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Recovery Colleges are opening internationally. The evaluation focus has been on outcomes for Recovery College students who use mental health services. However, benefits may also arise for: staff who attend or co-deliver courses; the mental health and social care service hosting the Recovery College; and wider society. A theory-based change model characterising how Recovery Colleges impact at these higher levels is needed for formal evaluation of their impact, and to inform future Recovery College development. The aim of this study was to develop a stratified theory identifying candidate mechanisms of action and outcomes (impact) for Recovery Colleges at staff, services and societal levels.
Inductive thematic analysis of 44 publications identified in a systematised review was supplemented by collaborative analysis involving a lived experience advisory panel to develop a preliminary theoretical framework. This was refined through semi-structured interviews with 33 Recovery College stakeholders (service user students, peer/non-peer trainers, managers, community partners, clinicians) in three sites in England.
Candidate mechanisms of action and outcomes were identified at staff, services and societal levels. At the staff level, experiencing new relationships may change attitudes and associated professional practice. Identified outcomes for staff included: experiencing and valuing co-production; changed perceptions of service users; and increased passion and job motivation. At the services level, Recovery Colleges often develop somewhat separately from their host system, reducing the reach of the college into the host organisation but allowing development of an alternative culture giving experiential learning opportunities to staff around co-production and the role of a peer workforce. At the societal level, partnering with community-based agencies gave other members of the public opportunities for learning alongside people with mental health problems and enabled community agencies to work with people they might not have otherwise. Recovery Colleges also gave opportunities to beneficially impact on community attitudes.
This study is the first to characterise the mechanisms of action and impact of Recovery Colleges on mental health staff, mental health and social care services, and wider society. The findings suggest that a certain distance is needed in the relationship between the Recovery College and its host organisation if a genuine cultural alternative is to be created. Different strategies are needed depending on what level of impact is intended, and this study can inform decision-making about mechanisms to prioritise. Future research into Recovery Colleges should include contextual evaluation of these higher level impacts, and investigate effectiveness and harms.
There is a known high prevalence of genetic and clinical syndrome diagnoses in the paediatric cardiac population. These disorders often have multisystem effects, which may have an important impact on neurodevelopmental outcomes. Taken together, these facts suggest that patients and families may benefit from consultation by genetic specialists in a cardiac neurodevelopmental clinic.
This study assessed the burden of genetic disorders and utility of genetics evaluation in a cardiac neurodevelopmental clinic.
A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients evaluated in a cardiac neurodevelopmental clinic from 6 December, 2011 to 16 April, 2013. All patients were seen by a cardiovascular geneticist with genetic counselling support.
A total of 214 patients were included in this study; 64 of these patients had a pre-existing genetic or syndromic diagnosis. Following genetics evaluation, an additional 19 were given a new clinical or laboratory-confirmed genetic diagnosis including environmental such as teratogenic exposures, malformation associations, chromosomal disorders, and single-gene disorders. Genetic testing was recommended for 112 patients; radiological imaging to screen for congenital anomalies for 17 patients; subspecialist medical referrals for 73 patients; and non-genetic clinical laboratory testing for 14 patients. Syndrome-specific guidelines were available and followed for 25 patients with known diagnosis. American Academy of Pediatrics Red Book asplenia guideline recommendations were given for five heterotaxy patients, and family-based cardiac screening was recommended for 23 families affected by left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.
Genetics involvement in a cardiac neurodevelopmental clinic is helpful in identifying new unifying diagnoses and providing syndrome-specific care, which may impact the patient’s overall health status and neurodevelopmental outcome.
Fetal exposure to maternal undernutrition has lifelong consequences for physiological and metabolic function. Maternal low-protein diet is associated with an age-related phenotype in rats, characterised by a period of resistance to development of obesity in early adulthood, giving way to an obesity-prone, insulin-resistant state in later adulthood. Offspring of rats fed a control (18 % casein) or low-protein (9 % casein; LP) diet in pregnancy were challenged with a high-fat diet at 9 months of age. To assess whether other maternal factors modulated the programming effects of nutrition, offspring were studied from young (2–4 months old) and older (6–9 months old) mothers. Weight gain with a high-fat diet was attenuated in male offspring of older mothers fed LP (interaction of maternal age and diet; P = 0·011) and adipose tissue deposition was lower with LP feeding in both males and females (P < 0·05). Although the resistance to weight gain and adiposity was partially explained by lower energy intake in offspring of LP mothers (P < 0·001 males only), it was apparent that energy expenditure must be influenced by maternal diet and age. Assessment of locomotor activity indicated that energy expenditure associated with physical activity was unlikely to explain resistance to weight gain, but showed that offspring of older mothers were more anxious than those of younger mothers, with more rearing observed in a novel environment and on the elevated plus-maze. The data showed that in addition to maternal undernutrition, greater maternal age may influence development and long-term body composition in the rat.
