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In the decades around the turn of the twentieth century, New York was seized by a passion for things French in interior decoration. The influx of French eighteenth-century decorative arts from London and Paris exerted a powerful influence over the imaginations of a new millionaire class, while the emergence of the professional dealer-decorator established channels for the incorporation of these materials into the luxury residence. While these interiors were developed in collaboration with leading US architects such as Richard Morris Hunt and George B. Post, they also posed a subtle challenge to the discourse of intellectualism developed on architects’ behalf. Governed by issues of taste and commerce as well as by artistic judgement, these French interiors presented a compelling vision of aristocratic stature that was at once in keeping, and in conflict, with the aspirations of an American Renaissance. This article considers the role of eighteenth-century French-style interiors in the articulation of a ‘civilised’ architectural tradition in the United States during the so-called Gilded Age. Focusing on the private mansion, it reconsiders the notion of the American Renaissance as a principally academic movement by calling attention to the ways in which it also responded to the requirements of the elite class as well as the commercial marketplace.
As past usual diet quality may affect gut microbiome (GM) composition, we examined the association of the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 assessed 21 and 9 years before stool collection with measures of fecal microbial composition in a subset of the Multiethnic Cohort. A total of 5936 participants completed a validated quantitative FFQ (QFFQ) at cohort entry (Q1, 1993–1996), 5280 at follow-up (Q3, 2003–2008) and 1685 also at a second follow-up (Adiposity Phenotype Study (APS), 2013–2016). All participants provided a stool sample in 2013–2016. Fecal microbial composition was obtained from 16S rRNA gene sequencing (V1–V3 regions). HEI-2015 scores were computed based on each QFFQ. Using linear regression adjusted for relevant covariates, we calculated associations of HEI-2015 scores with gut microbial diversity and 152 individual genera. The mean HEI-2015 scores increased from Q1 (67 (sd 10)) to Q3 (71 (sd 11)) and APS (72 (sd 10)). Alpha diversity assessed by the Shannon Index was significantly higher with increasing tertiles of HEI-2015. Of the 152 bacterial genera tested, seven (Anaerostipes, Coprococcus_2, Eubacterium eligens, Lachnospira, Lachnospiraceae_ND3007, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-013 and Ruminococcus_1) were positively and five (Collinsella, Parabacteroides, Ruminiclostridium_5, Ruminococcus gnavus and Tyzzerella) were inversely associated with HEI-2015 assessed in Q1, Q3 and APS. The estimates of change per unit of the HEI-2015 score associated with the abundance of these twelve genera were consistent across the three questionnaires. The quality of past diet, assessed as far as ∼20 years before stool collection, is equally predictive of GM composition as concurrently assessed diet, indicative of the long-term consistency of this relation.
Our aim was to present the initial experience with a protocol-driven early extubation strategy and to identify risk factors associated with failed spontaneous breathing trials within 12 hours after surgery.
A single institutional retrospective study of children up to 18 years of age was conducted in post-operative cardiac surgical patients over a 1-year period. A daily spontaneous breathing trial protocol was used to assess patients’ readiness for extubation. The study population (n = 129) was stratified into two age groups: infants (n = 84) and children (n = 45), and further stratified according to ventilation time: early extubation (ventilation time less than 12 h, n = 86) and deferred extubation (ventilation time more than 12 h, n = 43). Mann–Whitney U-test and binomial logistic regression were used for statistical analysis.
Early extubated infants had shorter ICU (4 versus 6 days, p = 0.003) and hospital length of stays (16 versus 19 days, p = 0.006), lower re-intubation rates (1 versus 7 patients, p = 0.003), and lower mortality (0 versus. 4 patients, p = 0.01) than deferred extubated infants. There was no significant difference in the studied outcomes in the children group. Malnourished infants and longer cardiopulmonary bypass times were independently associated with failed spontaneous breathing trials within 12 hours after cardiac surgery.
