To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) display cognitive deficits in acutely depressed and remitted states. Childhood maltreatment is associated with cognitive dysfunction in adults, but its impact on cognition and treatment related cognitive outcomes in adult MDD has received little consideration. We investigate whether, compared to patients without maltreatment and healthy participants, adult MDD patients with childhood maltreatment display greater cognitive deficits in acute depression, lower treatment-associated cognitive improvements, and lower cognitive performance in remission.
Healthy and acutely depressed MDD participants were enrolled in a multi-center MDD predictive marker discovery trial. MDD participants received 16 weeks of standardized antidepressant treatment. Maltreatment and cognition were assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse interview and the CNS Vital Signs battery, respectively. Cognitive scores and change from baseline to week 16 were compared amongst MDD participants with (DM+, n = 93) and without maltreatment (DM−, n = 90), and healthy participants with (HM+, n = 22) and without maltreatment (HM−, n = 80). Separate analyses in MDD participants who remitted were conducted.
DM+ had lower baseline global cognition, processing speed, and memory v. HM−, with no significant baseline differences amongst DM−, HM+, and HM− groups. There were no significant between-group differences in cognitive change over 16 weeks. Post-treatment remitted DM+, but not remitted DM−, scored significantly lower than HM− in working memory and processing speed.
Childhood maltreatment was associated with cognitive deficits in depressed and remitted adults with MDD. Maltreatment may be a risk factor for more severe and persistent cognitive deficits in adult MDD.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Complex oxides show a broad spectrum of intrinsic functionalities, such as ferroelectricity, magnetism, superconductivity or multiferroic behavior, which can be utilized and combined in electronic devices by the growth and design of heterostructures. Physical properties may arise in such multilayers that are not found in either of their constituents. A spectacular example for such a phenomenon, a conducting and highly mobile electron gas, is formed at the interface between the two insulating, dielectric perovskites LaAlO3 and SrTiO3  which can be easily tuned by transverse electric fields . In our contribution we will present recent studies of the microstructure of the multilayer and we will correlate them with the transport properties of the electron gas.  A. Ohtomo, H. Y. Hwang, Nature 427, 423-426 (2004).  S. Thiel, G. Hammerl, A. Schmehl, C. W. Schneider, J. Mannhart, Science 313, 1942-1945 (2006).
In an effort to optimize patient outcomes, considerable attention is being devoted to identifying patient characteristics associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and its responsiveness to treatment. In the current study, we extend this work by evaluating whether early change in these sensitivities is associated with response to antidepressant treatment for MDD.
Participants included 210 patients with MDD who were treated with 8 weeks of escitalopram and 112 healthy comparison participants. Of the original 210 patients, 90 non-responders received adjunctive aripiprazole for an additional 8 weeks. Symptoms of depression and anhedonia were assessed at the beginning of treatment and 8 weeks later in both samples. Reward and punishment sensitivity were assessed using the BIS/BAS scales measured at the initiation of treatment and 2 weeks later.
Individuals with MDD exhibited higher punishment sensitivity and lower reward sensitivity compared with healthy comparison participants. Change in reward sensitivity during the first 2 weeks of treatment was associated with improved depressive symptoms and anhedonia following 8 weeks of treatment with escitalopram. Similarly, improvement in reward responsiveness during the first 2 weeks of adjunctive therapy with aripiprazole was associated with fewer symptoms of depression at post-treatment.
Findings highlight the predictive utility of early change in reward sensitivity during antidepressant treatment for major depression. In a clinical setting, a lack of change in early reward processing may signal a need to modify a patient's treatment plan with alternative or augmented treatment approaches.
We have compiled the X-ray characteristic properties for a unique and homogeneous sample of Type 2 AGN with water megamaser activity observed by XMM-Newton and for a control sample of non-maser galaxies, both analyzed in a uniform way. A comparison of the luminosity distributions confirms previous results (from smaller and/or less systematic studies) that water maser galaxies appear more luminous than non-maser sources. In addition, the maser phenomenon is associated with more complex X-ray spectra, higher column densities and higher equivalent widths of the Fe Kα line. Both a sufficiently luminous X-ray source and a high absorbing column density in the line of sight favor the appearance of the water megamaser phenomenon in AGN.
