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Online self-reported 24-h dietary recall systems promise increased feasibility of dietary assessment. Comparison against interviewer-led recalls established their convergent validity; however, reliability and criterion-validity information is lacking. The validity of energy intakes (EI) reported using Intake24, an online 24-h recall system, was assessed against concurrent measurement of total energy expenditure (TEE) using doubly labelled water in ninety-eight UK adults (40–65 years). Accuracy and precision of EI were assessed using correlation and Bland–Altman analysis. Test–retest reliability of energy and nutrient intakes was assessed using data from three further UK studies where participants (11–88 years) completed Intake24 at least four times; reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations (ICC). Compared with TEE, participants under-reported EI by 25 % (95 % limits of agreement −73 % to +68 %) in the first recall, 22 % (−61 % to +41 %) for average of first two, and 25 % (−60 % to +28 %) for first three recalls. Correlations between EI and TEE were 0·31 (first), 0·47 (first two) and 0·39 (first three recalls), respectively. ICC for a single recall was 0·35 for EI and ranged from 0·31 for Fe to 0·43 for non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES). Considering pairs of recalls (first two v. third and fourth recalls), ICC was 0·52 for EI and ranged from 0·37 for fat to 0·63 for NMES. EI reported with Intake24 was moderately correlated with objectively measured TEE and underestimated on average to the same extent as seen with interviewer-led 24-h recalls and estimated weight food diaries. Online 24-h recall systems may offer low-cost, low-burden alternatives for collecting dietary information.
We assessed whether paternal demographic, anthropometric and clinical factors influence the risk of an infant being born large-for-gestational-age (LGA). We examined the data on 3659 fathers of term offspring (including 662 LGA infants) born to primiparous women from Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE). LGA was defined as birth weight >90th centile as per INTERGROWTH 21st standards, with reference group being infants ⩽90th centile. Associations between paternal factors and likelihood of an LGA infant were examined using univariable and multivariable models. Men who fathered LGA babies were 180 g heavier at birth (P<0.001) and were more likely to have been born macrosomic (P<0.001) than those whose infants were not LGA. Fathers of LGA infants were 2.1 cm taller (P<0.001), 2.8 kg heavier (P<0.001) and had similar body mass index (BMI). In multivariable models, increasing paternal birth weight and height were independently associated with greater odds of having an LGA infant, irrespective of maternal factors. One unit increase in paternal BMI was associated with 2.9% greater odds of having an LGA boy but not girl; however, this association disappeared after adjustment for maternal BMI. There were no associations between paternal demographic factors or clinical history and infant LGA. In conclusion, fathers who were heavier at birth and were taller were more likely to have an LGA infant, but maternal BMI had a dominant influence on LGA.
The two major approaches to studying macroevolution in deep time are the fossil record and reconstructed relationships among extant taxa from molecular data. Results based on one approach sometimes conflict with those based on the other, with inconsistencies often attributed to inherent flaws of one (or the other) data source. Any contradiction between the molecular and fossil records represents a failure of our ability to understand the imperfections of our data, as both are limited reflections of the same evolutionary history. We therefore need to develop conceptual and mathematical models that jointly explain our observations in both records. Fortunately, the different limitations of each record provide an opportunity to test or calibrate the other, and new methodological developments leverage both records simultaneously. However, we must reckon with the distinct relationships between sampling and time in the fossil record and molecular phylogenies. These differences impact our recognition of baselines and the analytical incorporation of age estimate uncertainty.
SNP in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene is associated with risk of lower respiratory infections. The influence of genetic variation in the vitamin D pathway resulting in susceptibility to upper respiratory infections (URI) has not been investigated. We evaluated the influence of thirty-three SNP in eleven vitamin D pathway genes (DBP, DHCR7, RXRA, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP3A4, CYP27A1, LRP2, CUBN and VDR) resulting in URI risk in 725 adults in London, UK, using an additive model with adjustment for potential confounders and correction for multiple comparisons. Significant associations in this cohort were investigated in a validation cohort of 737 children in Manchester, UK. In all, three SNP in VDR (rs4334089, rs11568820 and rs7970314) and one SNP in CYP3A4 (rs2740574) were associated with risk of URI in the discovery cohort after adjusting for potential confounders and correcting for multiple comparisons (adjusted incidence rate ratio per additional minor allele ≥1·15, Pfor trend ≤0·030). This association was replicated for rs4334089 in the validation cohort (Pfor trend=0·048) but not for rs11568820, rs7970314 or rs2740574. Carriage of the minor allele of the rs4334089 SNP in VDR was associated with increased susceptibility to URI in children and adult cohorts in the United Kingdom.