Early extubated infants after cardiac surgery had shorter ICU and hospital length of stay, without an increase in morbidity and mortality, compared to infants who deferred extubation. Nutritional status and longer cardiopulmonary bypass times were risk factors for failed spontaneous breathing trial.
Patients with single-ventricle CHD undergo a series of palliative surgeries that culminate in the Fontan procedure. While the Fontan procedure allows most patients to survive to adulthood, the Fontan circulation can eventually lead to multiple cardiac complications and multi-organ dysfunction. Care for adolescents and adults with a Fontan circulation has begun to transition from a primarily cardiac-focused model to care models, which are designed to monitor multiple organ systems, and using clues from this screening, identify patients who are at risk for adverse outcomes. The complexity of care required for these patients led our centre to develop a multidisciplinary Fontan Management Programme with the primary goals of earlier detection and treatment of complications through the development of a cohesive network of diverse medical subspecialists with Fontan expertise.
Recurrent outbreaks of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O55:H7 occurred in England between 2014 and 2018. We reviewed the epidemiological evidence to identify potential source(s) and transmission routes of the pathogen, and to assess the on-going risk to public health. Over the 5-year period, there were 43 confirmed and three probable cases of STEC O55:H7. The median age of cases was 4 years old (range 6 months to 69 years old) and over half of all cases were female (28/46, 61%). There were 36/46 (78.3%) symptomatic cases, and over half of all cases developed HUS (25/46, 54%), including two fatal cases. No common food or environmental exposures were identified, although the majority of cases lived in rural or semi-rural environments and reported contact with both wild and domestic animals. This investigation informed policy on the clinical and public health management of HUS caused by STEC other than serotype O157:H7 (non-O157 STEC) in England, including comprehensive testing of all household contacts and household pets and more widespread use of polymerase chain reaction assays for the rapid diagnosis of STEC-HUS.
To examine relationships between suicidal ideation, self-harm, and suicide attempts, including the timing of the phenomena.
Subjects and methods
The British National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (NPMS) 2000, a randomised cross-sectional survey of the British population (n = 8,580), included detailed questions about suicidal phenomena.
Suicidal phenomena were common in the survey population: a fifth had experienced tedium vitae, and nearly one in six had had death wishes or considered suicide. 4.4% of the study population had attempted suicide at some time. The relationships between individual elements of suicidality, though not absolute, were strong. The relationships tended to be hierarchical. The results suggested that suicidal thinking represents a strong indicator of vulnerability to suicidal acts, less so to self-harm. Although suicidal phenomena were more common in women, the relationship of the different elements were not affected by gender.
Studies in non clinical populations allow full appreciation of the nature and burden of suicidality. The topic of suicide is sensitive, so there may have been under-reporting, although the level of missing data was around 0.1%. Nevertheless, the sample was large and closely representative of the whole British populace.
Suicidality is common in the British population. The strong relationships between elements of suicidality are clinically important.
Evolving conditions at the terminus of Thwaites Glacier will be important in determining the rate of its future sea-level contribution over the coming decades. Here, we use remote-sensing observations to investigate recent changes (2000–2018) in the structure and velocity of Thwaites Glacier and its floating tongue. We show that the main trunk of Thwaites Glacier has accelerated by 38% over this period, while its previously intact floating tongue has transitioned to a weaker mélange of fractured icebergs bounded by sea ice. However, the rate of structural weakening and acceleration was not uniform across the observational period and we identify two periods of rapid acceleration and structural weakening (2006–2012; 2016–2018), separated by a period of deceleration and re-advance of the structurally-intact shear margin boundary (2012–2015). The timing of these accelerations/decelerations strongly suggests a link to variable ocean forcing. The weakened tongue now has some dependency on landfast sea ice for structural integrity and is vulnerable to changes in landfast ice persistency. Future reductions in landfast sea ice could manifest from changes in climate and/or the imminent removal of the B-22A iceberg from the Thwaites embayment. Such changes could have important implications for the integrity of the ice tongue and future glacier discharge.