To achieve their conservation goals individuals, communities and organizations need to acquire a diversity of skills, knowledge and information (i.e. capacity). Despite current efforts to build and maintain appropriate levels of conservation capacity, it has been recognized that there will need to be a significant scaling-up of these activities in sub-Saharan Africa. This is because of the rapid increase in the number and extent of environmental problems in the region. We present a range of socio-economic contexts relevant to four key areas of African conservation capacity building: protected area management, community engagement, effective leadership, and professional e-learning. Under these core themes, 39 specific recommendations are presented. These were derived from multi-stakeholder workshop discussions at an international conference held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 2015. At the meeting 185 delegates (practitioners, scientists, community groups and government agencies) represented 105 organizations from 24 African nations and eight non-African nations. The 39 recommendations constituted six broad types of suggested action: (1) the development of new methods, (2) the provision of capacity building resources (e.g. information or data), (3) the communication of ideas or examples of successful initiatives, (4) the implementation of new research or gap analyses, (5) the establishment of new structures within and between organizations, and (6) the development of new partnerships. A number of cross-cutting issues also emerged from the discussions: the need for a greater sense of urgency in developing capacity building activities; the need to develop novel capacity building methodologies; and the need to move away from one-size-fits-all approaches.
We present results from a multiwavelength study of the blazar PKS 1954–388 at radio, UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray energies. A RadioAstron observation at 1.66 GHz in June 2012 resulted in the detection of interferometric fringes on baselines of 6.2 Earth-diameters. This suggests a source frame brightness temperature of greater than 2 × 1012 K, well in excess of both equipartition and inverse Compton limits and implying the existence of Doppler boosting in the core. An 8.4-GHz TANAMI VLBI image, made less than a month after the RadioAstron observations, is consistent with a previously reported superluminal motion for a jet component. Flux density monitoring with the Australia Telescope Compact Array confirms previous evidence for long-term variability that increases with observing frequency. A search for more rapid variability revealed no evidence for significant day-scale flux density variation. The ATCA light-curve reveals a strong radio flare beginning in late 2013, which peaks higher, and earlier, at higher frequencies. Comparison with the Fermi gamma-ray light-curve indicates this followed ~ 9 months after the start of a prolonged gamma-ray high-state—a radio lag comparable to that seen in other blazars. The multiwavelength data are combined to derive a Spectral Energy Distribution, which is fitted by a one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) model with the addition of external Compton (EC) emission.
Tuberculosis (TB) mortality rates in the USA fell rapidly from 1910 to 1933. However, during this period, racial disparities in TB mortality in the nation's expanding cities grew. Because of long delays between infection and disease, TB mortality is a poor indicator of short-term changes in transmission. We estimated the annual risk of TB infection (ARTI) in 11 large US cities to understand whether rising inequality in mortality reflected rising inequality in ARTI using city-level TB mortality data compiled by the US Department of Commerce from 1910 to 1933. We estimated ARTI for African-Americans and whites using pediatric extrapulmonary TB mortality data for African-Americans and whites in our panel of cities. We also estimated age-adjusted pulmonary TB mortality rates for these cities. We find that the ratio of ARTI for African-Americans vs. whites increased from 2·1 (95% CI = 1·7, 2·4) in 1910 to 4·2 (95% CI = 3·4, 5·2) in 1933. This change mirrored the increasing inequality in age-adjusted pulmonary TB mortality during this period. These findings may reflect the combined effects of migration, inequality in access to care, increasing population density, and racial residential segregation in northern cities during this period.
