCI) quantified the magnitude of cognitive change. Spearman's Rho coefficients (ρ) indexed correlations between baseline gait and future cognitive change.
Seven patients showed reliable cognitive decline (“Cognitive Decline” group), and 12 patients remained cognitively stable (“Cognitive Stable” group) over time. Future cognitive decline was correlated with a more regular (ρ = 0.579*) and predictable (ρ = 0.486*) gait pattern, but not with gait speed.
The increase in gait regularity and predictability possibly reflects a LOC due to age- and cognition-related (neuro)physiological decline. Because dynamic versus traditional gait outcomes (i.e. gait speed and (variability of) stride time) were more strongly correlated with future cognitive decline, the use of wearable sensors in predicting and monitoring cognitive and physical health in vulnerable geriatric patients can be considered promising. However, our results are preliminary and do require replication in larger cohorts.
Haemodynamically unstable patients can experience potentially hazardous changes in vital signs related to the exchange of depleted syringes of epinephrine to full syringes. The purpose was to determine the measured effects of epinephrine syringe exchanges on the magnitude, duration, and frequency of haemodynamic disturbances in the hour after an exchange event (study) relative to the hours before (control).
Materials and methods
Beat-to-beat vital signs recorded every 2 seconds from bedside monitors for patients admitted to the paediatric cardiovascular ICU of Texas Children’s Hospital were collected between 1 January, 2013 and 30 June, 2015. Epinephrine syringe exchanges without dose/flow change were obtained from electronic records. Time, magnitude, and duration of changes in systolic blood pressure and heart rate were characterised using Matlab. Significant haemodynamic events were identified and compared with control data.
In all, 1042 syringe exchange events were found and 850 (81.6%) had uncorrupted data for analysis. A total of 744 (87.5%) exchanges had at least 1 associated haemodynamic perturbation including 2958 systolic blood pressure and 1747 heart-rate changes. Heart-rate perturbations occurred 37% before exchange and 63% after exchange, and 37% of systolic blood pressure perturbations happened before syringe exchange, whereas 63% occurred after syringe exchange with significant differences found in systolic blood pressure frequency (p<0.001), duration (p<0.001), and amplitude (p<0.001) compared with control data.
This novel data collection and signal processing analysis showed a significant increase in frequency, duration, and magnitude of systolic blood pressure perturbations surrounding epinephrine syringe exchange events.
Mental Health Systems and Policy: Introduction to Part III
Bruce G. Link, Distinquished Professor of Sociology and Public Policy, University of California at Riverside,
Jo C. Phelan, Professor, Sociomedical Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University
This chapter provides a frame for examining extant issues and evidence concerning labeling and stigma as it pertains to mental illnesses. The issues addressed are: (1) the conceptualization of labeling and stigma, (2) evidence about trends in stigma-relevant public attitudes and beliefs, and (3) how labeling and stigma affect individuals who develop mental illnesses. Both modified labeling theory and the conceptualization of stigma developed by Link and Phelan point to the importance of attitudes and beliefs, leading to questions about how such attitudes and beliefs are faring in trends over time. The research reviewed in this chapter shows that the public recognizes mental illnesses as illnesses with genetic and biological bases; however, the core stereotypes of dangerousness and incompetence have either changed little or actually become stronger. No change in social distancing responses has accompanied the increasingly medical conception of mental illnesses. Discrimination against people with mental illnesses occurs through multiple mechanisms, including direct person-to-person discrimination, discrimination operating through the stigmatized person, discrimination that emerges silently but perniciously through social interaction, and structural stigma. What are the policy implications of this chapter?
When we ask who is labeled mentally ill and what the consequences of such labeling are, we ask questions that are central to the sociological understanding of mental disorder. Such questions are relevant to those who are concerned that so many people with serious mental illnesses go unlabeled and untreated (Regier et al., 1993; Wang et al., 2005). Such questions are also relevant to people attempting to recover from mental illnesses who often feel that they suffer as much from being labeled mentally ill as they do from mental illness itself (Deegan, 1993).