There is only limited literature concerning haematological abnormalities in anorexia nervosa (AN), with little past investigation into these abnormalities in adult AN patients admitted to inpatient eating disorder (ED) units.
This study sought to determine the prevalence and severity of haematological abnormalities in admitted AN patients, and to examine correlates of these abnormalities.
All adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of AN admitted to the Cotswold House specialist ED inpatient unit between November 2013 and December 2014 were included in the study. Demographic, anthropometric and haematological parameters were systematically recorded for the duration of each admission. The proportions of patients affected by haematological abnormalities (anaemia, leucocytopaenia, neutropaenia, thrombocytopaenia and pancytopaenia) were selected as primary outcomes, and binary logistic regression was performed using SPSS 22.0.
A total of 37 AN patients (91.9% female; mean age: 29.7 years) were included in this study, with a mean admission BMI of 13.7 kg/m2 (SD: 1.8) and a mean admission duration of 128 days; 54.1% of patients were anaemic, 64.9% of patients experienced leucocytopaenia, 56.8% of patients developed neutropaenia, 16.2% of patients suffered thrombocytopaenia, and 8.1% of patients were pancytopaenic. Logistic regression identified low admission BMI (P = 0.009) and low serum albumin level (P = 0.017) as significant correlates of anaemia, and isolated increased age (P = 0.034) as a significant associate of leucocytopaenia.
Haematological abnormalities occur frequently in AN inpatients. Given the frequency at which abnormalities occurred in this cohort, further large-scale and prospective studies examining haematological abnormalities in inpatient AN populations are warranted.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We surveyed emergency department and urgent care clinicians to assess patterns of use and perceived usefulness of a local antibiotic stewardship application to deliver institution-specific prescribing guidance. Among 114 eligible respondents, the application was widely utilized, and it was perceived to be a useful clinical resource that improved prescribing.
Little is known about the neural substrates of suicide risk in mood disorders. Improving the identification of biomarkers of suicide risk, as indicated by a history of suicide-related behavior (SB), could lead to more targeted treatments to reduce risk.
Participants were 18 young adults with a mood disorder with a history of SB (as indicated by endorsing a past suicide attempt), 60 with a mood disorder with a history of suicidal ideation (SI) but not SB, 52 with a mood disorder with no history of SI or SB (MD), and 82 healthy comparison participants (HC). Resting-state functional connectivity within and between intrinsic neural networks, including cognitive control network (CCN), salience and emotion network (SEN), and default mode network (DMN), was compared between groups.
Several fronto-parietal regions (k > 57, p < 0.005) were identified in which individuals with SB demonstrated distinct patterns of connectivity within (in the CCN) and across networks (CCN-SEN and CCN-DMN). Connectivity with some of these same regions also distinguished the SB group when participants were re-scanned after 1–4 months. Extracted data defined SB group membership with good accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity (79–88%).
These results suggest that individuals with a history of SB in the context of mood disorders may show reliably distinct patterns of intrinsic network connectivity, even when compared to those with mood disorders without SB. Resting-state fMRI is a promising tool for identifying subtypes of patients with mood disorders who may be at risk for suicidal behavior.
Systematic, national surveillance of outbreaks of intestinal infectious disease has been undertaken by Public Health England (PHE) since 1992. Between 1992 and 2002, there were 19 outbreaks linked to raw drinking milk (RDM) or products made using raw milk, involving 229 people; 36 of these were hospitalised. There followed an eleven-year period (2003–2013) where no outbreaks linked to RDM were reported. However, since 2014 seven outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (n = 3) or Campylobacter jejuni (n = 4) caused by contaminated RDM were investigated and reported. Between 2014 and 2017, there were 114 cases, five reported hospitalisations and one death. The data presented within this review indicated that the risk of RDM has increased since 2014. Despite the labelling requirements and recommendations that children should not consume RDM, almost a third of outbreak cases were children. In addition, there has been an increase in consumer popularity and in registered RDM producers in the UK. The Food Standards Agency (FSA) continue to provide advice on RDM to consumers and have recently made additional recommendations to enhance existing controls around registration and hygiene of RDM producers.