The objective of this study was to develop an automated monitoring system to detect lameness in group-housed sows early and reliably on the basis of acceleration data sampled from ear tags. To this end, acceleration data from ear tags were acquired from an experimental system deployed at the Futterkamp Agriculture Research Farm from May 2012 until November 2013. The developed method performs a wavelet transform for each individual sow’s time series of total acceleration. Feature series are then computed by locally estimating the energy, variation and variance in a small moving window. These feature series are then further decomposed into uniform level sets. From these series of level sets, the highest and lowest levels are monitored for lameness detection. To that end, they are split into a past record to serve as reference data representing a sow’s expected behaviour. The deviations between the reference and the remaining detection part of current data, termed feature activated, were then utilised to possibly indicate a lameness condition. The method was applied to a sample of 14 sows, seven of which were diagnosed as lame by a veterinarian on the last day of the sampling period of 14 days each. A prediction part of 3 days was set. Feature activated were clearly separable for the lame and healthy group with means of 8.8 and 0.8, respectively. The day-wise means were 1.93, 9.47 and 15.16 for the lame group and 0.02, 1.13 and 1.44 for the healthy group. A threshold could be set to completely avoid false positives while successfully classifying six lame sows on at least one of the 2 last days. The accuracy values for this threshold were 0.57, 0.71 and 0.78 when restricting to data from the particular day. A threshold that maximised the accuracy achieved values of 0.57, 0.79 and 0.93. Thus, the method presented seems powerful enough to suggest that an individual classification from ear tag-sampled acceleration data into lame and healthy is feasible without previous knowledge of the health status, but has to be validated by using a larger data set.
Assessing risks from potential glacier hazards in relation to safety considerations for settlements and other fixed installations in high mountain areas requires the application of experience gained from previous events, combined with simple rules derived from basic glaciological theory. The general characteristics of steep, and usually unmeasured, glaciers can be estimated on the basis of a rough parameterization scheme. Variations in glacier length, ice avalanches, and glacier floods then have to be considered for time periods ranging from a few years up to a few decades. As a result of such systematic assessments, maps of potentially dangerous zones can be prepared. Although the inhabitants of many Alpine villages have always lived with the risk of glacier hazards, it now appears that modern construction work, especially that connected with the development of tourism, has started to infiltrate previously avoided high-risk zones more and more. In order to plan reasonable safety measures, risks from glacier hazards have to be compared with those from other natural hazards in mountain areas, such as snow avalanches, landslides, rock falls! or storm-induced floods. Decisions about the acceptable level of risk are difficult and subjective; they are also often influenced by political and economical considerations rather than by scientific reasoning.
The use of materials having high levels of 14C activity (up to 113 times the activity of modern carbon) enabled a quantitative analysis of the magnitude and sites of memory occurring in the routine synthesis of benzene, via lithium carbide, for radiocarbon dating. Memory may be expressed as the percentage or fractional contribution of carbon from sources other than the original sample in this synthesis. Although tritium and radon contamination have also been found, the major site of memory was the inner surface of the stainless steel reaction vessel used for lithium carbide production. Up to 1 percent memory has been found there under extreme conditions in the routine dating system at Harwell. Values of half to one-third this size were more usual, but even etching and scouring the inner surface of the reaction vessel reduced the memory only by a factor of four. This lower limit is believed to exist because of the carburization and decarburization of steel which occurs at the temperature required for the production of lithium carbide. The levels of memory found are of the same order as the levels of significance associated with present radiocarbon techniques. With the accuracy and extended chronologies expected from direct 14G measurement by accelerator techniques, these levels of memory become increasingly important in the preparation of acetylene and pyrolitic graphite (via lithium carbide) used as target materials. This effect, however, can be limited by lowering the temperature of the carbide reaction stage or by lining or impregnating the lithium carbide reaction vessel with some carbon-impermeable alloy or material.
Little is known about time perception, its putative role as cognitive endophenotype, and its neuroanatomical underpinnings in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Twenty adults with ADHD, 20 unaffected first-degree relatives and 20 typically developing controls matched for age and gender undertook structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Voxel-based morphometry with DARTEL was performed to obtain regional grey-matter volumes. Temporal processing was investigated as a putative cognitive endophenotype using a temporal reproduction paradigm. General linear modelling was employed to examine the relationship between temporal reproduction performances and grey-matter volumes.
ADHD participants were impaired in temporal reproduction and unaffected first-degree relatives performed in between their ADHD probands and typically developing controls. Increased grey-matter volume in the cerebellum was associated with poorer temporal reproduction performance.
Adults with ADHD are impaired in time reproduction. Performances of the unaffected first-degree relatives are in between ADHD relatives and controls, suggesting that time reproduction might be a cognitive endophenotype for adult ADHD. The cerebellum is involved in time reproduction and might play a role in driving time performances.