As a society, we have created specific professions (including psychiatry, clinical psychology, psychiatric social work, and psychiatric nursing) upon whose members we confer the authority to define, label, and treat mental illnesses. Social processes determine who encounters these professionals and many of the important consequences that might follow from such an encounter. The treatment they receive may ameliorate their symptoms, improve their well-being, and enhance their social and occupational functioning. At the same time, along with treatment comes the possibility of pejorative labeling and stigma. Social science research on labeling and stigma can help us understand the processes involved, and, by bringing those processes to light, open the possibility of addressing some of their negative consequences.
Introduction: Developing structured online educational curricula that meet learner needs is challenging. Thrombosis and bleeding are areas of innovation and change in emergency medicine. We aimed to determine the learning needs of the Free Open Access Medical education (FOAM) community with the subsequent goal of developing structured curricula to meet them. Methods: A Massive Online Needs Assessment (MONA) was conducted to determine the perceived and unperceived educational needs in thrombosis and bleeding. The survey was designed by a multidisciplinary team of experts and was open from September 20 to December 10, 2016. The survey requested limited demographic information and contained questions to identify topics of interest. Respondents’ baseline knowledge and unperceived needs were assessed using 5 case scenarios containing 3 questions each. Knowledge gaps were defined a priori as topics where <50% of participants answered correctly. Results: We received 198 complete responses by staff physicians (n=109), residents (n=46), medical students (n=29) and allied health professionals (n=14) from 20 countries. 116/198 responses were from people working in emergency medicine. Topics of interest to participants included choice of anticoagulants, interruption of anticoagulation, management of bleeding and monitoring anticoagulation. Knowledge gaps were identified in 4 main areas including interruption of anticoagulation, management of bleeding (including reversal of anticoagulation and massive transfusion), inherited thrombophilia, and screening for malignancy in acute thrombosis. Conclusion: We have identified six priority topics to cover in our future online Thrombosis and Bleeding curriculum by surveying the online medical community. Although perceived and unperceived needs showed high congruence, two priority topics were only identified by assessing unperceived needs.
Introduction/Innovation Concept: The boom in online educational resources for medical education over the past decade has changed how physicians learn and keep up to date with new literature. While nearly all emergency medicine residents use online resources, few of these resources were designed to target knowledge gaps. Novel methods are required to identify learning needs to allow the targeted development of learner-centered curricula. Methods: A multidisciplinary team attempted to determine the feasibility of conducting a Massive Online Needs Assessment (MONA) to assess the perceived and unperceived educational needs in thrombosis and bleeding. An open, online survey was launched via Google Forms and disseminated using the online educational resource CanadiEM.org and social media platforms Twitter and Facebook with the goal of reaching participants of the Free Open Access Medical education (FOAM) community. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: The survey was designed to identify knowledge gaps and contained demographic, free text, and multiple choice questions. It took individuals approximately 30 minutes to complete and was incentivized with entry into a draw for one of four $250 Amazon Gift cards. Feasibility was defined a priori as 150 responses from at least 4 specialties in 4 or more countries. This sample was deemed the minimum number required to identify knowledge gaps (defined as <50% correct answers). The survey was open from September 20 to December 10, 2016. We received 198 complete responses from 20 countries. Respondents included staff physicians (n=109), residents (n=46), medical students (n=29), nurses (n=8), paramedics (n=4), a pharmacist (n=1) and a physician assistant (n=1). The survey entry page hosted on CanadiEM.org received page views from 866 unique IP addresses. As such, a conservative approximation of the completion rate per unique viewer was 22% (198/866). Conclusion: It is feasible to use a MONA to collect data on the perceived and unperceived needs of an online community. Such needs assessments could be used to make online resources more learner-centered.