Places such as Poverty Point, Mound City, and Chaco Canyon remind us that the siting of ritual infrastructure in ancient North America was a matter of cosmological precedent. The cosmic gravity of these places gathered persons periodically in numbers that challenged routine production. Ritual economies intensified, but beyond the material demands of hosting people, the siting of these places and the timing of gatherings were cosmic work that preconfigured these outcomes. A first millennium AD civic-ceremonial center on the northern Gulf Coast of Florida illustrates the rationale for holding feasts on the end of a parabolic dune that it shared with an existing mortuary facility. Archaeofauna from large pits at Shell Mound support the inference that feasts were timed to summer solstices. Gatherings were large, judging from the infrastructure in support of feasts and efforts to intensify production through oyster mariculture and the construction of a large tidal fish trap. The 250-year history of summer solstice feasts at Shell Mound reinforces the premise that ritual economies were not simply the amplification of routine production. It also suggests that the ecological potential for intensification was secondary to the cosmic significance of solstice-oriented dunes and their connection to mortuary and world-renewal ceremonialism.
Limpets and barnacles are important components of intertidal assemblages worldwide. This study examines the effects of barnacles on the foraging behaviour of the limpet Patella vulgata, which is the main algal grazer in the North-west Atlantic. The behaviour of limpets on a vertical seawall on the Isle of Man (UK) was investigated using autonomous radio-telemetry, comparing their activity patterns on plots characterized by dense barnacle cover and plots from which the barnacles had been removed. Limpet behaviour was investigated at mid-shore level, but two different elevations were considered. This experiment revealed a significant effect of barnacle cover on the activity of P. vulgata. Limpets on smooth surfaces spent a greater proportion of total time active than did limpets on barnacles. Movement activity was also greater in areas that were lower down in the tidal range. In general, limpets were either predominantly active during diurnal high or nocturnal low tides and always avoided nocturnal high tides. Individuals on barnacles at the higher elevation concentrated their activity during nocturnal low water. All the other groups of limpets (smooth surfaces on the upper level and all individuals on the lower shore) had more excursions centred around daylight hours with an equal distribution of activity between periods of low and high water. Inter-individual variability was, however, pronounced.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection can cause serious illness including haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The role of socio-economic status (SES) in differential clinical presentation and exposure to potential risk factors amongst STEC cases has not previously been reported in England. We conducted an observational study using a dataset of all STEC cases identified in England, 2010–2015. Odds ratios for clinical characteristics of cases and foodborne, waterborne and environmental risk factors were estimated using logistic regression, stratified by SES, adjusting for baseline demographic factors. Incidence was higher in the highest SES group compared to the lowest (RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.19–2.00). Odds of Accident and Emergency attendance (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.10–1.75) and hospitalisation (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.36–2.15) because of illness were higher in the most disadvantaged compared to the least, suggesting potential lower ascertainment of milder cases or delayed care-seeking behaviour in disadvantaged groups. Advantaged individuals were significantly more likely to report salad/fruit/vegetable/herb consumption (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.16–2.17), non-UK or UK travel (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.40–2.27; OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.35–2.56) and environmental exposures (walking in a paddock, OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.22–2.70; soil contact, OR 1.52, 95% CI 2.13–1.09) suggesting other unmeasured risks, such as person-to-person transmission, could be more important in the most disadvantaged group.
