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Anzac Battlefield: A Gallipoli Landscape of War and Memory explores the transformation of Gallipoli's landscape in antiquity, during the famed battles of the First World War and in the present day. Drawing on archival, archaeological and cartographic material, this book unearths the deep history of the Gallipoli peninsula, setting the Gallipoli campaign in a broader cultural and historical context. The book presents the results of an original archaeological survey, the research for which was supported by the Australian, New Zealand and Turkish Governments. The survey examines materials from both sides of the battlefield, and sheds new light on the environment in which Anzac and Turkish soldiers endured the conflict. Richly illustrated with both Ottoman and Anzac archival images and maps, as well as original maps and photographs of the landscape and archaeological findings, Anzac Battlefield is an important contribution to our understanding of Gallipoli and its landscape of war and memory.
Using longitudinal and prospective measures of psychotic experiences during adolescence, we assessed the risk of developing psychosis in three groups showing low, increasing and elevated psychotic experiences associated with bullying by peers and cannabis use in a UK sample of adolescents.
Data were collected by self-report from 1098 adolescents (mean age 13.6 years; 60.9% boys) at five separate time points, equally separated by 6 months, across a 24-month period. General growth mixture modelling identified three distinct trajectories of adolescents reporting psychotic experiences: elevated, increasing and low.
Controlling for cannabis use, bullying by peers significantly predicted change in psychotic experiences between Time 2 and Time 5 in adolescents belonging to the increasing group. No effect was found for the elevated or low groups. Controlling for bullying, an earlier age of cannabis use and cannabis use more than twice significantly predicted change in psychotic experiences in adolescents belonging to the increasing group. Cannabis use at any age was significantly associated with subsequent change in psychotic experiences in the low group. Reverse causal associations were examined and there was no evidence for psychotic experiences at Time 1 predicting a subsequent change in cannabis use between Times 2 and 5 in any trajectory group.
Bullying by peers and cannabis use are associated with adolescents' reports of increasing psychotic experiences over time. Further research into the longitudinal development of psychosis in adolescence and the associated risk factors would allow for early intervention programmes to be targeted more precisely.
The field emission properties of hydrogenated amorphous carbon containing up to 29at% nitrogen (a-C:N:H), grown in an integrated distributed electron cyclotron resonance (IDECR) reactor were studied using a sphere-plane geometry. All films were smooth in character and required a high field (20-70V/νm) activation process before emission, which created micron- sized craters in the emission region. Further analysis suggested that the emission originates from activation-created geometrically enhanced areas around the crater region. Upon low-level nitrogen incorporation (N/N+C≤0.2), the field required for activation decreased from 54V/νm to a minimum value of 20V/νm. The turn-on field required for 1νA of current also decreased, reaching a minimum of 11.3V/νm. The decrease in activation and turn-on field was related to the increase in conductivity observed with increasing nitrogen content. At higher nitrogen concentrations, the increase in activation energy and turn on field for emission may be due to changes in overall material structure, as indicated by the decreasing optical gap
There is interest in reducing the shot number in the poly-Si laser crystallisation process in order to improve its throughput. Two distinct shot number dependent effects have been identified, which are both laser intensity dependent. The critical laser energy density is that which causes full film melt-through, and the major issue occurs at energies greater than this, where there is a considerable degradation in device uniformity with reducing shot number. The cause of this is non-uniform recovery of the full-melt-through fine grain poly-Si, and it is demonstrated that by extending the trailing edge of the beam, the material uniformity at reduced shot number can be improved. For energies less than this, the issue is not so much uniformity, as a general degradation in overall device properties with reducing shot number, which has been correlated with reducing grain size.
In more demanding, future applications (such as system-on-panel), it will be necessary to improve circuit performance and approach that of current MOSFET devices. This will require short channel, self-aligned (SA) TFTs, and some of the issues with this architecture, particularly lateral ion implantation damage beneath the gate edge and drain field relief are discussed.
We have applied junction capacitance and transient photocapacitance measurements to undoped tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C)/silicon carbide (SiC) heterostructures to deduce defect densities and defect distributions in ta-C. The junction capacitance measurements show two thermally activated processes. One can be related to the activation of carriers out of defects at the ta-C/SiC interface while the other one with an activation energy of 0.36eV is an intrinsic property of the ta-C. The defect density at the ta-C/SiC interface is estimated to be roughly 9 ± 2 × 109 cm−2. The transient photocapacitance measurements have allowed us to observe the broader band tail of ta-C, giving a value (Urbach energy) of 230meV.
There is a growing interest in the application of large area electronics on curved surfaces. One approach towards realizing this goal is to fabricate circuits on planar substrates of thin plastic or metal foil, which are subsequently deformed into arbitrary shapes. The problem that we consider here is the deformation of substrates into a spherical shape, where the strain is determined by geometry and cannot be reduced by simply using a thinner substrate. The goal is to achieve permanent, plastic deformation in the substrates, without exceeding fracture or buckling limits in the device materials.
Our experiments consist of the planar fabrication of amorphous silicon device structures onto stainless steel or Kapton® polyimide substrates, followed by permanent deformation into a spherical shape. We will present empirical experiments showing the dependence of the results on the island/line size of the device materials and the deformation temperature. We have successfully deformed Kapton® polyimide substrates with 100 [.proportional]m wide amorphous silicon islands into a one steradian spherical cap, which subtends 66 degrees, without degradation of the silicon. This work demonstrates the feasibility of building semiconductor devices on plastically deformed substrates despite a 5% average biaxial strain in the substrate after deformation.
Electrical characteristics of Spindt-type Molybdenum (Mo) field emitter triode devices with varied emitter tip-height have been studied based on device modeling and experiment. Potential and electric field distributions with varied the emitter tip-height has been simulated. It is observed that the electric field of the top of the higher emitter tip was strongly affected with the anode-gate distance and the anode voltage compared to conventional field emitter triode device. Experimental results with varied different tip-height were in good agreement with that of calculated results. We present the possibility of “depletion mode” field emitter triode device.
We crystallize amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers (thicknesses: ∼300nm and ∼1300nm for comparison) that are deposited on glass substrates (Corning 7059) by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using a continuous wave Ar+-laser. We scan the raw beam with a diameter of ∼60νm in single traces and traces with varying overlap (30-60%). With optimized process parameters (fluence, scan velocity, overlap) we achieve polycrystalline Si with grains as wide as 100νm. The grain boundary population is dominated by first and second order twin boundaries as analyzed by electron backscattering analysis in the scanning electron microscope and convergent beam electron diffraction in the transmission electron microscope. These twins are known not (or only marginally) to degrade the electrical properties of the material. In addition to twins, dislocations and twin lamellae occur at varying densities (depending on grain orientation and process parameters). The recombination activity of the defects is analyzed by EBIC and according to these measurements crystallization receipts are defined that yield the reduction of electrically detrimental defects.