The Korean native chicken (KNC) is believed to have existed in the Korean Peninsula more than 1,400 years ago. Since then, KNC have been bred only by private farmers in rural areas of Korea. In 1994, a KNC conservation program was established by the Korean government and, as a result, five lines were restored. KNC are considered to have a unique taste and texture that is more attractive to Korean consumers than meat from commercial broilers. However, the price of KNC is relatively high, which is mainly due to the breed's low growth rate, hence the limitations for industrial applications. In addition, their unique taste and texture in comparison with that of other broilers has been evaluated by scientists over the past few years. The general composition, physiochemical traits, content of taste-active and endogenous bioactive compounds and sensory quality of KNC meat, as well as breeding history are reviewed in this paper. The information from this review can be used for the development of commercial KNC breeds and can be applied to models for the commercialisation of native chicken breeds in developing countries.
Morbidity is defined as a state of being unhealthy or of experiencing an aspect of health that is “generally bad for you”, and postoperative morbidity linked to paediatric cardiac surgery encompasses a range of conditions that may impact the patient and are potential targets for quality assurance.
As part of a wider study, a multi-disciplinary group of professionals aimed to define a list of morbidities linked to paediatric cardiac surgery that was prioritised by a panel reflecting the views of both professionals from a range of disciplines and settings as well as parents and patients.
We present a set of definitions of morbidity for use in routine audit after paediatric cardiac surgery. These morbidities are ranked in priority order as acute neurological event, unplanned re-operation, feeding problems, the need for renal support, major adverse cardiac events or never events, extracorporeal life support, necrotising enterocolitis, surgical site of blood stream infection, and prolonged pleural effusion or chylothorax. It is recognised that more than one such morbidity may arise in the same patient and these are referred to as multiple morbidities, except in the case of extracorporeal life support, which is a stand-alone constellation of morbidity.
It is feasible to define a range of paediatric cardiac surgical morbidities for use in routine audit that reflects the priorities of both professionals and parents. The impact of these morbidities on the patient and family will be explored prospectively as part of a wider ongoing, multi-centre study.
An oscillating vertical displacement of the Milky Way, with a wavelength of about 8 kpc and and amplitude of about 100 pc (increasing with distance from the Galactic center) is observed towards the Galactic anticenter. These oscillations are thought to be the result of disk perturbations from dwarf satellites of the Milky Way. They explain the Monoceros Ring and could be related to Milky Way spiral structure.
Few studies have investigated developmental strengths and weaknesses within the cognitive profile of children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome (FXS), a single-gene cause of inherited intellectual impairment. With a prospective longitudinal design and using normalized raw scores (Z scores) to circumvent floor effects, we measured cognitive functioning of 184 children and adolescents with FXS (ages 6 to 16) using the Wechsler Scale of Intelligence for Children on one to three occasions for each participant. Participants with FXS received lower raw scores relative to the Wechsler Scale of Intelligence for Children normative sample across the developmental period. Verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, and processing speed Z scores were marked by a widening gap from the normative sample, while freedom from distractibility Z scores showed a narrowing gap. Key findings include a relative strength for verbal skills in comparison with visuospatial–constructive skills arising in adolescence and a discrepancy between working memory (weakness) and processing speed (strength) in childhood that diminishes in adolescence. Results suggest that the cognitive profile associated with FXS develops dynamically from childhood to adolescence. Findings are discussed within the context of aberrant brain morphology in childhood and maturation in adolescence. We argue that assessing disorder-specific cognitive developmental profiles will benefit future disorder-specific treatment research.
Micronutrient deficiencies and low dietary intakes among community-dwelling older adults are associated with functional decline, frailty and difficulties with independent living. As such, studies that seek to understand the types and magnitude of potential dietary inadequacies might be beneficial for guiding future interventions. We carried out a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Observational cohort and longitudinal studies presenting the habitual dietary intakes of older adults ( ≥ 65 years) were included. Sex-specific mean (and standard deviation) habitual micronutrient intakes were extracted from each article to calculate the percentage of older people who were at risk for inadequate micronutrient intakes using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. The percentage at risk for inadequate micronutrient intakes from habitual dietary intakes was calculated for twenty micronutrients. A total of thirty-seven articles were included in the pooled systematic analysis. Of the twenty nutrients analysed, six were considered a possible public health concern: vitamin D, thiamin, riboflavin, Ca, Mg and Se. The extent to which these apparent inadequacies are relevant depends on dynamic factors, including absorption and utilisation, vitamin and mineral supplement use, dietary assessment methods and the selection of the reference value. In light of these considerations, the present review provides insight into the type and magnitude of vitamin and mineral inadequacies.