The interaction of planetary nebulae (PNe) with the interstellar medium (ISM) as they move through it is now acknowledged to be a major shaping effect not just for ancient and large PNe, but also for relatively young PNe with high-speed central stars. The most common effect is a rebrightening as the PN shell interacts with a pre-existing bow-shock structure formed during the previous evolutionary phase of the central star. In this review we consider this rebrightening in detail for the first time and discuss its origins, highlighting some observed examples. We go on to discuss the AGB progenitor stars, reviewing the evidence for bow-shock structures, and consider the progeny of rebrightened PNe — strongly disrupted objects which bear very little resemblance to typical PNe. Sh 2-68 is inferred to be perhaps the only documented case so far of such a PN.
Mechanisms underlying the lipodystrophy syndrome associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection are not completely understood. We investigated the effect of ART on blood lipid concentrations in the fasting state and after consumption of a meal containing [1-13C]palmitic acid in HIV-positive men receiving nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI, n 7), NRTI combined with protease inhibitors (PI; NRTIPI, n 6), in HIV-positive but therapy-naïve men (noART, n 5) and in HIV-seronegative men (controls, n 6). HIV-positive subjects had higher fasting TAG concentrations and resting energy expenditure than controls. Subjects receiving NRTIPI therapy had higher fasting NEFA concentrations than the other groups. There were no significant differences in postprandial lipid metabolism between noART subjects and controls. NRTI therapy impaired hydrolysis of meal-derived TAG, most evidently when combined with PI (the NRTIPI group). Accumulation of 13C-label in the NEFA fraction was not different between groups. In the NRTIPI group, fasting and postprandial NEFA concentrations were significantly higher than other groups. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses in HIV-positive subjects did not differ from controls. These findings suggest that ART dyslipidaemia is associated with impaired postprandial TAG clearance, which is exacerbated by NRTIPI therapy. If dyslipidaemia is to be minimised in ART, the specific adverse effects of particular combinations during the fed state should be considered.
Campylobacter jejuni serogroup reference strains and collections of sporadic and outbreak- associated isolates were examined for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), using C. jejuni random chromosomal and 16S rRNA gene probes. A collection of 48 Penner (HS) and 14 Lior (HL) serogroup reference strains, plus 10 clinical isolates, generated 35 RFLP and 26 ribotype patterns. In combination the two loci generated 48 distinct genotypes. Both probes were able to differentiate between certain random isolates of the same HS/HL serogroups but greater discrimination was obtained with RFLP than with ribotyping. Genotyping distinguished accurately between related and unrelated strains when applied to several outbreaks. Genotypic analysis of C. jejuni by restriction fragment length polymorphisms is a valuable technique for epidemiological typing. Chromosomal variation detected by the two unlinked probe loci provides some information about the genetic relationship between isolates.
Consumption of milk contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni has been described as a cause of human enteritis. Although faecal contamination of milk with the organism has frequently been described, direct milk excretion of Campylobacter jejuni into milk has rarely been linked with cases of human infection. We describe the investigations undertaken following the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from samples of unpasteurized milk prior to retail. Results of epidemiological investigations including typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolates using pyrolysis mass spectrometry, Penner and Lior serotyping, biotyping, phage typing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis provided convincing evidence implicating direct milk excretion of Campylobacter jejuni by one asymptomatic dairy cow as the source of the milk contamination and the cause of local cases of human enteritis.
Interaction with the Interstellar Medium (ISM) cannot be ignored in models of PN evolution and shaping. As first pointed out by Villaver et al. (2003 ApJ 585 L49), this interaction begins during the AGB phase. We have run extensive sets of 3D simulations, from the beginning of the AGB superwind until the end of the PN phase to study this interaction. We find ISM interaction strongly affects the outer structures. The simulations predict parsec-size shells to be common. The structure and brightness of ancient PNe is largely determined by the ISM interaction during the AGB and the majority of PNe will have tail structures.