The higher spatial resolution and sensitivity of ISO allowed several extragalactic surveys to be extended to greater depth than obtained with IRAS. With the extended wavelength range deep surveys were performed for the first time at wavelengths up to ~ 200 μm. They favour galaxy models with strong evolution. With ISO's new capabilities the spectral energy distributions of larger samples of ULIRGs in the local universe and those of quasars and radio galaxies were determined. These data are applicable as templates to the more distant universe. Foreground components from zodiacal light and cirrus to the intracluster dust emission were studied in connection with their separation from the extragalactic background radiation.
A search for Type Ia supernovae at cosmological distances is being undertaken in an attempt to exploit their standard candle property to constrain the mass density of the universe. We describe the rationale for such a program, the observational approach and strategy taken, and the progress made to date. The science that is being generated by the project in additional to supernova detection is also discussed briefly.
While the chief function and methods of operation of the Commission have remained much the same as in the past, there has been a gradual evolution in the nature of the proposals submitted. A greater fraction now come from countries in which the study of astronomy on a professional basis is as yet very recent and more proposals are being received from relatively young astronomers, although admittedly the distinction between a “young” and an “established” astronomer is not always easy to make. The commission may wish to consider whether or not it is advisable to reconsider its guidelines. Grants awarded during the interval 30 November 1981 and 31 January 1985 were the following.
The accuracy of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), representing one of the most important space techniques of modern geodesy, especially for the determination of the Earth’s rotation parameters and baselines, is steadily increasing. Presently, delay residuals are of the order of 30 - 50 ps, corresponding to an uncertainty in length of about 1 centimeter e.g. in the determination of baselines or the position of the rotation pole. As has already been stressed by many authors, at this level of accuracy a relativistic formulation of the VLBI measuring process is indispensable (e.g. the gravitational time delay for rays getting close to the limb of the Sun amounts to 170 ns!). Starting with the work by Finkelstein et al. (1983) a series of papers has meanwhile been published on a relativistic VLBI theory (Soffelet al., 1986; Hellings, 1986; Zeller et al., 1986; Herring, 1989). However, possibly apart from Brumberg’s treatment in his new monograph (Brumberg, 1990) all of these theories have one fatal drawback: they are not based upon some consistent theory of reference frames, which relates the global, barycentric coordinates, in which the measuring process is primarily formulated and in which positions and velocities of the bodies of the solar system are computed, with the local, geocentric coordinates, comoving with the Earth, in which the geodetically meaningful baselines are defined. Furthermore, none of these theories (including Brumberg’s (1990) treatment) have the accuracy of one picosec which seems desirable with respect to the achieved residual values.
We describe new conversion laws, from CO molecular line data to inferred mass column, based on observations of the three main CO isotopologues in several surveys of the Galactic Plane. The new conversion laws replace the use of the single “X-factor” in widespread use, with a more physically-based relationship between the CO line’s optical depth, excitation, and column density. It has the effect of increasing the inferred mass column, over the single X-factor, by typically a factor of 2–3. This means that the molecular mass of the Milky Way may have been substantially underestimated in previous studies, and suggests that scaling laws like the Kennicutt-Schmidt relations may also need to be recalibrated. Because of its statistical basis on a large fraction of our Galaxy’s ISM, this new law is also recommended for use in studies of other Milky-Way-analogue spiral galaxies.
Between December 2010 and August 2011 an outbreak of measles occurred in Serbia with 363 reported cases. Sera and/or nose/throat swabs were collected from 193 patients and tested for measles-specific IgM antibodies by ELISA and viral RNA by RT–PCR, respectively. Epidemiological data were obtained from the surveillance database of the Institute of Public Health of Serbia. Of the 363 cases involved in the outbreak, 113 were laboratory confirmed. More than one third of the patients were hospitalized (n = 130, 35·8%) and for 15 (4·1% of the reported outbreak cases) the infection was complicated by pneumonia. Mostly pre-school children aged ⩽4 years (37·8%) and adults aged ⩾30 years (27·3%) were affected. The majority of patients belonged to the Roma population with a preponderance of female cases (57·0%). Nearly 94% of the patients were either unvaccinated or of unknown vaccination status. The main outbreak virus was the D4-Hamburg strain. The outbreak in Serbia occurred after several years of very low measles incidence despite a high routine immunization coverage in the general population, suggesting that special efforts to identify and vaccinate susceptible population groups are required even in countries with apparently good disease control.