The languages accepted by finite automata are precisely the languages denoted by regular expressions. In contrast, finite automata may exhibit behaviours that cannot be described by regular expressions up to bisimilarity. In this paper, we consider extensions of the theory of regular expressions with various forms of parallel composition and study the effect on expressiveness. First we prove that adding pure interleaving to the theory of regular expressions strictly increases its expressiveness modulo bisimilarity. Then, we prove that replacing the operation for pure interleaving by ACP-style parallel composition gives a further increase in expressiveness, still insufficient, however, to facilitate the expression of all finite automata up to bisimilarity. Finally, we prove that the theory of regular expressions with ACP-style parallel composition and encapsulation is expressive enough to express all finite automata up to bisimilarity. Our results extend the expressiveness results obtained by Bergstra, Bethke and Ponse for process algebras with (the binary variant of) Kleene's star operation.
Babies with CHDs are a particularly vulnerable population with significant mortality in their 1st year. Although most deaths occur in the hospital within the early postoperative period, around one-fifth of postoperative deaths in the 1st year of life may occur after hospital discharge in infants who have undergone apparently successful cardiac surgery.
To systematically review the published literature and identify risk factors for adverse outcomes, specifically deaths and unplanned re-admissions, following hospital discharge after infant surgery for life-threatening CHDs.
A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Web of Knowledge, and PsycINFO electronic databases, supplemented by manual searching of conference abstracts.
A total of 15 studies were eligible for inclusion. Almost exclusively, studies were conducted in single US centres and focussed on children with complex single ventricle diagnoses. A wide range of risk factors were evaluated, and those more frequently identified as having a significant association with higher mortality or unplanned re-admission risk were non-Caucasian ethnicity, lower socio-economic status, co-morbid conditions, age at surgery, operative complexity and procedure type, and post-operative feeding difficulties.
Studies investigating risk factors for adverse outcomes post-discharge following diverse congenital heart operations in infants are lacking. Further research is needed to systematically identify higher risk groups, and to develop interventions targeted at supporting the most vulnerable infants within an integrated primary and secondary care pathway.
The aims of this study were twofold: (a) to explore whether specific components of shared decision making were present in consultations involving nurse prescribers (NPs), pharmacist prescribers (PPs) and general practitioners (GPs) and (b) to relate these to self-reported patient outcomes including satisfaction, adherence and patient perceptions of practitioner empathy.
There are a range of ways for defining and measuring the process of concordance, or shared decision making as it relates to decisions about medicines. As a result, demonstrating a convincing link between shared decision making and patient benefit is challenging. In the United Kingdom, nurses and pharmacists can now take on a prescribing role, engaging in shared decision making. Given the different professional backgrounds of GPs, NPs and PPs, this study sought to explore the process of shared decision making across these three prescriber groups.
Analysis of audio-recordings of consultations in primary care in South England between patients and GPs, NPs and PPs. Analysis of patient questionnaires completed post consultation.
A total of 532 consultations were audio-recorded with 20 GPs, 19 NPs and 12 PPs. Prescribing decisions occurred in 421 (79%). Patients were given treatment options in 21% (102/482) of decisions, the prescriber elicited the patient’s treatment preference in 18% (88/482) and the patient expressed a treatment preference in 24% (118/482) of decisions. PPs were more likely to ask for the patient’s preference about their treatment regimen (χ2=6.6, P=0.036, Cramer’s V=0.12) than either NPs or GPs. Of the 275 patient questionnaires, 192(70%) could be matched with a prescribing decision. NP patients had higher satisfaction levels than patients of GPs or PPs. More time describing treatment options was associated with increased satisfaction, adherence and greater perceived practitioner empathy. While defining, measuring and enabling the process of shared decision making remains challenging, it may have patient benefit.