Access to transition-related medical interventions (TRMIs) for transgender veterans has been the subject of substantial public interest and debate. To better inform these important conversations, the current study investigated whether undergoing hormone or surgical transition intervention(s) relates to the frequency of recent suicidal ideation (SI) and symptoms of depression in transgender veterans.
This study included a cross-sectional, national sample of 206 self-identified transgender veterans. They self-reported basic demographics, TRMI history, recent SI, and symptoms of depression through an online survey.
Significantly lower levels of SI experienced in the past year and 2-weeks were seen in veterans with a history of both hormone intervention and surgery on both the chest and genitals in comparison with those who endorsed a history of no medical intervention, history of hormone therapy but no surgical intervention, and those with a history of hormone therapy and surgery on either (but not both) the chest or genitals when controlling for sample demographics (e.g., gender identity and annual income). Indirect effect analyses indicated that lower depressive symptoms experienced in the last 2-weeks mediated the relationship between the history of surgery on both chest and genitals and SI in the last 2-weeks.
Results indicate the potential protective effect that TRMI may have on symptoms of depression and SI in transgender veterans, particularly when both genitals and chest are affirmed with one's gender identity. Implications for policymakers, providers, and researchers are discussed.
Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects Hispanics/Latinos in the United States, yet little is known about neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in this group. We compared the rates of NCI in large well-characterized samples of HIV-infected (HIV+) Latinos and (non-Latino) Whites, and examined HIV-associated NCI among subgroups of Latinos. Methods: Participants included English-speaking HIV+ adults assessed at six U.S. medical centers (194 Latinos, 600 Whites). For overall group, age: M=42.65 years, SD=8.93; 86% male; education: M=13.17, SD=2.73; 54% had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. NCI was assessed with a comprehensive test battery with normative corrections for age, education and gender. Covariates examined included HIV-disease characteristics, comorbidities, and genetic ancestry. Results: Compared with Whites, Latinos had higher rates of global NCI (42% vs. 54%), and domain NCI in executive function, learning, recall, working memory, and processing speed. Latinos also fared worse than Whites on current and historical HIV-disease characteristics, and nadir CD4 partially mediated ethnic differences in NCI. Yet, Latinos continued to have more global NCI [odds ratio (OR)=1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.13–2.23; p<.01] after adjusting for significant covariates. Higher rates of global NCI were observed with Puerto Rican (n=60; 71%) versus Mexican (n=79, 44%) origin/descent; this disparity persisted in models adjusting for significant covariates (OR=2.40; CI=1.11–5.29; p=.03). Conclusions: HIV+ Latinos, especially of Puerto Rican (vs. Mexican) origin/descent had increased rates of NCI compared with Whites. Differences in rates of NCI were not completely explained by worse HIV-disease characteristics, neurocognitive comorbidities, or genetic ancestry. Future studies should explore culturally relevant psychosocial, biomedical, and genetic factors that might explain these disparities and inform the development of targeted interventions. (JINS, 2018, 24, 163–175)
Aqueous two-phase systems and related emulsion-based structures defined within micro- and nanoscale environments enable a bottom-up synthetic biological approach to mimicking the dynamic compartmentation of biomaterial that naturally occurs within cells. Model systems we have developed to aid in understanding these phenomena include on-demand generation and triggering of reversible phase transitions in ATPS confined in microscale droplets, morpho-logical changes in networks of femtoliter-volume aqueous droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) formulated in microfluidic channels, and temperature-driven phase transitions in interfacial lipid bilayer systems supported on micro and nanostructured substrates. For each of these cases, the dynamics were intimately linked to changes in the chemical potential of water, which becomes increasingly susceptible to confinement and crowding. At these length scales, where interfacial and surface areas predominate over compartment volumes, both evaporation and osmotic forces become enhanced relative to ideal dilute solutions. Consequences of confinement and crowding in cell-sized microcompartments for increasingly complex scenarios will be discussed, from single-molecule mobility measurements with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to spatio-temporal modulation of resource sharing in cell-free gene expression bursting.
