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The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of radiotherapy students on clinical placement, specifically focussing on the provision of well-being support from clinical supervisors.
Materials and methods:
Twenty-five students from the University of the West of England and City University of London completed an online evaluation survey relating to their experiences of placement, involving Likert scales and open-ended questions.
The quantitative results were generally positive; however, the qualitative findings were mixed. Three themes emerged: (1) provision of information and advice; (2) an open, inclusive and supportive working environment; and (3) a lack of communication, understanding, and consistency.
Students’ experiences on placement differed greatly and appeared to relate to their specific interactions with different members of staff. It is suggested that additional training around providing well-being support to students may be of benefit to clinical supervisors.
Rush skeletonweed is emerging as a regionally important weed of winter wheat production in eastern Washington. Field studies were conducted during the 2016 and 2017 crop years to evaluate several auxin herbicides applied at two seasonal timings (fall or spring) for control of rush skeletonweed in winter wheat. Clopyralid (210 g ae ha-1) provided>90% visual control of rush skeletonweed in both years of the study and aminopyralid (10 g ae ha-1) provided>80% visual control. Aminocyclopyrachlor, dicamba, and 2,4-D provided<55% control of rush skeletonweed. Season of application did not meaningfully affect efficacy of any herbicide tested. Wheat yields were reduced by 39 to 69% compared to the non-treated check when aminocyclopyrachlor was applied in the spring. Clopyralid is an effective option for control of rush skeletonweed in Pacific Northwest winter wheat.
In sub-Saharan Africa mixed crop-livestock systems predominate in the semi-arid, sub-humid and cool highland zones. In these areas, systems intensify and crops and livestock become increasingly integrated as the human population increases and land becomes a more important constraint than labour (Boserup, 1965; McIntire et al., 1992). As intensification progresses, use of crop residues moves from open access to crop fields, following harvest, to labour intensive management of cereals as dual-purpose crops.
Extrapolate (EX-ante Tool for RAnking POLicy AlTErnatives) is a decision support tool to assess the impact of policy measures on different target groups. It is designed to serve as a “filter” that, given the broad characteristics of the population, allows the user to sift through different policy measures to assess ex ante the broad potential impacts of these before deciding to look at particular policy options in more detail. Extrapolate models, in a very simple way, the impact of changes on constraints facing potential beneficiary groups, and how these may affect outcomes and their livelihood status. Extrapolate now makes use of mapping facilities from another decision-support tool, PRIMAS (Poverty Reduction Intervention Mapping in Agricultural Systems), that allows the user to match characteristics of particular technological options and constraints with the spatial characteristics of particular target groups in the landscape.
Radioactive Waste Management Limited (RWM) is tasked with implementing geological disposal of the United Kingdom's (UK) higher activity radioactive wastes. This paper describes how RWM's biosphere modelling capability has been extended from a solely terrestrial model to allow potential contaminant releases to estuarine, coastal and marine systems around the UK to be represented. The new models aim to strike a balance between being as simple as can be justified, erring on the side of conservative estimates of potential doses, while also representing the features and processes required to reflect and distinguish UK coastal systems. Sediment dynamics (including meandering of estuaries and sediment accumulation) are explicitly represented in a simplified form that captures the accumulation and remobilization of radionuclides. Long-term transitions between biosphere systems (such as from a salt marsh to a terrestrial system) are outside the scope of the study. The models and supporting data draw on information about the UK that is representative of present-day conditions and represent potential exposures arising from both occupational and recreational habits.?
Generic calculations demonstrate that potential doses to humans arising from releases to estuarine, coastal and marine systems are typically more than two orders of magnitude lower than those for equivalent releases to terrestrial systems via well water and groundwater discharge to soil. The extended capability (i) ensures that RWM is able to undertake assessments for potential coastal site contexts, if and when required, and (ii) provides RWM with quantitative evidence to support the principal focus on terrestrial releases ( particularly for more generic assessments).
The extended timescales involved in the decay of radioactive wastes to safe levels mean that geological disposal facilities must continue to function effectively long into the future. It is therefore essential to consider long-term climate evolution in post-closure performance assessments in order to evaluate a geological disposal system's response and robustness to a variety of potential environmental changes, driven by both natural and anthropogenic forcings. In this paper, we illustrate the multiple decay components that characterize the primary driver of climate change – atmospheric CO2 – in response to fossil fuel carbon emissions. We perform a multi-exponential analysis on a series of atmospheric CO2 decay curves predicted by an Earth system model and create an empirical response function that encapsulates the long-term (>1 kyr) removal of excess CO2 from the atmosphere. We present this response function as a simple tool for rapidly projecting the future atmospheric CO2 concentration resulting from any plausible cumulative release of CO2. We discuss the implications of the long 'tail' to this atmospheric CO2 decay curve, both in terms of future climate evolution as well as potential impacts on radioactive waste repositories.