Oats can be processed in a variety of ways ranging from minimally processed such as steel-cut oats (SCO), to mildly processed such as large-flake oats (old fashioned oats, OFO), moderately processed such as instant oats (IO) or highly processed in ready-to-eat oat cereals such as Honey Nut Cheerios (HNC). Although processing is believed to increase glycaemic and insulinaemic responses, the effect of oat processing in these respects is unclear. Thus, we compared the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses elicited by 628 kJ portions of SCO, OFO, IO and HNC and a portion of Cream of Rice cereal (CR) containing the same amount of available-carbohydrate (23 g) as the oatmeals. Healthy males (n 18) and females (n 12) completed this randomised, cross-over trial. Blood was taken fasting and at intervals for 3 h following test-meal consumption. Glucose and insulin peak-rises and incremental AUC (iAUC) were subjected to repeated-measures ANOVA using Tukey’s test (two-sided P<0·05) to compare individual means. Glucose peak-rise (primary endpoint, mean (sem) mmol/l) after OFO, 2·19 (sem 0·11), was significantly less than after CR, 2·61 (sem 0·13); and glucose peak-rise after SCO, 1·93 (sem 0·13), was significantly less than after CR, HNC, 2·49 (sem 0·13) and IO 2·47 (sem 0·13). Glucose iAUC was significantly lower after SCO than CR and HNC. Insulin peak rise was similar among the test meals, but insulin iAUC was significantly less after SCO than IO. Thus, the results show that oat processing affects glycaemic and insulinaemic responses with lower responses associated with less processing.
Growth failure is prevalent among infants with CHD. A Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plan was introduced at Boston Children’s Hospital’s cardiac medical ward to identify patients with growth failure, evaluate relevant contributing conditions, and recommend a management plan including collaboration with nutrition physicians.
The objective of this study was to determine whether enrolled patients had improved growth compared with historical controls.
A total of 29 patients were enrolled in the period July, 2013–June, 2014. In all, 42 historical controls who met eligibility criteria for enrolment were selected for comparison from patients admitted to the same ward in the period June, 2010–June, 2011. Patients with CHD aged <1 year , with growth failure defined as weight-for-age z-score <−2, or failure to sustain adequate weight gain were eligible for participation. Primary outcome was change in weight-for-age z-score from enrolment to most recent weight measurement among patients with at least 6 months of follow-up.
Control patients were older at baseline admission weight (118 versus 95 days, p=0.33), and had a higher weight-for-age z-score, −2.9 (−3.1, −2.6) versus −3.7 (−4.3, −3.0) (p=0.02), compared with enrolled patients. Enrolled patients had greater gain in weight-for-age z-score, 2.7 (2.0, 3.4) versus 1.8 (1.5, 2.2) (p=0.03), from baseline to most recent follow-up.
Patients enrolled in a nutrition-focused protocol had greater weight improvement than historical controls. Identification of growth failure and collaboration with a nutrition support team was associated with improved weight gain among CHD patients experiencing growth failure. CHD programmes should consider a structural approach, including nutrition expertise to address growth failure.
A total of 592 people reported gastrointestinal illness following attendance at Street Spice, a food festival held in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, North East England in February/March 2013. Epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations were undertaken to identify the source and prevent further cases. Several epidemiological analyses were conducted; a cohort study; a follow-up survey of cases and capture re-capture to estimate the true burden of cases. Indistinguishable isolates of Salmonella Agona phage type 40 were identified in cases and on fresh curry leaves used in one of the accompaniments served at the event. Molecular testing indicated entero-aggregative Escherichia coli and Shigella also contributed to the burden of illness. Analytical studies found strong associations between illness and eating food from a particular stall and with food items including coconut chutney which contained fresh curry leaves. Further investigation of the food supply chain and food preparation techniques identified a lack of clear instruction on the use of fresh uncooked curry leaves in finished dishes and uncertainty about their status as a ready-to-eat product. We describe the investigation of one of the largest outbreaks of food poisoning in England, involving several gastrointestinal pathogens including a strain of Salmonella Agona not previously seen in the UK.