This paper evaluates the potential of very high resolution multispectral (Worldview-3) satellite imagery for mapping yield parameters in avocado and macadamia orchards. An evaluation of 18 structural and pigment based vegetation indices (VIs) derived from Worldview-3 imagery identified a positive relationship to nut/ fruit weight (kg/tree) R2>0.69 for macadamia and R2>0.68 for avocado; and nut/ fruit number (per tree) R2>0.6 for macadamia and R2>0.61 for avocado. Using the algorithms derived between the optimal VI and the measured parameter, yield and nut/ fruit number maps were derived for each block. In the absence of a commercial yield monitor, the resulting yield maps offer significant benefit to growers for improving orchard management, harvest scheduling, and forward selling decisions.
An examination of the intensity, energy spectrum, and spatial distribution of the diffuse γ radiation observed by SAS 2 away from the galactic plane in the energy range above 35 MeV has revealed no evidence supporting a cosmic ray halo surrounding the galaxy in the general shape of a sphere. The diffuse γ radiation does consist of two components. One component is related to the galactic disk on the basis of its correlation with the 21-cm measurements, the continuum radio emission, and galactic coordinates. Further its energy spectrum is similar to that in the plane, and its intensity distribution joins smoothly to the intense radiation from the plane. The other component appears isotropic, at least on a coarse scale, and has a steep energy spectrum. The degree of isotropy which has been established for the “isotropic” radiation and the steep energy spectrum, which distinguishes it from the galactic disk radiation, place strong constraints on galactic halo models for the origin of this component. Theoretical models involving a galactic halo have generally postulated a halo with dimensions of the order of the Galaxy and hence a radius, at least in the plane, of about 15 kpcs. Since the Sun is about 10 kpc from the galactic center, if such a halo exists and is responsible for the γ rays (through, for example, black body Compton radiation), a very marked anisotropy would be seen, with the γ ray intensity from the general direction of the galactic center being much larger than that from the same latitudes in the anticenter direction. In fact, no such anisotropy is seen; specifically the ratio of the average intensity in the (300° < ℓ < 60°, 20° < |b| < 40°) region to that in the (100° < ℓ < 250°, 20° < |b| < 40°) region was found to be 1.10±0.19 compared to a calculated value for a model with a uniform cosmic ray sphere with a 15 kpc radius of 2.85. The ratio between the average γ-ray intensity from regions with |b| < 60° to that from 20° < |b| < 40° is found to be 0.87±0.09. If the region is assumed to be spherical, but with a larger radius and a uniform cosmic ray density, the upper limit (2σ) set for the anisotropy demands that the radius be at least 45 kpc. An extragalactic origin for the isotropic component currently appears to be a more plausible explanation.
The Pioneer-6 and Pioneer-7 space probes carried charged-particle telescopes which measure, for the first time, both the direction of arrival and differential energy spectra of protons and alpha particles. The intensity changes, directional distributions and energy spectra of proton fluxes associated with solar activity are investigated. The data were obtained in the beginning of the new solar cycle (no. 20), when it is possible to unambiguously associate proton-flux increases with specific solar active regions. The origin, possibly long-term storage, and propagation of these proton fluxes are investigated. It was observed that enhanced 0·6–13 MeV proton fluxes associated with specific active regions were present over heliographic longitude ranges as great as ~ 180°. These enhanced fluxes exhibit definite onsets and cut-offs which appear to be associated with the magnetic-sector boundaries observed by Ness on Pioneer-6. Discrete flare-produced intensity increases extending in energy to more than 50 MeV are observed, superposed on the enhanced flux. These increases displayed short transit times and short rise times. Both the enhanced and flare-produced fluxes propagate along the spiral interplanetary magnetic field from the Western hemisphere of the Sun. From these observations we are led to a model in which the magnetic fields from the active region are spread out over a longitude range of 100–180° in the solar corona. The existence of strong unidirectional anisotropies in the initial phases of flare-proton events implies that little scattering occurs between the Sun and spacecraft. However, the gradual approach to an isotropic flux at late times indicates that the decay phase is controlled by the interplanetary magnetic field.
Congenital airway obstruction is rare but potentially fatal. We developed a complex airways interventional delivery team to manage such cases. Antenatal imaging detects airway compromise at an early stage and facilitates the planning of delivery procedures (‘ex utero intrapartum treatment’ and ‘operation on placental support’) which maintain feto-placental circulation whilst an airway is secured.
A retrospective review was performed of cases in which ENT input was required at birth for airway obstruction.
Four neonates were delivered before implementation of the service: two were intubated and another two underwent tracheostomy but died in the peri-natal period. Seven neonates were delivered after implementation of the service: six were intubated and one underwent immediate tracheostomy. Five subsequently underwent tracheostomy (three have since been decannulated). One child with multiple congenital anomalies died due to respiratory failure. Airway obstruction was caused by lymphatic malformation, teratoma, costo-craniomandibular syndrome and choristoma.