Several regulatory bodies have approved a health claim on the cholesterol-lowering effects of oat β-glucan at levels of 3·0 g/d. The present study aimed to test whether 1·5 g/d β-glucan provided as ready-to-eat oat flakes was as effective in lowering cholesterol as 3·0 g/d from oats porridge. A 6-week randomised controlled trial was conducted in eighty-seven mildly hypercholesterolaemic ( ≥ 5 mmol/l and < 7·5 mmol/l) men and women assigned to one of three diet arms (25 % energy (E%) protein; 45 E% carbohydrate; 30 E% fat, at energy requirements for weight maintenance): (1) minimal β-glucan (control); (2) low-dose oat β-glucan (1·5 g β-glucan; oats low – OL) or (3) higher dose oat β-glucan (3·0 g β-glucan; oats high – OH). Changes in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) from baseline were assessed using a linear mixed model and repeated-measures ANOVA, adjusted for weight change. Total cholesterol reduced significantly in all groups ( − 7·8 (sd 13·8) %, − 7·2 (sd 12·4) % and − 5·5 (sd 9·3) % in the OH, OL and control groups), as did LDL-C ( − 8·4 (sd 18·5) %, − 8·5 (sd 18·5) % and − 5·5 (sd 12·4) % in the OH, OL and control groups), but between-group differences were not significant. In responders only (n 60), β-glucan groups had higher reductions in LDL-C ( − 18·3 (sd 11·1) % and − 18·1 (sd 9·2) % in the OH and OL groups) compared with controls ( − 11·7 (sd 7·9) %; P = 0·044). Intakes of oat β-glucan were as effective at doses of 1·5 g/d compared with 3 g/d when provided in different food formats that delivered similar amounts of soluble β-glucan.
Enthalpies of formation of the perovskite-related oxides, La1.85 Sr0.15CuO4, YBa2Cu3Oy, with y = 6.93, 6.69, and 6.47 have been determined at 298.15 K by perchloric acid solution calorimetry. Enthalpies of formation and free energies of reactions with H2 O(g) and CO2 (g) have been evaluated. The partial molar enthalpy of solution of oxygen in YBa2 Cu3Oy has been determined and compared with values derived from measurements or the equilibrium partial vapor pressures of oxygen. The significance of the defect state thermochemistry in conductivity is identified.
Transparent monolithic pieces of gel have been prepared from the hydrolysis of a mixture of dimethyldiethoxysilane (DEDMS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). The characterization of this gel has been done by infrared and shows that a copolymerization between the two precursors has occurred during the hydrolysis-condensation process. Pyrolysis of this gel lead to the formation of β-SiC at 1550°C. The characterization of the pyrolysing process has been investigated. The Si-CH3 bonds are broken during the heat treatment, leading to a mixture of silica and carbon. The formation of β-SiC is therefore due to a carbothermal reduction of this silica matrix.
Multilayers are used in x-ray optics as mirrors.1 They usually consist of a stack of bi-layers of two different materials. For x-ray optics, the thickness of the bi-layer, or the d-spacing of the multilayer, ranges from 2 nm to 20 nm. Since x-ray multilayers are usually made by evaporation or sputtering technique, most of materials in multilayers are amorphous or polycrystalline.
A collaborative exercise, supervised by the World Health Organisation, was set up to compare ELISAs used for the serological detection of Salmonella enteritica serotype Enteritidis in chickens. The aim was to ascertain how far agreement could be reached on the interpretation of optical density readings for high titre, intermediate titre and low titre sera. Two sets of sera were sent to 14 participants. The first set compared high, medium and low titre sera raised in specified-pathogen-free and commercial broiler breeder chickens. The second set comprised 20 sera of different antibody titres raised in commercial birds reared under laboratory conditions and sent blind. Both indirect and double-antibody sandwich blocking ELISAs were used with a number of different detecting antigens. With a few exceptions good agreement was reached on the interpretation of results obtained from high and low titre sera from the optical density obtained with a single serum dilution. Differences were observed in the interpretation of medium titre sera. The results suggested that most ELISAs produce reasonably comparable results and that practical problems may arise from interpretation of the results mainly as a result of the choice of the criteria used for differentiating sera obtained from infected and uninfected chickens. These problems are discussed.
Serum proteins adsorbed from the culture medium were detected in Mycoplasma bovis antigens, the number and type of proteins depending on the serum used in the medium. The α-globulins cross-reacted with α-globulins from different types of sera but the γ-globulins did not. The removal of non-specific medium antibodies by absorption showed that they affected the gel diffusion and growth precipitation tests, producing cross-reactions between M. bovis and M. bovigenitalium, but that the complement fixation, tube agglutination, and growth inhibition tests were not similarly affected. The presence of serum proteins in the antigens changed their specific reactivity in all the tests. The production of antibodies to serum proteins was increased by the use of an adjuvant, but it appeared that production of specific antibodies to the mycoplasmas was not.
Mucoceles are the most common lesions causing expansion of the paranasal sinuses. The sinuses most commonly involved are, in decreasing order of frequency, frontal sinus, ethmoid sinuses, maxillary sinus and sphenoid sinus. We reviewed 46 cases of surgically proven mucoceles and the purpose of this study was to report five cases of mucoceles in an uncommon location.
A model has been developed to simulate the surface of an antibody-coated schistosomulum. It consists of a layer of agar, containing antigen (tetanus toxoid) and a chemotactic factor (ECF). Some layers were coated with human anti-tetanus immunoglobulin. The mode of adherence of human eosinophils and neutrophils to these agar layers and the subsequent degranulation of the cells exactly paralleled the interaction of these cell types with antibody-coated schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. In particular, eosinophils made much more intimate contact than did neutrophils, and lysosomal enzymes were secreted extracellularly by direct fusion of granules with the plasma membrane of the cell. Biochemical evidence was also obtained for the secretion of enzymes during degranulation and the rate of enzyme release was found to be enhanced in the presence of specific antibody. This model, non-phagocytosable surface has the potential to provide basic information on the mode of action of effector cells in cell-mediated cytotoxic reactions against a wide range of parasites by incorporation of different factors into the agar layers.
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