This study presents results of wavelength-dependent Raman scattering from amorphous silicon carbon (a-Si:C:H). The a-Si:C:H films were produced by radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Prior results with amorphous carbon indicate that laser excitation selectively probes clusters with differing sizes. Our measurements with a-Si:C:H indicate that when using red (632.8 nm), green (514.5 nm), and blue (488.0 nm) excitation, the Raman D and G peaks shift to higher wave numbers as the excitation energy increases. The higher frequency is associated with smaller clusters that are preferentially excited with higher photon energy. It appears that photoluminescence occurs due to radiative recombination from intracluster transitions in Si-alloyed sp2-bonded carbon clusters
In recent years, patients who are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) have become a focus of study. Several research groups have identified these patients, developed diagnostic criteria, and followed the patients longitudinally. These patients therefore constitute a clinical entity that is suitable for therapeutic interventions. In this article, we report our 5-year experience at the Mayo Clinic in characterizing a group of patients with mild cognitive impairment. These subjects were recruited from community-dwelling individuals who were receiving general medical care in the Department of Internal Medicine. They received the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment if they met the following criteria: (a) complaint of defective memory, (b) normal activities of daily living, (c) normal general cognitive function, (d) abnormal memory function for age, and (e) absence of dementia. In following more than 75 of these patients, some of whom have been studied for as long as 5 years, it appears that approximately 10% to 15% of the subjects evolve to AD each year. We therefore evaluated the cognitive profiles of these patients at the time of their initial diagnosis in an attempt to predict who would remain stable and who would evolve to AD. Certain features of learning and memory performance indicated patients who were more likely to progress, but the strongest predictor was their apolipoprotein E status. The patients who possessed an ε4 allele were more likely to convert to AD at a more rapid rate then those who were not carriers. Our results and similar data from other study groups indicate that diagnostic criteria can be defined for patients who are likely to convert to AD; the natural history of these patients is becoming apparent, and variables that predict ultimate conversion can be defined. Consequently, patients with mild cognitive impairment constitute an important group for study, particularly from the aspect of therapeutic interventions.
Genomic profiles were obtained for 76 strains of Campylobacter
jejuni isolated from bacteraemic patients in England and Wales over
period 1981–94. Genotyping was
performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis using
cloned DNA probe, and by ribotyping with a PCR-generated C. jejuni
probe. Phenotypic characterization was achieved by heat-stable (HS) and
serogrouping, and Preston phagetyping and biotyping. The blood isolates
heterogenous, with 24 RFLP/16S profiles occurring within the 76 strains.
Forty-four percent of
isolates belonged to one of three RFLP/16S genotypes, reflecting the
seen in faecal
isolates, except that genotypes usually associated with the HS 1 antigen
two most prevalent genotypes, characteristic of HS 2 and HS 4 strains,
cluster analysis. Further evidence was seen of associations between phenotypic
characters within some HS serogroups. Chromosomal profiling by RFLP analysis
not indicate that particular genotypes have a predisposition to invade
The hypothermic, growth hormone and corticotrophin (ACTH) responses to the 5-HT1A receptor agonist buspirone (30 mg orally) were measured in 20 unmedicated patients with major depression and 20 healthy controls. Compared with the controls, the hypothermic responses of the depressed patients to buspirone were significantly attenuated, particularly in patients with melancholic depression. In contrast, the responses of growth hormone and ACTH to buspirone were unchanged. The data suggest that major depression may be associated with impaired sensitivity of 5-HT1A autoreceptors but that the function of the post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors that mediate growth hormone and ACTH release is unaltered. Within the limitations that attend the use of buspirone as a 5-HT1A probe, our data suggest that the decrement in serotonin neurotransmission at post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors in depression is due to decreased serotonin release rather than impaired responsivity of post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors.
The prolactin response to intravenous clomipramine, a 5-HT uptake inhibitor, was significantly attenuated in 12 patients with major depression. In contrast, in a further 12 depressed patients, the PRL responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone, which acts directly on the pituitary to release PRL, were not reduced. These findings suggest that the reduction in 5-HT-mediated PRL release seen in depressed patients is due to an impairment of brain 5-HT function rather than a pituitary abnormality.
The addition of lithium to the tricyclic antidepressant medication of 23 patients with major depression resulted in an increase in the prolactin response to intravenous l-tryptophan after both four days and four weeks of treatment. The extent of this increase did not distinguish the ten patients who were classified as clinical responders (> 50% reduction in score on the HRSD). Among the responders there was a modestly significant correlation between the decrease in score on the HRSD and the enhancement of tryptophan-induced prolactin release. Some responders, however, showed very little change in this endocrine response over the four weeks of lithium treatment. Lithium may increase brain 5-HT function in tricyclic-resistant depression but there is only limited support for the hypothesis that changes in brain 5-HT function are involved in the antidepressant effect of this treatment combination.
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