In the absence of other anomalies, interventional airway delivery led to reduced mortality and improved outcomes.
Fe deficiency anaemia during early pregnancy has been linked with low birth
weight and preterm birth. However, this evidence comes mostly from studies
measuring Hb levels rather than specific measures of Fe deficiency. The present
study aimed to examine the association between maternal Fe status during the
first trimester of pregnancy, as assessed by serum ferritin, transferrin
receptor and their ratio, with size at birth and preterm birth. In the Baby VIP
(Baby's Vascular health and Iron in Pregnancy) study, we recruited 362
infants and their mothers after delivery in Leeds, UK. Biomarkers were measured
in maternal serum samples previously obtained in the first trimester of
pregnancy. The cohort included sixty-four (18 %) small for gestational
age (SGA) babies. Thirty-three babies were born preterm (9 %; between 34
and 37 weeks). First trimester maternal Fe depletion was associated with a
higher risk of SGA (adjusted OR 2·2, 95 % CI 1·1,
4·1). This relationship was attenuated when including early pregnancy Hb
in the model, suggesting it as a mediator (adjusted OR 1·6, 95 %
CI 0·8, 3·2). For every 10 g/l increase in maternal Hb
level in the first half of pregnancy the risk of SGA was reduced by 30 %
(adjusted 95 % CI 0, 40 %); levels below 110 g/l were
associated with a 3-fold increase in the risk of SGA (95 % CI 1·0,
9·0). There was no evidence of association between maternal Fe depletion
and preterm birth (adjusted OR 1·5, 95 % 0·6, 3·8).
The present study shows that depleted Fe stores in early pregnancy are
associated with higher risk of SGA.
Clozapine is used in the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia and is effective in reducing aggression; however a subgroup of patients is poorly responsive. For violent patients in this group, there is limited literature on the use of strategies to augment clozapine with other agents. Here we present a case series of 6 schizophrenia patients, within a high-security hospital, who have a history of serious violence and who were treated with clozapine augmented with amisulpride.
We reviewed case notes and health records for evidence of violence/aggression and positive factors such as engagement in activities, and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scores were formulated. We also examined metabolic parameters before and after augmentation.
All 6 of the patients showed clinical improvement in symptoms and a reduction in their risk of violence to others. Five patients had a reduction in number of violent/aggressive incidents, and all patients showed improvement in engagement in occupational, vocational, and/or psychological work. Metabolic parameters were largely unchanged except for 1 patient whose Body Mass Index (BMI) increased. Five patients reported side effects as unchanged or improved.
These schizophrenia patients with a history of violence showed clinical improvement and reduced aggression and violence with amisulpride augmentation of clozapine. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an antiaggressive benefit of this combination in forensic psychiatric patients. Further studies are warranted to establish the efficacy and anti-aggressive effects of amisulpride augmentation of clozapine.
Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) radical anions will react with tetrahydrofuran and generate ethylene, enolates, and a partially hydrogenated nanotube backbone. The experimental evidence suggests that there are sp3 C–H binding interactions. The total gravimetric content of hydrogen on a sample averages from 3.5% to 3.9% w/w, about four times the total amount observed for nanotubes hydrogenated via traditional Birch reduction reactions. Furthermore, the hydrogen desorbs at temperatures up to 400 °C less than those observed for the hydrogenated SWNTs formed after the Birch reduction. Finally, the first room temperature electron spin resonance spectrum of a nanotube radical ion is also reported.
It is now clear that the epoch when the Universe was half of its current age is a crucial period during which galaxies assembled their mass and evolved into the galaxies we observe in the local Universe. However, so far only very few direct studies of mass assembly in action, hence galaxy merging, were conducted over z=1 and usually relied on very small or biased samples. Based on very deep near infrared survey data, the latest UKIDSS-UDS DR8, combined with the optical data conducted by Subaru and CFHT and Spitzer IRAC observations, we explored the evolution of the merging rate up to z = 2, over the largest volume of the Universe at 0.4<z<2 ever sampled. The pair fraction is found to decrease by a factor of two during this period, and wet (gas rich) mergers dominate largely. The dry mergers are very rare, ruling it out as the main mechanism for the mass assembly of passive massive galaxies. Also while massive galaxies undergo a decrease of their pair fraction during this period, less massive systems follow an increase during the same period.